Speciation printout _6__ppt

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Transcript Speciation printout _6__ppt

The Origin of Species
Mom, Dad…
There’s something
you need to know…
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“That mystery of mysteries…”
Darwin never actually tackled
how new species arose…
Both in space and time,
we seem to be brought
somewhat near to that great fact
—that mystery of mysteries—
the first appearance of
new beings on this Earth.
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So…what is a species?
 Biological species concept
defined by Ernst Mayr
population whose members can interbreed &
produce viable, fertile offspring
reproductively compatible
Distinct species:
songs & behaviors are different
enough to prevent interbreeding
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Eastern Meadowlark Western Meadowlark
How do new species originate?
 Populations must become isolated
 geographically isolated
 reproductively isolated
isolated populations evolve independently
 Isolation
 geographic separation
 “other country”
 still live in same area
 “same country”
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PRE-reproduction barriers
 Obstacle to mating or to fertilization if
mating occurs
geographic isolation
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behavioral isolation
ecological isolation
temporal isolation
mechanical isolation
gametic isolation
Ammospermophilus spp
Geographic isolation
 Species occur in different areas
physical barrier
 allopatric speciation
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Harris’s antelope
squirrel inhabits
the canyon’s
south rim (L). Just
a few miles away
on the north rim
(R) lives the
closely related
antelope squirrel
sympatric speciation
Ecological isolation
 Species occur in same region, but occupy
different habitats so rarely encounter each other
reproductively isolated
2 species of garter snake, Thamnophis,
occur in same area, but one lives in water &
other is terrestrial
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lions & tigers could
hybridize, but they
live in different
 lions in grasslands
 tigers in rainforest
Temporal isolation
 Species that breed during different times of day,
different seasons, or different years cannot mix
reproductive isolation
sympatric speciation
Eastern spotted skunk
(L) & western spotted
skunk (R) overlap in
range but eastern mates
in late winter & western
in late summer
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sympatric speciation?
Behavioral isolation
 Unique behavioral patterns & rituals isolate species
identifies members of species
attract mates of same species •
 courtship rituals, mating calls
 reproductive isolation
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Blue footed boobies mate
only after a courtship display
unique to their species
Recognizing your
own species
courtship songs of sympatric
species of lacewings
courtship display of
Gray-Crowned Cranes, Kenya
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courtship displays
sympatric speciation?
Mechanical isolation
 Morphological differences can prevent
successful mating
reproductive isolation
Even in closely related
species of plants, the
flowers often have distinct
appearances that attract
different pollinators.
These 2 species of monkey
flower differ greatly in
shape & color, therefore
cross-pollination does not
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Mechanical isolation
 For many insects, male &
female sex organs of
closely related species do
not fit together, preventing
sperm transfer
lack of “fit” between sexual organs:
hard to imagine for us… but a big issue for insects with
different shaped genitals!
I can’t even imagine!
Damsel fly penises
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sympatric speciation?
Gametic isolation
 Sperm of one species may not be able to fertilize
eggs of another species
 biochemical barrier so sperm cannot penetrate egg
 receptor recognition: lock & key between egg & sperm
 chemical incompatibility
 sperm cannot survive in female reproductive tract
Sea urchins release sperm
& eggs into surrounding
waters where they fuse &
form zygotes. Gametes of
different species— red &
purple —are unable to fuse.
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POST-reproduction barriers
 Prevent hybrid offspring from
developing into a viable, fertile adult
reduced hybrid viability
 reduced hybrid fertility
 hybrid breakdown
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sympatric speciation?
Reduced hybrid viability
 Genes of different parent species may
interact & impair the hybrid’s development
Species of salamander
genus, Ensatina, may
interbreed, but most
hybrids do not complete
development & those
that do are frail.
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Reduced hybrid fertility
 Even if hybrids are vigorous
they may be sterile
chromosomes of parents may differ in number
or structure & meiosis in hybrids may fail to
produce normal gametes
Mules are vigorous,
but sterile
Horses have 64
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Mules have 63 chromosomes!
Donkeys have 62
(31 pairs)
sympatric speciation?
Hybrid breakdown
 Hybrids may be fertile & viable in first
generation, but when they mate offspring
are feeble or sterile
In strains of cultivated rice,
hybrids are vigorous but
plants in next generation are
small & sterile.
path to separate species.
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Rate of Speciation
 Does speciation happen gradually or rapidly
Punctuated Equilibrium
accumulation of
small changes over
long time
rapid bursts of
change mixed with
long periods of
little or no change
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Charles Darwin
Charles Lyell
Stephen Jay Gould
Niles Eldredge
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
 Gradualism
gradual divergence over long spans of time
 assume that big changes occur as the
accumulation of many small ones
 Punctuated Equilibrium
rapid bursts of change
 long periods of little or no change
 species undergo rapid change when they
1st bud from parent population
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Stephen Jay Gould
Niles Eldredge
Life can change quickly…
Ask Questions!
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