#### Transcript Centripetal Force

Centripetal Force Oscillations 1. Going round in circles 2. Circular Motion Calculations 3. Circular Motion under gravity 4. Periodic Motion 5. SHM 6. Oscillations and Circular Motion 7. Experimental study of SHM 8. Energy of an oscillator 9. Mechanical Resonance Going round in circles • Speed may be constant • But direction is continually changing • Therefore velocity is continually changing • Hence acceleration takes place Centripetal Acceleration • Change in velocity is towards the center • Therefore the acceleration is towards the center • This is called centripetal acceleration Centripetal Force • Acceleration is caused by Force (F=ma) • Force must be in the same direction as acceleration • Centripetal Force acts towards the center of the circle • CPforce is provided by some external force – eg friction Examples of Centripetal Force • Friction • Tension in string • Gravitational pull Centripetal Force 2 What provides the cpforce in each case ? Centripetal force 3 Circular Motion Calculations • Centripetal acceleration • Centripetal force Circular Motion under gravity • Loop the loop is possible if the track provides part of the cpforce at the top of the loop ( ST ) • The rest of the cpforce is provided by the weight of the rider Weightlessness • True lack of weight can only occur at huge distances from any other mass • Apparent weightlessness occurs during freefall where all parts of you body are accelerating at the same rate Weightlessness These astronauts are in freefall Red Arrows pilots experience up to 9g (90m/s²) This rollercoaster produces accelerations up to 4g (40m/s²) The conical pendulum • The vertical component of the tension (Tcosθ) supports the weight (mg) • The horizontal component of tension (Tsinθ) provides the centripetal force Periodic Motion • Regular vibrations or oscillations repeat the same movement on either side of the equilibrium position f times per second (f is the frequency) • Displacement is the distance from the equilibrium position • Amplitude is the maximum displacement • Period (T) is the time for one cycle or or 1 complete oscillation Producing time traces • 2 ways of producing a voltage analogue of the motion of an oscillating system Time traces Simple Harmonic Motion1 • Period is independent of amplitude • Same time for a large swing and a small swing • For a pendulum this only works for angles of deflection up to about 20º SHM2 • Gradient of displacement v. time graph gives a velocity v. time graph • Max veloc at x = 0 • Zero veloc at x = max SHM3 • Acceleration v. time graph is produced from the gradient of a velocity v. time graph • Max a at V = zero • Zero a at v = max SHM4 • Displacement and acceleration are out of phase • a is proportional to - x Hence the minus