#### Transcript Lecture02-ASTC25

```Lecture L02-03 - ASTC25
GRAVITATION
Back then
…and now
J. Marr
V.Kandinsky
M.C. Escher
J. Kepler (1571-1630)
I
?!
I, II
II
I. Newton (1643-1727)
R. Hook
(1635-1703)
III
How Newton
(supposedly)
deduced the
F= -1/r^2
law of gravity
Guinness record of acceler. for
humans (1953): 62g for 0.04s
We will follow the route traveled by
to understand the elliptic orbits (originally that of
comet Halley), but using more modern formalism and
notation.
One vector is so special that it had to be discovered and
re-discovered a couple of times:
Laplace vector = Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector
Pierre-Simon, Marquis de Laplace
(1749-1827)
..so l 
GMa (1  e 2 )
2
centrif.force
grav.force
(Make sure you
know how to derive
Keplerian speed !)
The full set of orbital elements (constants describing a Keplerian orbit)
includes the two omegas and the inclination angle I, describing orbit’s
orientation (shown below), two parameters describing its size and shape:
semi-major axis a and eccentricity e, and finally the time of perihelion
passage t0
Alternatively, the orbit could be described by 3 initial components of
position vector, and 3 velocity components (there are 6 variables
describing the position and velocity).
You can find much interesting information about the history
of celestial mechanics, for a few centuries the prime example
of the power of the human mind, in this web page titled “Orbits
and gravitation”
http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Orbits.html