#### Transcript Force and Motion

The student knows that there is a relationship between force, motion, and energy. A) Demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the speed or direction of an object's motion. B) Differentiate between speed, velocity and acceleration. C) Investigate and describe applications of Newton’s law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth’s tectonic activities, and rocket launches. I. II. III. IV. V. Definition of Force Definition of Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Draw original examples of balanced and unbalanced forces. Define Net Forces Give and Draw Example of Net Forces Label the size (in Newtons) and direction (with arrow) of the forces. II. Calculate the direction and net Force resulting on the object. I. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Define and give example of Force Define and give example of balanced force Define and give example of unbalanced force Define and give example of Net Force Newton’s 2nd law of Motion Montage Title, credits, music, and editing. I. II. III. IV. V. Definition of balanced or unbalanced force Original Drawing Force magnitude and direction is labeled Net Force is shown Color -a push or a pull -has a magnitude (size) and a direction -measured in newtons (N) -newtons = kg x m/s2 Force = mass x acceleration F=mxa Units: Newtons (N) F m a -The amount of matter in an object. -measured in kilograms (kg) -Rate of change of velocity -measured in meter/second2 (m/s2) -describes forces that are equal but opposite in direction -results in no motion -describes unequal forces acting on an object -results in motion in the direction of the greater force -the sum of all the forces acting on an object. -if forces are in the same direction add forces. Fnet=F1 + F2 6N 11 N To the left 5N -if forces are in the opposite directions subtract smaller from larger. Fnet = F1 – F2 10 N 5N 5N To the right 10 N 25 N Up 15 N 10 N 0N Balanced 10 N A push or a pull. Forces that are equal but opposite in direction and result in no motion. 3. Describes unequal forces acting on an object resulting in a change in the object’s motion in the direction of the larger force. 1. 2. Identify if the forces are balanced or unbalanced. 4. 250 N 5. 250 N Bonus: The sum of all the forces acting on an object. 1. Which contestant will win the arm wrestling contest. Pepe 50 N Jose 60 N Kiko Paco Kiko Paco 35 N 10 N 15 N 25 N 10 N 10 N 20 N 10 N 15 N 35 N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 4N 4N 0 N balanced 5N 7N 6N 6N 4N 6N 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. No motion 1N 1N 6N 0 N balanced 4N 14 N 7. 5 N 8. 3 N 9. 6 N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. No motion 36=100 35=97 34= 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A) Demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the speed or direction of an object's motion. B) Differentiate between speed, velocity and acceleration. C) Investigate and describe applications of Newton’s law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth’s tectonic activities, and rocket launches. I feel the need… The need for speed! -the distance traveled by an object in a given amount of time. speed = distance time -units = meters/second or m/s Speed = distance / time s = d/t Units: unit of distance (meters, inches, miles) Unit of time (seconds, minutes, hours) d S t -speed of an object and its direction of motion Ex. 40 m/s to the North Graph the data What is happening to the speed? What would the line look like if there was no motion? Write down the data set that would graph a stationary object. Time (s) Distance (m) 0 0 2 20 4 40 6 60 8 80 •Compare the speed at two different points. •Is speed constant? ? ? ? -rate in change of velocity Acceleration measures how an object changes velocity by either moving faster, slower, or changing direction. -Acceleration = Final speed – Initial speed time a=sF-sI or a=vF-vI t t Graph the data What is happening to the acceleration? What would the line look like if acceleration was 0m/s2? Time (s) Velocity (m/s) 0 0 2 20 4 40 6 60 8 80 Velocity (m/s) Velocity (m/s) There is something about a line graph that makes people think they're looking at the path of an object. A common beginner's mistake is to look at the graph to the right and think that the the v = 9.0 m/s line corresponds to an object that is "higher" than the other objects. Don't think like this. It's wrong. In this case, higher means faster. Accelerati on Distance 1. What is the speed of this graph? a) No motion b) Constant c) Increasing 2. What is the acceleration on this graph? a) Increasing b) constant c) no acceleration Time 3. What is happening in this graph? a) No motion b) Constant speed c) Increasing speed Velocity m/s 4. What is the acceleration on this graph? a) Increasing b) constant c) no acceleration Time s 5. Ms. Berrios and her boys travel to California for summer vacation. They travel 800 miles on Interstate-10 West in 10 hours. What is Ms. Berrios’ velocity? Do not forget your units! Mr. McDonald travels with his family to California. The car has a mass of 1500 kg. They travel at 33 m/s West for 1000 seconds. 1. What is Mr. McDonald’s family’s speed? 2. What is Mr. McDonald’s family’s velocity? 3. How far did Mr. McDonald’s family travel in that time? 4. What is the rate of change of velocity (not specifically in this scenario)? 5. What are the units of the rate of change of velocity? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. =Distance/time m/s2 40 m/s =VF-VI/t 85 m/s right 33 m/s 9.8 m/s2 =Force/mass 2 m/s North =100 N/10 kg d F s m a t Force = mass x acceleration Speed = distance ÷ time W m g Weight = mass x gravity Distance Mass Time speed Acceleration Force Weight Acceleration due to gravity (g) Meters (m) Kilograms (kg) Seconds (s) Meters/second (m/s) Meters/second2 (m/s2) Kg x m/s2 = newtons (N) Newtons (N) m/s2 I. Identify what you know II. Draw the triangle formula, circle the missing variable III. Determine formula to be used. IV. Plug in what you know (INCLUDING UNITS!!) V. Perform the Math (DON’T FORGET THE UNITS!!) VI. Box your answer (INCLUDING UNITS!!) Distance Mass Time speed Acceleration Force Weight Acceleration due to gravity (g) Meters (m) Kilograms (kg) Seconds (s) Meters/second (m/s) Meters/second2 (m/s2) Kg x m/s2 = newtons (N) Newtons (N) m/s2 I. Identify what you know F=? m=20 kg a=2 m/s2 II. Draw the triangle formula, circle the missing variable F m a III. Determine formula to be used. F=m x a IV. Plug in what you know. F=20 kg x 2 m/s2 V. Perform the Math (Don’t forget the units!!) F=40 N Identify what you know d=100 m s=? t=25 s II. Draw the triangle formula, circle the missing variable I. d s t III. Determine formula to be used. s=d/t IV. Plug in what you know. s=100 m/25 s V. Perform the Math (Don’t forget the units!!) s=4 m/s A car is traveling 40 m/s. How long will it take the car to travel 1000 m? Force and Speed Formulas Complete in ISNs 1) Force = ? Mass = 12 kg Acceleration = 9 m/s2 2) Force = 52 N Mass = 4 kg Acceleration = ? 3) Force = 86 N Mass = ? Acceleration = 10 m/s2 4) Speed = 12 m/s Distance = ? Time = 12 s 5) Speed = ? Distance = 75 m Time = 15 s 6)Speed = 25 m/s Distance = 100 m time = ? 7) Weight = ? mass = 2 kg gravity = 9.8 m/s2 8) Weight = 29.4 N mass = 3 kg gravity = ? 9) Weight = 39.2 N mass = ? gravity = 9.8 m/s2 Lightning McQueen travels 1250m in 15 seconds and Chick Hicks travels 2400m in 40 s. Which car has a greater speed? 2. If Lightning travels 1000m in 10 seconds, how far will he travel in 1 minute? 3. If it takes Doc Hudson 120 seconds to travel 3600 m, how long will it take him to travel 10,000 m? 4. Football player “A” has a mass of 100 kg and creates a force of 250 N, while football player “B” has a mass of 90 kg and creates of force of 180 N. Which player has a greater acceleration? 1. Runner A has a mass of 12 kg and an acceleration of 20 m/s2. Runner B has a mass of 20 kg and an acceleration of 5 m/s2. Which runner creates the greater force? 6. Cosmo’s car can travel 80 m in 5 s. Wanda’s car can travel 100 m in 10 s. Whose car has a greater speed? 7. The 7th grade QB has a mass of 90 kg and he creates a force of 180N. The 8th grade QB has a mass of 100 kg and creates a force of 160 N. Who has the greater acceleration? 5. Two friends are racing their dune buggies in the desert. The race ends at a flag 400 meters away. Car “A” gets there in 10 seconds, and car “B” gets there in 20 seconds. What are the speeds of both cars? 9. Two cars are racing home from opposite directions. Car “A” is 1200 m away and is traveling at a speed of 27 m/s. Car “B” is 1500 m away and traveling at a speed of 30 m/s. Which car will get home first? 10. My car travels 50 m in 5 s. How many minutes will it take me to travel 15000 m? 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Lightning McQueen 83.3 m/s 6000m 333.3 s Football player A with an acceleration of 2.5 m/s2 . Runner A with 24o N of force. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Cosmo’s car with 16 m/s. 7th grade QB has the greater acceleration with 2 m/s2. Car A 40 m/s Car B 20 m/s Car B 1500 m During his space jump Felix Baumgartner had a maximum velocity of 372 m/s down. If the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s2 , how long did it take him to reach that “terminal velocity”? Juan is pushing his new sofa into his house with force. The mass of the sofa is 1,200kg and it is being accelerated to 5 m/s2. How much force is being applied to the couch? -Felix Baumgartner -24 miles above the surface of the Earth -Free fall for 4 minutes 19 secs -Broke the sound barrier (761 mph or 340 m/s) Highest altitude achieved by human in a balloon Highest free fall The first man to break the sound barrier without mechanical means The fastest man that has traveled without mechanical means Distance:24 miles = 8624 meters Top velocity: 833 mph down = 372 m/s down Free Fall time: 4 min. 20 secs = 260 s Acceleration due to gravity: 9.8 m/s2 1) 2) a= VelocityF-VelocityI t How long it took Baumgartner to break the speed of sound? How long it took Baumgartner to reach his highest velocity? Name Date Science 8-7 Problem: How does increasing the height of a ramp affect the speed of a toy vehicle? Hypothesis: If _______________, then _______________ 1. Observational Data Observational Data Formula for speed: Formula for acceleration: Formula for force: Mass of car (kg): Data Table 2. 3. -average time per ramp -average distance per ramp (Convert cmm!!!) -average speed per ramp -average acceleration per ramp Graph Independent Variable (x-axis): Dependent Variable (y-axis): 4. Individual Assessment 1. What patterns did you observe? 2. Did the speed on the highest ramp differ from the speed on the lowest ramp? If so how? 3. What forces are acting on the vehicle? Did the forces change? 4. What stayed the same in the experiment? 5. 5. What changed in the experiment? 6. How did the changes affect the vehicle? 7. Was there any energy involved? If so how? Conclusion 1. Was your hypothesis proven correct or incorrect? 2. Did the vehicle accelerate? Why or why not? 3. What is the relationship between the dependent and independent variable? 6. 4. What are some other variables that may have affected the outcome of your experiment? 5. Based on this experiment, what other wonderings come to mind? 7. 1. What patterns did you observe? 2. Did the speed on the highest ramp differ from the speed on the lowest ramp? If so how? 3. What forces are acting on the vehicle? Did the forces change? 4. What stayed the same in the experiment? 5. What changed in the experiment? 6. How did the changes affect the vehicle? 7. Was there any energy involved? If so how? 1. Was your hypothesis proven correct or incorrect? 2. Did the vehicle accelerate? Why or why not? 3. What is the relationship between the dependent and independent variable? 4. What are some other variables that may have affected the outcome of your experiment? 5. Based on this experiment, what other wonderings come to mind? 1. What patterns did you observe? 2. Did the speed on the highest ramp differ from the speed on the lowest ramp? If so how? 3. What forces are acting on the vehicle? Did the forces change? 4. What stayed the same in the experiment? 5. What changed in the experiment? 6. How did the changes affect the vehicle? 7. Was there any energy involved? If so how? 1. Was your hypothesis proven correct or incorrect? 2. Did the vehicle accelerate? Why or why not? 3. What is the relationship between the dependent and independent variable? 4. What are some other variables that may have affected the outcome of your experiment? 5. Based on this experiment, what other wonderings come to mind? 1. What patterns did you observe? 2. Did the speed on the highest ramp differ from the speed on the lowest ramp? If so how? 3. What forces are acting on the vehicle? Did the forces change? 4. What stayed the same in the experiment? 5. What changed in the experiment? 6. How did the changes affect the vehicle? 7. Was there any energy involved? If so how? 1. Was your hypothesis proven correct or incorrect? 2. Did the vehicle accelerate? Why or why not? 3. What is the relationship between the dependent and independent variable? 4. What are some other variables that may have affected the outcome of your experiment? 5. Based on this experiment, what other wonderings come to mind? 1. 2. 3. s=? d=100 m t= 25 s F=? m= 9 kg a= 5 m/s2 Michael has an acceleration of 10 m/s2. If he weighs 26 kg, plus an additional 2 kg for clothing, what is his force? By Joachim Lucero 4. Michelle was pushing a cart at Target with a speed of 5 m/s for 3 seconds. Crystal was pushing a cart with a speed of 4 m/s for 6 seconds. Who pushed the cart the greater distance? By Michelle Hirales, Alejandra Guerrero, and Crystal Holguin 5. Juan is pushing his new sofa into his house with force. The mass of the sofa is 1,200 kg and an acceleration of 5 m/s2. How much force is applied? By: A.J. Marquez A cow has a mass of 100 kg, and an acceleration of 7 m/s2 running to the right. An elephant has a mass of 300 kg and an acceleration of 10 m/s2 running to the left. When the two animals hit each other what will be the net force and in what direction will the animals go? By Michelle Tovar, Ashley Brown, and Kaylee Parsont s= ? s=d/t d= 100m s=100m/25s t=25s s=4 m/s 2. F=? F=ma m=9 kg F=(9kg)(5m/s2) a=5 m/s2 F=45 N 3. 280 N 4. Crystal 5. 6000N Bonus:23oo N 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 200 N 8 m/s2 25 kg 0.5 m/s2 20 kg 0.33 m/s2 742.57 m/s 132 m/s 1,632 m 4.38 hr 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 714.29 s 600 m/s2 26.67 m/s2 68 m/s 1N 1N 6N 0N 4N 14 N 3.75 s 50 m/min. 1080 m 100 N 4.5 kg 50 m/s 40 m/s 8. 5 N 9. 3N 10. 6N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Time Distance F=? m= 50 kg a= 5 m/s2 F m a F=? m= 10 kg a= 5 m/s2 F m a F=45 N m=? a= 5 m/s2 F m a F=200 N m=100 kg a=? F m a 1. Mr. McDonald is caring a box with an acceleration of 90 m/s2 and a force of 27,000 (N). What is the mass of the box? By Daniel, Ricardo, Bobby, Parrish 2. Taylor Lautner and his pack are jogging through the woods in Portland, Oregon. They must run for 7 hours from their location to a location 210 miles away. What is the speed in which Taylor and his fellow wolves are running? By Isabela, Arlene, and Sofia 3. Jimmy is trying to break down a door by using a 50 kg tree bark. He has a head start by jogging to the door with 7 meters per Second Square, but increases his speed to 9 m/s2. With the mass of the tree bark and acceleration of Jimmy, what was the overall force he put to break down the door? Melissa, 4. Andrew rode his motorcycle to McDonald’s. It took him 10 minutes to get there at a rate of 20 m/s. If it took him 15 minutes at the same rate of speed to get home, how long was his ride? Hector, Alejandro, and Albert G. and Aaron 5. Annette made a route to go trick-or- treating in all the houses north from her house, she is going to walk for 360 meters and plans to do this in 180 minutes, what is her speed until she reaches the last house in the 180 minute? By Ruth, Annette, Maya and Aleza Johnny, Dante and Sergio were trying to find out who’s way to get to Cloudcroft was the fastest. Johnny took the main road which is a little under 87.5 miles long and he was at the speed limit of 75 mi/hr. Dante know the shortest way only had to travel 26 and 2/3 miles but he could only travel at 20 mi/hr. Sergio took the freeway where he drove for 102 mile at 85 mi/hr. Which person arrived at the hotel first if the all did not take any stops? By Juan Marcos, Dante, Antonio, and Albert C. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 6N 10 kg 0.5 m/s2 22 kg 60 N 2 kg 100 N 2 m/s2 8 kg 40 N 0.25 m/s2 0.4 m/s2 20 kg 100 N 0.5 m/s2 16. 4 N 17. 4 N 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 200 N 8 m/s2 25 kg 0.5 m/s2 20 kg 0.33 m/s2 100 N 4.5 kg 50 m/s 40 m/s 10 N 686 N 98 N 5 kg 16 N Bob 100 kg 5 m/s2 26 N 19. 9 m/s2 20. 2.45 m/s2 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 8.3 m/s 75.9 m/s East 13.33 km/min. 10500 km 5 m/s2 1. 2. 3. 4. What is the acceleration of a 7 kg mass pushed by a 3.5 N force? How much force is required to accelerate a 100 kg mass at 2 m/s2? A car is traveling 1025 kilometers from El Paso to Dallas in 13.5 hours. What was its average speed of the car? Give the net force’s direction and magnitude: 5N 5N 3N Given that the acceleration due to gravity on the moon is 1.6 m/s2, what does a 20 kg mass weigh on the moon? 1. 2. 3. 4. What is the acceleration of an 18 kg mass pushed by a 9 N force? A 64 N force is applied to an 8 kg mass, how fast will it be going in 20 seconds? A roller coaster has a velocity of 5 m/s at the top of the hill. Two seconds later it reaches the bottom of the hill with a velocity of 20 m/s. What is the acceleration of the roller coaster? On the moon Joachim weighs 90 N while on Earth Richard weight 686 N. Who has the higher mass? 10 N 28 N 17 N 10 N A) Demonstrate and calculate how unbalanced forces change the speed or direction of an object's motion. B) Differentiate between speed, velocity and acceleration. C) Investigate and describe applications of Newton’s law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, amusement park rides, Earth’s tectonic activities, and rocket launches. Write down Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion. Write down an example of each Law. I. II. III. An object at rest or in motion will stay at rest or in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Force = mass times acceleration For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. An object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. An object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Name the force that opposes motion and creates heat. 2. The tendency of an object to stay at rest or to stay in motion. Bonus: Write Newton’s First Law of Motion 1. Force = mass x acceleration For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. -any force that resists motion -creates heat Potential Energy-the energy of position. -stored energy an object has because of its position or shape. Kinetic Energy-the energy of motion. -energy an object or particle has because it is moving. Identify Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion. 1. Force = mass x acceleration 2. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. 3. An object at rest or in motion will stay at rest or in motion unless acted upon by an outside, unbalanced force. Which Law of motion does each picture depict? 4. Bonus: 5. Identify which of Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion is being depicted by the picture. 1. 2. 3. Name the force that resists motion. 4. The distance traveled by an object in a given amount of time. 5. Identify the type of force (balanced or unbalanced). Bonus: The speed of an object and its direction of motion. 5. If the forces acting upon an object are balanced, then the object a. must not be moving. b. must be moving with a constant velocity. c. must not be accelerating. d. none of these Bonus: Find the net force on an object if the following forces are working upon it: 150 N to the right 230 N to the left Several of Luke's friends were watching the motion of the falling cat. Being "physics types", they began discussing the motion and made the following comments. Indicate whether each of the comments is correct or incorrect? Support your answers. 2. Once the cat hits the water, the forces are balanced and the cat will stop. 3. Upon hitting the water, the cat will accelerate upwards because the water applies an upward force. 4. Upon hitting the water, the cat will bounce upwards due to the upward force. 2. 3. What are the units of force? 4. F=? m=4 kg a=9 m/s2 5. F=75 N m=25 kg a =? Bonus: What is the rate of change of velocity? If the car has a force of 30 N, how much force does the man and his eyelids have to produce to pull the car? 1. Force = ? Mass = 15 kg Acceleration = 5 m/s2 2. Force = 48 N Mass = 4 kg Acceleration = ? 3. Force = 86 N Mass = ? Acceleration = 43 m/s2 4. Force = ? Mass = 25 kg Acceleration = 10 m/s2 5. Force = 72 N Mass = 9 kg Acceleration = ? Bonus: Force = 123,456 N Mass = ? Acceleration = 10 m/s2 -done when an applied force causes an object to move in the direction of the force. -pushing or pulling Work = Force (N) x Distance (m) W=Fxd Units: N·m = Joules (J) W F d Ex. Mr. McDonald’s car has run out of gas 100 m from a gas station. If Mr. McDonald produces 25 N of force how much work will Mr. McDonald do pushing his car to the gas station? 1.Force = 450 N Mass = ? Acceleration = 10 m/s2 2. Speed = 540 m/s Distance = 12 m Time = ? 3. Work = 225 J Force = 5 N Distance = ? 4. Force = 135 N Mass = 3 kg Acceleration = ? 5. Speed = 405 m/s Distance = ? Time = 9 s Bonus: Work = ? Force = 3 N Distance = 15 m 1. Does the picture show work? 2. How much force results from a mass of 15 kg being accelerated 5 m/s2? Mr. McDonald’s car has run out of gas 250 m from a gas station. If Mr. McDonald produces 50 N of force how much work will Mr. McDonald do pushing his car to the gas station? 3. 4. Mr. McDonald is hoping to compete in the 2012 Olympics. What is Mr. McDonald’s speed if he runs 100 meters in 9 seconds? 5. Given a force of 45 N and a mass of 5 kg, what is the acceleration? Bonus: Who wins the tug-o-war? Kiko Paco 55 m/s 1500 N 1500 N Bonus: What will happen to the car? (A) (B) Demonstrate how unbalanced forces cause changes in the speed or direction of an objects motion. Recognize that waves are generated and can travel through different media. Distance Mass Time speed Acceleration Force Weight Acceleration due to gravity (g) Meters (m) Kilograms (kg) Seconds (s) Meters/second (m/s) Meters/second2 (m/s2) Kg x m/s2 = newtons (N) Newtons (N) m/s2