Identify and tell the function of each part of the

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Transcript Identify and tell the function of each part of the

The Digestive System
How is food digested?
Digestion involves:
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Breaking down of food into smaller pieces
The mixing of food
Movement through the digestive tract
Chemical breakdown of the large molecules of food into smaller
molecules.
Question: What are Carbohydrates, proteins and fats
or digested into?
Answer: Carbohydrates = Glucose
Proteins = Amino Acids or AA
Fats = fatty acids and glycerol
broken down
Describe the digestive system
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The digestive tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a tube from the
mouth to the anus. Food passes through the digestive tract.
Question: Which organs make up the digestive
system?
Answer:
Liver
Gall bladder
Pancreas
 Food does not pass through these organs.
Identify the organs of the digestive system
Identify and tell the function of each part of the digestive
system
Mouth
Teeth bite off and chew food into
a soft pulp that is easy to swallow.
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Chewing mixes the food with saliva, from salivary glands
around the mouth and face, to make it moist and easy to
swallow.
Identify and tell the function of each part of the
digestive system
Mouth
Enzymes in the saliva begin digestion of ?
Answer: Carbohydrates, such as an apple
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Food is chewed up into small pieces called?
Answer: Bolus
Identify and tell the function of each part of the
digestive system
Esophagus
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The esophagus is a muscular tube. It moves food from the throat and
down into the stomach.
How long does it take for food to travel to the stomach?
Answer: About 5 seconds
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The esophagus moves food by waves of muscle contractions called?
Answer: Peristalsis
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Identify and tell the function of each part of the digestive system
Stomach
The stomach has thick muscles in its wall. These contract to mash the food
into a paste called?
Answer: Chyme
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Question: What kind of muscle is found in the stomach?
Answer: Smooth muscle
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The stomach lining produces strong digestive juices
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These create chemical reactions in the stomach, breaking down and
dissolving its nutrients.
Identify and tell the function of each part of the digestive
system
Stomach
Question: What is the name of the acid
found in the stomach?
Answer: Hydrochloric acid or HCL
Question: Which chemicals help break food
down into its nutrients?
Answer: Special proteins called ENZYMES
Identify and tell the function of each part of the digestive system
Small Intestine
This part of the digestive tract is narrow, but very long. How
long?
Answer: About 20 feet
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Enzymes continue the chemical reactions on the food.
Identify and tell the function of each part of the digestive
system
Small Intestine
 The nutrients are broken down small enough to pass through the lining of
the small intestine, and into the blood (diffusion).
Question: What is the name of
the structures where
nutrients pass into the
bloodstream?
Answer: VILLI
 Nutrients are carried away to the liver and other body parts to be
processed, stored and distributed.
Identify and tell the function of each part of the digestive
system
 Pancreas
The pancreas, like the stomach, makes digestive juices called
enzymes which help to digest food further as it enters the small
intestine
Question: What is the name of the enzyme that
helps
regulate blood sugar?
Answer: INSULIN
Identify and tell the function of each part of the digestive system
Liver
“Love Your Liver”!!!
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Blood from the small intestine
enters the liver, carrying
nutrients, vitamins and minerals, and other
products from digestion.
The liver has at least …………… functions
Answer: 200
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Question: Name some of the important
jobs of the liver??
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Produces bile which breaks down fat
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Converts glucose to glycogen
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Make certain amino acids
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Filters harmful substances from the blood (such as alcohol and drugs)
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Stores vitamins and minerals (vitamins A, D, K and B12)
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Maintains a proper level of glucose in the blood.
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Is responsible for producing cholesterol.
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It produces about 80% of the cholesterol in your body.
Identify and tell the function of each part of the digestive
system
Gall Bladder
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A small baglike part
under the liver.
It stores a fluid called ………………, which is made in the liver.
Answer: BILE
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Identify and tell the function of each part of the digestive
system
Gall Bladder
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As food from a meal enters the small intestine, bile flows from
the gall bladder along the bile duct into the small intestine.
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It helps to digest fatty foods and also contains wastes for
removal.
Identify and tell the function of each part of the digestive
system
Large Intestine
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Useful substances that were not absorbed in the small intestine, such
as spare water and body minerals, are absorbed through the walls of
the large intestine, back into the blood.
Question: What is another name for the large
intestine?
Answer: COLON
Symptoms of COLON CANCER
Abdominal pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen
Blood in the stool
Diarrhea, constipation, or other change in bowel habits
Intestinal obstruction
Narrow stools
Unexplained anemia
Weight loss with no known reason
Identify and tell the function of each part of the digestive
system
Rectum and Anus
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The end of the large intestine and
the next part of the tract, the rectum,
store the feces.
Feces are finally squeezed through a ring of muscle, the anus,
and out of the body.
Diseases of the Digestive Tract
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Ulcers – caused by H. pylori
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Cancer – high fat diets and chemicals in food
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Irritable bowel syndrome - ? Stress, diet
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Crohn’s disease – autoimmune problem
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Cystic fibrosis – hereditary disease, defect
in digestive enzymes/proteins
for fats
For more information about the digestive
system, click here:
http://kidshealth.org/kid/body/digest_noSW.html