#### Transcript Work and Energy

```Work and Energy
Chapter 5 in S&F
Equations
W  F r cos 
1 2
K  mv
2
U g  mgh
***Wnet  KEi  PEi  KE f  PE f ***
P  Fv cos 
TSWBAT! Apply these appropriately to
physical situations
Definitions and Units
• Contrary to what you might think, solving
word problems is no longer considered
“work” in this class, solving word problems
will hereafter be referred to as “play” or
“fun.”
• Work, physical work, is an energy
exchange, we will add it to a “system”…
Work and Energy
• Yes, we have equations for it…
• Work = Force times distance
– Or more appropriately the “dot” product of a
force vector and the displacement vector of
the object it acts on.
• What are the units?
Work and Energy
• Joules!
– You were probably thinking Newton’s times
meters, huh? You are correct, we just have a
special name for the units of work and energy.
• Since work is an energy exchange, they
both have the same units.
Work and Energy
• In the real world you can exchange dollars
for doughnuts, but in the physical world it’s
more like dollars for euros, yen, pounds(!)
etc.
– Work, kinetic, potential, heat, sound, light…
• Let’s look at the dot product a little more…
Work
 
Work  F d
F

d
Were interested in the component of force that actually moves the object
in the direction it goes. The other component, perpendicular to the
displacement, is “wasted.”
Work
 
Work  F d
Fcos
Fsin
F

d
Work
 
Work  F d
F
 Fcos
d
Work
Work  F r cos 
F
 Fcos
r
Let’s Apply this puppy.
Tleash
angle
displacement
Puppy Pull
• Tension in leash = 100 N
• Angle with ground = 30 degrees
• Displacement along the ground = 20
meters (this puppy is stubborn)
So what’s the work?
Work  F d cos 
W= 100 N x 20 m x cos(30) = 1730 Joules
We did 1730 joules of work on the puppy.
Energy
• So what is energy?
• The physical state of an object that gives it
the capacity to do work.
Energy
• You can probably mention two types, maybe
more…
• Kinetic
– translational, rotational
• Potential
– gravitational, electrical, internal (temp)
• Let’s just do Translational Kinetic and
Gravitational Potential for now and save the
others for later in this course.
Kinetic Energy
1 2
K  mv
2
Work and KE
Wnet  KE f  KEi
Work Kinetic energy theorem
Where’s this come from?
• Think back to
kinematics
v f  v0  2ax
2
2
mv f  mv0  2max
2
2
1
1
2
2
mv f  mv0  max
2
2
1
1
2
2
mv f  mv0  F x
2
2
How fast is it going?
• Given work done and
mass, and starts from
rest.
vf
Wnet
1
1
2
 mv f  mv0 2
2
2
2Wnet
2

 v0
m
Start from rest
Energy
1 2
Kinetic Energy, K  mv
2
Potential Energy, U g  mgh
S&F use: KE= and PE=
Potential Energy
• Gravitational energy.
• Let’s think this one through. If I lift 100 N
one meter what work did I do?
• Yeah, 100 Joules
• How fast is it moving now?
• What’s up? (besides the 100 N weight)
PE
• The energy went
somewhere, where?
• We say the weight
gained Potential
energy equal to the
change in vertical
position, altitude, or
height, times its
weight (the force it
took to get it there).
U g  mgh
Work raising a weight
• How much work is
done raising a bucket
from a well?
W  PE f  PEi
W  mg (h f  h0 )
Conservative vs. Nonconservative forces
Conservative – we can get it back
So I lifted the 100N one meter, what happens
when I drop it?
It speeds up until it hits the ground.
The work transforms into KE of the weight, so
gravity is a conservative force.
Conservative vs. Nonconservative forces
Non-conservative
Think back to the puppy pull. Let’s make it a
box now, even though I did work on the box,
friction also did work on the box. Due to
Newton’s IIId law, friction did negative work on
the box!
What happens when we let go of the leash?
Will the box spontaneously spring back to where
it was? NO! Friction is non-conservative.
Con vs non
• Conservative forces store the energy
when you work against them. You can get
it back later.
– Gravity, electrical force, springs.
• Non-conservative Forces dissipate the
energy of work done against them. You
can’t get it back. It turns into; sound, heat
etc.
– Friction, airplane drag…
Book definition
• Conservative – path independent
– Gravity, doesn’t matter where, just how high.
• Non-conservative – path dependent
– Longer path, more friction loss
All together
• KE and PE as well as
work all in one
Wnet  KE0  PE0  KE f  PE f
Fin.
• Questions??
To Cover on site
• Power = work per time
• P=Fvcos
Review
W  F r cos 
1 2
K  mv
2
U g  mgh
***Wnet  KEi  PEi  KE f  PE f ***
P  Fv cos 
• Conserve - get it back, non – don’t
```