Intro to Forensic Science and Hstory PowerPoint

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Transcript Intro to Forensic Science and Hstory PowerPoint

I. Definition and Scope of
Forensic Science
A. Forensic Science-
is the application of science to law. It is
also referred to as criminalistics.
Science is merging more closely with civil
and criminal law.
Science plays an important and unique role
in the criminal justice system: A role that
relates to the scientist’s ability to supply
accurate and objective information that
reflects the events that have occurred at a
Branches of science used in
These fields are extremely useful in
determining the evidential value of crimescene and related evidence--omitting any
reference to medicine or law.
• Forensic pathology, psychology, and
odontology are other fields of science
that practice on the medical and law
enforcement side of forensics.
B. The Crime Laboratory:
The lab is where the principles and
techniques of the physical and natural
sciences are practiced and applied to the
analysis of crime-scene evidence.
II. History and Development of
Forensic Science
Forensic science originated by those
individuals who developed the principles
and techniques needed to identify or
compare physical evidence.
1. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle-
Author of the fictional character, Sherlock
Holmes. Many believe he had considerable
influence on popularizing scientific crime7
detection methods.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle published the first
Sherlock Holmes novel, “Study in Scarlet”
in 1887.
2. Mathieu Orfila- 1787-1853
Father of forensic toxicology.
In 1814 he published the first scientific
thesis on the detection of poisons and their
effects on animals.
3. Alphonse Bertillion- 1853-1914
The father of Criminal Identification.
Devised the first scientific system of
personal identification. In 1879 he began to
develop the science of anthropometry.
Anthropometry is a systematic procedure of
taking a series of body measurements as a
means of distinguishing one individual from
Anthropometry was replaced by
fingerprinting in the early 1900’s.
4. Francis Galton- 1822-1911
Undertook the first definitive study of finger
prints and developed a methodology of
classifying them for filing.
He published a book called “Finger Prints”
in 1882 which contained the first statistical
proof of supporting his method of personal
5. Leone Lattes- 1887-1954
Devised a procedure for determining the
blood group of a dried bloodstain. These
blood groups or types are now recognized
as A, B, AB and O.
6. Calvin Godard- 1891-1955
Refined the technique of firearms
examination by utilizing the comparison
His expertise established the comparison
scope as the indispensable tool of the
modern firearms examiner.
7. Albert S. Osborn- 1858-1946
Developed the fundamental principles of
document examination.
His work was responsible for the
acceptance of documents as scientific
evidence by the courts.
He published the book “Questioned
Documents” in 1910. This book is still
considered a primary reference for
document examiners.
8. Hans Gross- 1847-1915
Wrote the first thesis describing the
application of scientific disciplines to the
field of criminal investigation.
He published “Handbuch fur
Unterschungsrichter” AKA. “Criminal
Investigation”, which detailed the assistance
that investigators could expect from the
fields of microscopy, chemistry, physics,
mineralogy, zoology, botany,
anthropometry, and fingerprinting.
He also published a forensic journal
“Kriminologie”, which still serves as a
medium for reporting improved methods of
scientific crime detection.
9. Edmond Locard- 1877-1966
Educated both in medicine and law. In
1910 he started a police laboratory in the
attic of the Lyons Police Dept.
He became the founder and director of the
Institute of Criminalistics at the University
of Lyons which became the leading
international center for study and research
in forensic science.
Locard’s Exchange Principle- Locard
believed that when a criminal came in
contact with an object or person, a
cross-transfer of evidence occurred.
 10. Federal Bureau of Investigation
In 1932, the FBI under direction of J. Edgar
Hoover, organized a national laboratory.
The FBI’s laboratory is now the world’s
largest forensic laboratory.
The FBI’s Forensic Science Research and
Training Center opened in 1981.
11. Los Angeles Police Department-
Houses the oldest forensic laboratory in the
U.S., developed in 1923 by August Vollmer.
Vollmer headed the first U.S. university
institute for criminology and criminalistics
at UC Berkeley. It later became the School
of Criminology, headed by famous
criminalist Paul Kirk.