World Circa 1300

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Transcript World Circa 1300

1450 – 1750
Age of European Exploration
Circa 1300 – How did this start?
• Pop. Decline (Black Plague) and growth
• Feudalism in Japan and Europe
• Pax Mongolica – Yuan dynasty in China,
Kievan Russia under Mongol rule
• Rise of the Inca and Aztec empires
• Mali at its height
• Delhi Sultanate in India
• Ottoman Empire Rises (1281)
• Continued decline of Byzantium
1450 – Periodization!
Europe STEPS OUT! Exploration!
Dias, De Gama, Columbus
End of 100Years War (France & England states)
Ottoman Empire defeats Constantinople (1453)
Byzantine Empire collapses
Printing Press
Russia throws off Mongols – Ivan III & Moscow
Think about it…
• Predict what trends will change and which
will stay the same.
• As the world continues to become more
integrated circa 1450, predict which
societies are in the best position to take
advantage of new technologies and new
discoveries. Think about virgin soils,
location and luck.
• Protestant Reformation & monarch
centralizing power….reduced power of
Catholic church!....Catholic Reformation response
• Renaissance
• Scientific Revolution - science vs. faith
• Enlightenment - understand man thru reason
Man controls his world. not all answers from a
corrupt church. Man can change the church!
Americas 1300-1800
• Rise of Incas
• Continued rise of Aztecs
• Conquest – arrival of Spanish in western
hemisphere: Cortez and Pizarro
• Population impacts: disease, racial
intermingling, war
• Columbian exchange
• Colonial societies
Review: Inca Empire 1438-1525
• Highly centralized
• Diverse ethnic groups
• Extensive irrigation
• State religion/ancestor cult
• Architecture – rope
suspension bridges, roads
• No wheel
• Metallurgy – copper, bronze
• Capac Nan= roads allowed for
tax, labor, courier system
• Quipu
Review:Aztec Empire 1325-1520
“Foundation of
Island location – 5
square miles;150,000
Tribute empire based on
Chimanpas – agriculture
State control of market
redistributes goods
Changes in Trade, Technology
and Global Interactions
Exploration (Portugal first!)
Empire Building – Europeans & colonies
Cartography – new nations
Commodities – new goods, foods
• African slave
Notice the
3 S’s: Sugar, Silver and Slaves
• Coffee beans used
first in Yemen and
then later in Europe
and the Americas
• European using
chocolate technology
from the Aztecs 17th
Fur Trade – French British,
Native Peoples, Russians
Age of Exploration
• European exploration: why, who, where
• End of Ming Treasure/Tribute Voyages
How do empires rise and expand and how
will these empires maintain themselves and
expand their borders…who else will it
Empires: Ottoman 1281-1914
• 1350’s – Initial
Ottoman Invasion of
• 1453 – Ottoman
capture of
• 1683 – Ottoman siege
of Vienna
Empires: Ming China 1368-1644
Manchu Qing Dynasty 1644 - 1912
Ming resists industrialization – against
Confucian beliefs: favor agriculture
BUT: climate change, disease, economics
fall and MING end – beginning of QING
QING – from Manchuria: not “Chinese”
KANGXI: friend of Jesuit, respect Chinese
Create the CANTON system: only 3 ports
Empires: Japan
Empires: Tokugawa Japan
1600 - 1853
• Taika, Nara and Heina periods (645-857) –
height of cultural borrowing from China
-Tale of Genji – Lady Murasaki
• Emergence of warrior class-increasing civil wars
• Encounter with Portuguese 1543
• “Isolation” from West; rise of Tokugawa
• Tokugawa elite followed development in west
(contrast to China’s hairy barbarian mentality)
Empires: Russia
• Mongol occupation stalled Russian
unification and development
• Increasing absolutist rule and
territorial expansion by 16th Century
– Ivan the Terrible
• Russian Orthodox Church important
• Peter the Great accelerated
westernization process
Empires: Mughal India
• Empire based on military
strength – Babar the boy!
• Akbar – attempt to combine
beliefs into new religion to unite
Hindu and Muslim subjects:
• Indian textile trade – value to
• Patronage to the arts Shah Jahan
Empires: Safavid Persia
@ 1334-1722
Empires: Portugal
• Search for Maritime route to Asia
• Advanced naval technology: caravels, carracks,
astrolabe and compass
• Established fortresses along the Gold Coast –
sugar plantations and African slave labor
• Indian Ocean trade and Da Gama: Malindi,
Sofala and Kilwa, Calicut and Goa, and later
• Atlantic trade with conquest of Brazil – sugar
Brazil: Plantation colony
• Portuguese due to
Treaty of Tordesillas
• African slave labor
used to support the
plantation complex
• Largest producer of
sugar in world first
half of 17th C.
Empires: Spain
Reconquista ended with the fall of Granada
Columbus’ voyage
Arrival of Cortez in Mexico and Pizarro in Peru
Took over existing tributary empires: labor
(mita), silver, gold, and foodstuffs
• Demographic impact: disease, death, and
Empires: Dutch
• Dutch East India Company – “universal carriers”
In 1660, employed 12,000 people and had 257
ships. Sought monopolies and large profits.
• North America (fur trade along the Hudson river,
New Amsterdam)
• Caribbean islands for plantation settlements
• Capetown South Africa – way station
• Southeast Asia – spice trade (nutmeg in Banda
islands, cloves in Melaka and pepper in Banten)
Empires: France
• Absolute Monarchy
King Louis XIV
“ I am the State”
• Mercantilism
• Territorial expansion in Europe
and fur-trading colonies in Saint
Domingue (Haiti) and New
France (Quebec)
Empires: England
• Limited Monarchy and the
emergence of Constitutional
• Civil Wars: CommonwealthCharles II – James II and the
Glorious Revolution – Bill of
• Enlightenment Ideas
• Colonies in Americas
Empires: African
• Characteristics of:
Stateless societies - organized around
kinship, often larger than states, forms of
Large centralized states – increased unity
came from linguistic base – Bantu, Christianity
and Islam, as well as indigenous beliefs
Trade – markets, international commerce,
taxed trade of unprocessed goods.
African Empires
• Oyo
• Benin
• Kongo
• Asante
Empires: Songhay
• Initially farmers, herders, and fishers
• Foreign merchant community in Goa
• Powerful cavalry forces, expansive empire
• Fusion of Islamic and indigenous traditions
Changing Beliefs: Missionaries,
Jesuits, Neo-Confucianism
Cultural and Intellectual
• Scientific Revolution and Reformation
• Enlightenment
• Patronage of the Arts
Be able to compare the following:
• Imperial systems: European monarchy vs.
a land-based Asian empire
• Coercive labor systems
• Empire building in Asia, Africa & Europe
• Russia’s interaction with the west
compared to others
• What are the major themes that seem
• What global processes are in action?
• Suggest the best possible ways to learn
case studies of these global forces.