Transcript Greece2.12

• Homer wrote the Iliad and Odyssey
• Iliad relates the adventures of Greek
Military expeditions against the city
of Troy
• Odyssey follows Odysseus’ journey
home after the war
• Represent the values of Hellenic
civilization and used to teach
students the excellence of their
culture and dignity
Bonds Uniting Greeks
Gods controlled nature
• Religion – polytheistic
– Zeus – chief god
– Apollo – sun god
– Athena – goddess of
– Aphrodite – goddess of
• Characteristics of gods;
– They all lived at the top of Mt.
– Gods personal lives talked about
in Greek mythology
– Priests received prophecies from
the gods at holy places called
– Oracle at Delphi – was Apollo
oracle, Greeks would go here to
seek advice
Bonds Uniting Greeks
• Olympic Games
– Held in honor of the gods
– Athletic contests held every
4 years in Olympia
• Fear of Persia
– All Greeks feared that the
Persian Empire planned to
conquer them.
• War against Persia
– Persia controlled most of
Middle East and Asia
Minor (Greek Colonies)
• Darius, king of Persia set
out to annex all of Greece
Persian War
• King Xerxes (480 BC)
• Battle of Marathon
– Darius invaded Greece and
was defeated at Marathon
• A Greek messenger ran 26
miles to Athens to share
the news and died.
– Son of Darius
– Launched attack at the Pass of
Thermopylae in northern Greece.
– Defeated Spartans
– Took Athens
– Greeks rallied
– Greece saved
• A city-state
• city, villages, fields surround an
acropolis (fortified hill)
• Citizens in polis had rights and
responsibilities (vote, own
property, etc)
• In return, they had to serve in
gov’t or defend the polis in
times of war
• Citizens were only land owning
• Women, slaves, foreigners were
not citizens and had no political,
legal rights
• Growth of population forced
people to look elsewhere for
food b/c of bad soil
• Solution=TRADE!!
• How can you make trading
easier without bartering?
- Unlike Sparta they
developed a constitution that
stated all free, Athenian-born
men were
citizens…regardless of what
social class
Children in Athens
• Boys given an education, as
they were expected to hold
office as a citizen one day
• Girls received no formal
education, just household
training from mother
• Private tutors or schools
Children in Athens (cont’d)
• Wealthy girls would marry
their father’s choice at 15
• Peasant girls would choose a
husband from the field
• Boys would train for future
jobs after school
• They entered the military after
graduation and then went onto
careers such as businessmen or
Olympic athletes
Women in Athens
• Wore clothes to depict their
status in society
– Purple you were rich
• Most important job for all
women is having children
• Women not allowed to
eat/sleep in same room as men,
go to market or Olympics
Men in Athens
• Like their wives, wore clothes
equal to their status
• In charge of family and house
• Given the most responsibility
in Greece, so the most
important people in Greece
Culture of Greece
During the
“Golden Age”
Greek Architecture
• Its style and influence is around
the world
• 3 types of columns
– Doric (simple)
– Ionic (more decorative with scrolls)
– Corinthian (most elaborate, lots of
plant leaves)
Doric column
Public Building in NY
Ohio State Capitol Building
The Palace at Knossos
Temple of Hera: Doric Style
Temple of Athena: Ionic Style
• erected many beautiful public buildings
such as temples, gymnasiums, and theaters
• most famous ones are
– Acropolis
– Partheno
• illustrated myths and everyday life
• greatest Greek art
• not many still in existence
• sculptors included:
– Myron and his “Discus
– Phidias who created statue of
Zeus at the Temple of Olympia
– Colossus of Rhodes-bronze
statue more than 100 feet high
from Hellenistic culture
• First people to write and
perform plays
• Used to honor the gods
• Little props/scenery
• Earliest Greek plays
• Aeschylus, Sophocles,
Euripides  writers of
• One of the most famous
is Oresteia, on the
Trojan Wars.
Aristophanes, one of
the most famous
comedic writers
– Made fun of Athens
•S  Socrates
P  Plato
A  Aristotle
Greek Philosophizers
• Philosophy – to understand people – Aristotle (384-322)
and relationships to gods
• Student of Plato
– Socrates (469– 399) “know thyself”. Used
Socratic Method to find truth (persistent
questioning) Put to death for corrupting
– Plato (427- 347) studied under Socrates.
wrote discussions (dialogues) of ethics,
religion and beauty.
• There is no moral action in the world,
moral action comes from yourself
• Republic most famous work, described
ideal govt. – an aristocracy of intelligent
trained rulers
and Also tutored
Alex the Great
• He questioned
nature of world
and human
thought and
knowledgeinvented a method
for arguing using
rules (scientific
Hellenistic Philosophers
– Gods had no interest in humans
• Zeno
– Proposed people should live lives
that were in harmony with
nature or their gods wills
Hellenistic Scientists
Pythagoras (582-507) a philosopher
and mathematician, discovered
math principles still studied in
– Democritus (460-352) a philosopher and
scientist, advanced the theory that all
matter is composed of small invisible
• Medicine: Hippocrates
– “father of modern medicine”
– Hippocratic oath