Classical Greece and Rome

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Transcript Classical Greece and Rome

Classical Greece and
Rome
Greece and Rome
 1.
Ancient Greece
 2. Alexander the Great/Hellenistic
Age
 3. Roman Empire
 4. Dark/Middle Ages
http://www.mead.k12.wa.us/SHILOH/Griffith/MrGsWebPage2/Ancient_Greece/Ancient%20Greece.jpg
Geography of Greece
Mountainous peninsula, rugged terrain
 Numerous islands
 Sea serves as a mode of travel and trade
 Geog. Isolation of the individual poleis
 Mediterranean Climate


Dry summer, wet winter
 Difficult
for most types agriculture
 Great for olives, grapes, barley
http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/ralph/ralimage/map4gree.jpg
Early Greek Cultures

Minoan: 2700-1450 BCE

Located on Crete
 King

Minos
Palace Complex at Knossos
 Reveals

a rich culture; elaborate decoration
Sudden destruction
 Natural
disaster OR invasion
http://www.odysseyadventures.ca/articles/knossos/knossos_aerial.jpg
Palace
Complex at
Knossos:
Minoa
http://ccwf.cc.utexas.edu/~warfare/Lectures/Images/1.30/36
_knossos_bull_fresco.JPG
http://www.explorecrete.com/archaeology/images/kn
ossos01.jpg
Early Greek Cultures

Mycenaean: 1600-1000 BCE
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Settled by Indo-Europeans (1900 BCE)
Grew into powerful monarchies
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Warriors and traders
Royal family lived in fortified palaces
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Setting of Homer’s epic poems
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Trojan War (around 1250 BCE)
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Bee-hive tombs to bury dead (known as Tholos)
Debate over true existance of Troy
Heinrich Schleimann- 1870
Decline due to internal conflict, natural disaster and
invasion
Mycenaean
Culture
Funeral Mask
http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/e
n-commons/thumb/8/81/250pxMaskAgamemnon.png
http://www.visitkarpathos.com/ima
ges/intelli/mycenaeanrhyton_bullshead_1200bc_tombo
naok_new3.jpg
Mycenaean Acropolis
http://www.greeklandscapes.com/images/destinations/mycen
e/mycenae_aerial_photo.jpg
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/i
mages/h2/h2_74.51.966.jpg
Dark Age

After fall of Mycenaea, Greece entered a
Dark Age
Period of decline
 Depopulation from mainland

 Move
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
to Ionia, Lesbos, and other islands
Poverty, lack of development
Most important development: adoption of
the Phoenician alphabetic system

Simplified to only 24 letter
http://www.umassd.edu/studentactivities/greek/pics/greek_alphabet.gif
Greek City-States

Independent, self-governing city-state
known as a polis
Fortified acropolis: place of refuge in attack;
site of government buildings and temples
 Surrounded by agora: open market place


Hundreds of poleis, vary in size and pop.
Sparta: largest territory
 Athens: largest Population

Hoplite Warfare
Competition among poleis led to war
 Hoplite warfare emerged as a form of
defense


Marched in phalanx
 Each

man protecting the next
Quick battles, well-suited for farmers
 Did
not require expensive gear or great deal of
training
Hoplite
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/images/Hop
lite4thcentury.jpg
Phalanx
http://www.wargames.co.uk/Pending/Archive/May04/phalanx-LDS.jpg
Greek Colonies

After the Dark Age, Greece experienced a
growth in population

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Due to advances in agricultural techniques
Over population led to colonization
Sent out colonies in: North Africa,
Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions
 Increased trade with mainland

 Olive
oil, wine, pottery in exchange for timber,
grain, and metals
Spread of Greek Colonies
http://www.worldcoincatalog.com/AC/C2/Greece/AG/GreekColonies500BCE.jpg
Greek Government

Various styles of Government
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Tyranny: common up until 500’s
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Strongmen who seized power, often w/ support of
peasantry
Took power from aristocrats
Oligarchy: “rule by the few” very common


Depending on the polis
Council of wealthy aristocrats or elders
Democracy: “rule by the people”


Athens
Limited suffrage; only free men allowed to vote and
participate
Sparta

Chose not to send out colonies
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Conquered neighboring city-states
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Forced conquered people to become Helots
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Produced food to feed the Spartans
Often rebelled; put down by Spartan military
Militaristic, rigid society
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Children began education at 7
Taught to be disciplined and obedient
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Boys and girls train to be fit and disciplined
Boys live in barracks until age of 30, in army until 60
Simple meals taken in mess hall
http://www.utexas.edu/courses/introtogreece
/lect10/emapSparta9907210001.jpg
Sparta

Society in Sparta:
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Women lived in separate homes until husband reached 30
Young boys mentored by older Spartan soldiers
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Minimalist lifestyle, no luxury items or wealth

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Often involved a sexual relationship
Luxury items were thought to make a person weak
Government in Sparta: Oligarchy
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Dual Kingship, Council of Ephors, Council of Elders
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Only men participated in govt
Women, however, had relatively high status compared to Athens
Government encouraged isolation of Sparta
Often did not allow people to travel to or from Sparta
Discouraged the study of anything other than the art of war
Athens

Focused on learning, art, philosophy
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
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Became center of Greek culture
Highest population of the poleis
Developed democracy after bad experiences
with Tyranny and Oligarchy
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Direct democracy: all eligible citizens (free men) can
vote and serve in office

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Ostracism as method of eliminating harmful persons
(ie. Ambitious politicians)
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Meetings held every 10 days
Person with most votes exiled for 10 years
Reached height of power after Persian War
Greek Religion

Polytheistic
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3 generations of gods
Best known was the 3rd Generation
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Olympian Gods: Zeus as king of the gods
Complex rituals & festivals conducted to please
the gods & earn favors
Gods believed to communicate through oracles
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Most important was Delphic Oracle @ Delphi
No major decisions made without consulting the
oracle
http://api.ning.com/files/CUTAFAUVwiWP-*2FKr6oSFRFJWZgJFSRXV9z8X5XNU_/olympian.jpg
Greek Drama

Drama very popular in Greece
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Themes of Greek Drama
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Humanism, good v evil, persistence, pride
Tragedies usually written in trilogies
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Huge influence on western world
Comedy became popular in later years
Popular dramatists
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Aeschylus: Orestia
Sophocles: Oedipus Rex, Antigone
Euripides
Greek Philosophy

Philosophy: “Love of Wisdom”


Greek philosophers contemplated the universe and
emphasized rational thought
3 major philosophers

Socrates
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Sculptor and teacher (Socratic Method of question/answer)
Accused of corrupting the youth of Athens

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Found guilty, sentenced to death or exile
Chose death (drank hemlock poison)
Plato
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Student of Plato
Prolific writer, established the Academy to teach others his
ideas
Socrates
http://www.behappyandfree.com/pdf/socrates
Plato
http://www.stenudd.com/myth/greek/images/plato4.jpg
Greek Philosophy

Aristotle:
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Student of Plato
Interested in analyzing and classifying the world
Studied many subjects

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Ethics, logic, politics, poetry, physics, astronomy, geology
His ideas would influence western thought for hundreds of
years
Researched government, determined there are 3
desirable forms of government

Monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional government
Aristotle
http://www.stenudd.com/myth/greek/images/aristotle2.jpg
Writing of History

Herodotus: seen as Father of history in
western world

Wrote about the Persian War
 Much

discussion of divine forces (ie, the gods)
Thucydides:

Athenian general in the Peloponnesian War
 Wrote
about the war
 Focused mainly on human experiences, not gods
 More methodical in his approach

Look at cause/effect
Art in Greece


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Pottery used as a form of Art
Emphasis on balance and harmony
Humans often the subject of art (humanism)

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Body seen as a thing of beauty
Often idealized

Sculptures emphasize toned bodies and serene faces


beauty
Architecture
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Temples to honor gods
Use of Columns

Parthenon: most famous example of Classical Greek
Architecture
http://ancientgreecemoberly.pbwiki.com/f/parthenon-and-the-acropolis-landmark-1.jpg
http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Arts/Part
henon/Parthenon1.jpg
http://www.olsjschool.net/pages/sub
http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-
Persian War
Persian Empire
Greek expansion led to conflict with
Persian Empire
 Persian Empire


Cyrus The Great: unified the Persian
Kingdoms
 Captured

Anatolia and Mesopotamia
Built power base by respecting local traditions and
religion
Persian Empire

Cambyses (Cyrus’ son) expanded empire

Defeated Egypt, moved into Nubia & Libya
Darius expanded Persian rule into the
Indus River valley and into parts of Europe
 Social Stratification in Persia:

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3 classes:
 Warriors
 Priests
and aristocracy
 peasants
Persian Empire at its height
http://fotios.cc/papers/articles/medean_wars/persian_empire.gif
Persian Empire

Government in Persia
Divided empire into provinces
 Satrap governed each province as a
representative of the king

 Position
of Satrap was hereditary
 Provinces paid tribute to the central govt.

Kings were aloof rulers, seen as gods
 Persepolis:
city where king and royal family
conducted ceremonies
Persian Empire

Religion in Persia:

Zoroastrianism
 World
created by Ahuramazda
 One supreme deity
 Battle of good v. evil
 Belief in afterlife where deeds would be rewarded
or punished

May have influenced the beliefs of Judaism
and Christianity
Persian War

499 BCE: Ionian Greeks revolted against
Persian rule (unsuccessful)
Aided by Athens
 Darius vowed revenge for Greek interference

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490: Battle of Marathon


Athenian victory
486: Darius died, Xerxes in control
Plans attack
 Athenians buildup a navy

Persian War

480: Xerxes leads invasion of Greece
Delayed at Thermopylae
 Eventually advance

Athenians abandon city, which was nearly
destroyed by the Persians
 479: Persians defeated by Greeks at
Plataea

Athenian Empire

Delian League: Greek alliance to defend
against Persian Empire
Led by Athens
 Athens used league to build their own power

 League
treasury moved to Athens, money used to
fund Athenian growth

Pericles: major figure in Athens
461-429
 Helped promote democracy; very influential

Conflict with Sparta

Resentment grew between Athens and Sparta

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Resulted in war
Peloponnesian War: 431-404 BCE

Athenians hid within the walls of Athens

Plague broke out in Athens
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
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1/3 of population died, including Pericles
Periodic truces followed by renewed conflict
Athens finally defeated in 404
Peloponnesian War greatly weakened Greece

Internal fighting and conflict made them vulnerable

Eventually cost them their autonomy
Decline of Greeks, Triumph
of Macedonia
Decline of Greeks

Internal conflict among city-states
weakened Greece

Persians remained a threat
 Regained

territory in W. Asia
To north, Philip II began to transform
Macedonia
Restructured military to include cavalry
 Developed siege technology- catapult
 Began to assert control over the Greeks
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Triumph of Macedonia

Philip built organized a coalition to defend
against Persia
Est. himself as leader
 Assassinated in 336 BCE


His son, Alexander, took over where he
left off
Empire of Alexander the Great
http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/graphics/alexanderempiremap_large.jpg
Alexander the Great

Alexander (356-323 BCE)
Used military to defeat Persians
 Expanded influence into North Africa, Egypt
and nearly all of Greece


Empire was short-lived
Power struggle after his death in 323 BCE
 Empire split into 3 kingdoms

 Seleucid,
Ptolemaic, and Antigonid
Hellenistic Period

Alexander’s vast empire helped to spread
Greek culture to other parts of the world
Even after his death, the Hellenistic Kingdoms
continued to spread Greek culture
 Govt. in Hellenistic Kingdoms: autocratic
 Trade and learning flourished
 Cities became cultural centers

 Alexandria
in Egypt very important city
Rome
Geography of Rome
Italy
 Hilly terrain

Apennine Mts along eastern coast
 Alps serve as barrier from north

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Navigable rivers, access to Med. Sea

River valleys and volcanic soil good for ag.
Climate much like that in Greece
 Abundance of Natural resources

Rome

Legend of Rome’s Creation

Founded by Romulus in 753 BCE

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Agriculture essential part of economy
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
Evidence points to settlement much earlier
Land is a measure of wealth
Power centered in hands of those who owned the
most land
Initially ruled by series of kings

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King overthrown by land-owning aristocracy
Republic created in 507 BCE
Roman Republic
507-31 BCE
 Government Structure during the Republic

Power in hands of the elite
 Election of officials by assembly of citizens

 Wealthy
citizens’ votes counted for more than the
poor citizens

Two main bodies
 Senate:
composed of landowning aristocracy
 Consuls: 2 executive bodies

Members usually relatives of the Senators
Expansion under the Roman
Republic
Rome began to exert influence over the
rest of the Italian peninsula
 Use of military to acquire new lands
 Punic Wars: 3 wars fought with Carthage


264-146 BCE
 Defeated

Carthage in N. Africa
Continued on to seize the western Med.,
Egypt, and Greece
Decline of the Roman Republic

Inequality within the Republic led to social unrest
and revolts

Some changes made to bridge gap between the
upper and lower-classes


Twelve Tablets 450 BCE: publication of laws to avoid
arbitrary decisions by govt. officials
Tribunes: offices held by lower class citizens



Could veto legislation
Eventually, the tribunes would be absorbed into the aristocracy
and lost touch with their original purpose
Republic saw further trouble when a series of
ambitious generals used the military to
consolidate their own power

Sulla, Pompey, Caesar, Mark Antony, and Octavian
Decline of the Roman Republic,
Rise of the Roman Empire


Civil Wars broke out as rival generals fought for
control
By the time Octavian (Augustus) came to power
in 27 BCE, the Republic was nearly over


Augustus established basic structure of the Roman
Empire
For next 200 years, the Roman Empire
expanded and flourished

Acquired new territory in Europe and the Middle East
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/262/268312/art/figures/KISH106.jpg
Government under the Roman
Empire

Roman Senate still met, but all major
decisions made by emperor

Local autonomy throughout vast empire
 Governors
sent to maintain control
 Rarely exerted absolute control, except in times of
revolt


Use of military to maintain control
Empire was tolerant of local traditions

As long as they did not interfere with wellbeing of the empire
Government under the Roman
Empire



Pax Romana
Roman citizenship extended to conquered
peoples
Clearly defined laws throughout the empire


Government regulated grain production


Promote order and unity
Used empire to feed the masses in Rome and other
large cities
Construction projects throughout empire

Public baths, theaters, roads, etc.
Technology of Roman Empire

Romans excelled in
engineering




Aqueducts to transport
water
Domed buildings
Massive public
buildings
Little effort to develop
new technology or
ideas in science
http://oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/education/projects/
webunits/greecerome/acqu.jpg
Art and Entertainment

Like the Greeks, the Romans continued on
the idea of humanism

Reflected in art
 Busts
of rulers
 Scenes of Roman conquest
Elaborate public facilities available for use
by city-dwellers
 Gladiator Games and Chariot races were
popular forms of entertainment

http://www.hereorthere.co
m/images_library/p_big_4
820.jpg
http://www.hauntedamericatours.com/toptenhaunted/h
auntedworld/images/Coliseum-Rome.jpg
Religion

Early Roman religion was much like that of
Greece

Similar gods with different names
 Ie.


King of Gods
Greece= Zeus, Rome=Jupiter
313: Roman Empire adopted Christianity
Emperor Constantine
 Attempt to create sense of unity within a
crumbling empire

Society and Culture

Institutionalized system of social inequality
in Rome

Slavery common
 Used
for housework, working in mines, and
agriculture
Over time, free farmers became tenant
farmers who worked the land of wealthy
aristocrats
 Power centered in hands of the wealthy

Society and Culture

Patriarchal society
Oldest male was head of family
 Women under authority of male relatives
 Woman’s place was in the home, no political
power

 However,
some were able to exert influence over
husbands

In families who struggled economically, boys
were sometimes preferred to girls
Economy

Ag based economy

Most people made living through farming


Olives & grapes in Italy, grains and vegetables in other parts
of the empire
Grain essential, but does not grow well in Italy

Use of empire to feed the masses in Rome



Trade and Commerce essential to feed the empire
As such, merchants enjoyed high social status
Luxury items imported from east

Traded animal skins, metals, and exotic animal
species for silk and spices from east

However, merchants from west were at a disadvantage
because their goods were not as valuable as those from
India and China
Decline of Roman Empire

After 200 years of vigorous growth, Roman
Empire began a slow decline





Economic deterioration as trade began to decline
Emperors were unable to maintain control in far
reaches of the empire
Local authorities began to reassert more power
Germanic invasions from North led to the fall of the
western half of the empire
More information forthcoming on the fall of the
Classical Civilizations!!!
Ticket Out the Door:
How did geography hurt ancient Greece?
 How did geography help ancient Rome?
 What was the most important achievement
of ancient Greece?
 What was the most important achievement
of ancient Rome?
 What is the other name for the Eastern
Roman Empire?
