Getting to Know the Three Social Sciences

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Transcript Getting to Know the Three Social Sciences

Socialization: The Producer of Culture
• We discussed What Makes Us and what
influences human behaviour over the past few
• Today, we will examine how Culture
perpetuates itself from generation to generation
• Anthropologists often regard culture as an
Agent of Socialization, and Kinship
Systems as the main transmitter
Socialization & it’s Agents
• Socialization is a continuous process whereby an
individual acquires a personal identity & learns the
norms, values, behaviour, and social skills
appropriate to their social position
• Socialization takes place through interactions w/
others (sometimes referred to as social contact)
▫ Interactions can be intentional or unintentional
• Anthropologists (as well as sociologists & social
psychologists) believe there are a number of ways or
methods in which PPL become socialized
▫ These methods of socialization are called agents of
Socialization Terminology
• Norms: rules that indicate what ppl should do or how they
should act
• Values: standards of what is considered right & wrong
• Status: the position a person has w/in a social institution
• Primary Agents of Socialization
▫ Are the most important agents of socialization /c they shape the
life/behaviour of individual’s when they are children
▫ Includes - Family & Friends
• Secondary Agents of Socialization
▫ Are typically institutions (places) that help an individual find
their place in society
▫ Includes - school, work, religion
Kinship Systems
• Anthropologists believe kinship systems
(family) is the most important agent of
• Why Kinship?
• Kinship determines
▫ Whom we are related too
▫ Whom we must show respect too
▫ Who owes respect to you
• Family relationships define who we are as
individuals & how we see others in their society
What Kinship Looks Like
Types of Kinship Systems & Key Terms
• Matrilineal: ppl trace their ancestry through their
• Patrilineal: ppl trace their ancestry through their
• Bilineal: ppl trace their ancestry through both
• Lineage: male relatives capable of tracing their
ancestry back to one direct person
• Clan: group of several lineages in which ppl are
related but cannot always trace exact ancestral
Stop & Reflect
• What kinship system does your family follow?
• How does your kinship system determine
yours sense of self?
• How would immigration and/or emigration
affect kinship systems?
Marriage: Perpetuator of Socialization
• Marriage is a cultural institution in MOST cultures
▫ Varies in appearance & practice b/w cultures
• Anthropologists agree that
marriage defines social
relationships to provide for the
survival & socialization of
▫ It defines rights & obligations of 2
PPL in terms of sex, reproduction,
work and social roles
▫ Creates new relationships b/w
families & kin groups
Marriage in Canada: Do You Know it’s History?
• As a class let’s discuss the following questions
• What would marriage look like in prior to 1960?
▫ (i.e. ethnically, religiously, social class, etc)
• What happened to children born out of wedlock?
• What type of marriage became popular after 1960?
• How have marriages changed since the 1990s?
• What important marriage function, is NOT being
fulfilled by many couples today?
Arranged Marriage, the Most Common?
• Arranged marriages are set-up by someone
other than the people getting married
▫ Interesting fact: 5-7% of arranged marriages fail,
50% of nonarranged marriages fail
• Why?
• Shaped by beliefs that child-rearing, economic
relationships, & uniting kin groups are more
important than love
Types of Marriage
• Monogamy: relationship where an individual has 1
• Polygamy: marriage that involves multiple
▫ Polygyny: marriage b/w 1 husband & multiple wives
(permitted in 80% of world cultures)
▫ Polyandry: marriage b/w 1 wife & multiple husbands
(practiced in less than 1% of all world cultures)
• What types of marriage are legal in Canada?
• Why is this form of marriage strange considering
the N. American divorce rate?
Family Roles & Cultures
• W/ marriage comes families
• Family members have specific roles
▫ Father, mother, son, daughter, etc…
• Roles differ depending on culture hwr,
ALL members have obligations to family
▫ Obligations may be to nuclear members or extended members
(aunts, uncles, etc)
• These roles also shape how we act & view the world
• Think about the following roles & who performs them in your
house; repairs, cleaning, income, meal prep, organizing
activities, etc…
• What roles do you play?
• What obligations do you have w/in each role?
Family Roles & Self-Concept
How do families influence our self-concept?
Studies on Western & Eastern societies show similarities & differences
• PPL perceive self positively
• PPL feel that they are good or
• Self-enhancement
• Westerners see themselves
more positively than they really
▫ Blame for a bad mark is
typically placed elsewhere
 Mistake, bad luck, teacher’s
• Asian culture motivated by
▫ Motivates to avoid bad
 To be “good” you avoid
humiliation (better study!)
Kinship & Marriage
• Using your knowledge of kinship systems &
marriage to answer the following questions
• How does kinship & marriage influence or shape an
individual’s identity?
• Explain how an individual growing up in a
matrilineal-polyandry culture may view the world
differently than someone from a bilinealmonogamous culture?
• According to anthropologists, how are social
norms, values, and behaviours transferred from
one generation to the next?