#### Transcript EM Algorithm - University of Vermont

EM Algorithm Presented By: Jonathan Carter 1 Department of Computer Science University of Vermont April 2015 Copyright Note: This presentation is based on the paper: – Dempster, A.P. Laird, N.M. Rubin, D.B. (1977). "Maximum Likelihood from Incomplete Data via the EM Algorithm". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological) 39 (1): 1– 38. JSTOR 2984875.MR0501537. Sections 1 and 4 come from professor Taiwen Yu’s “EM Algorithm”. Sections 2, 3, and 6 come from professor Andrew W. Moore’s “Clustering with Gaussian Mixtures”. Section 5 was edited by Haiguang Li. Section 7 edited by Christopher Morse 2 Contents Introduction Example Silly Example Example Same Problem with Hidden Info Example Normal Sample EM-algorithm Explained EM-Algorithm Running on GMM EM-algorithm Application: Semi-Supervised Text Classification 8. Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Introduction The EM algorithm was explained and given its name in a classic 1977 paper by Arthur Dempster, Nan Laird, and Donald Rubin. They pointed out that the method had been "proposed many times in special circumstances" by earlier authors. EM is typically used to compute maximum likelihood estimates given incomplete samples. The EM algorithm estimates the parameters of a model iteratively. – Starting from some initial guess, each iteration consists of an E step (Expectation step) an M step (Maximization step) Applications Filling in missing data in samples Discovering the value of latent variables Estimating the parameters of HMMs Estimating parameters of finite mixtures Unsupervised learning of clusters Semi-supervised classification and clustering. Contents Introduction Example Silly Example Example Same Problem with Hidden Info Example Normal Sample EM-algorithm Explained EM-Algorithm Running on GMM EM-algorithm Application: Semi-Supervised Text Classification 8. Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. EM Algorithm 7 Silly Example Contents Introduction Example Silly Example Example Same Problem with Hidden Info Example Normal Sample EM-algorithm Explained EM-Algorithm Running on GMM EM-algorithm Application: Semi-Supervised Text Classification 8. Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. EM Algorithm Same Problem with Hidden Info 11 Contents Introduction Example Silly Example Example Same Problem with Hidden Info Example Normal Sample EM-algorithm Explained EM-Algorithm Running on GMM EM-algorithm Application: Semi-Supervised Text Classification 8. Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. EM Algorithm Normal Sample 17 Normal Sample Sampling Maximum Likelihood Sampling Given x, it is a function of and 2 We want to maximize it. Log-Likelihood Function Maximize this instead By setting and Max. the Log-Likelihood Function Max. the Log-Likelihood Function Contents Introduction Example Silly Example Example Same Problem with Hidden Info Example Normal Sample EM-algorithm Explained Illustration: EM-Algorithm Running on GMM EM-algorithm Application: Semi-Supervised Text Classification 8. Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. EM Algorithm 24 Explained Begin with Classification Solve the problem using another method– parametric method Use our model for classification EM Clustering Algorithm E-M Comparison to K-means Contents Introduction Example Silly Example Example Same Problem with Hidden Info Example Normal Sample EM-algorithm Explained EM-Algorithm Running on GMM EM-algorithm Application: Semi-Supervised Text Classification 8. Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. EM Algorithm 34 EM Running on GMM Contents Introduction Example Silly Example Example Same Problem with Hidden Info Example Normal Sample EM-algorithm Explained EM-Algorithm Running on GMM EM-algorithm Application: SemiSupervised Text Classification 8. Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. EM Application: Semi-Supervised Text Classification “Learning to Classify Text From Labeled and Unlabeled Documents” K. Nigam, A. Mccallum, and T. Mitchell (1998) 44 Learning to Classify Text from Labeled and Unlabeled Documents K. Nigam et al. present a method for building a more accurate text classifier by augmenting a limited amount of labeled training documents with a large number of unlabeled documents Why the interest in unlabeled data? – – There is an abundance of unlabeled data available for training but very limited amounts of labeled. Labeling data is costly and there is too much data being produced to make a dent in it. Learning to Classify Text from Labeled and Unlabeled Documents The authors present evidence of the efficacy of their methods in three main domains: – newsgroup postings, web pages, and newswire articles The exponential expansion of textual data demands efficient and accurate methods of classification. The high-dimensionality of the feature set and relatively small number of labeled training samples makes effective classification difficult. Building a Semi-Supervised Classifier Classify textual documents using a combination of labeled and unlabeled data. First, build an initial classifier by calculating model parameters from the labeled documents only. Loop until convergence (or stopping criteria): – – Probabilistically label the unlabeled documents using the classifier. Recalculate the classifier parameters given the probabilistically assigned labels. The Probabilistic Framework Assumptions – – Every document di is generated according to probability distribution (mixture model) parameterized by 𝜃. Mixture model is composed of components cj ∈ C (1-to-1 relationship between components and classes and mix. components, i. e. cj refers to jth component and jth class). The Probabilistic Framework Document Generation: 1. Mixture component is selected according to prior probability 2. Component generates the document using its own parameters with distribution Thus the likelihood of a document di: Initial Classifier: naive Bayes Documents are considered an “ordered list of word events” [17] – Probability of a document given its class: – represents the word in position document of Naive Bayes Naive Bayes in the context of this experiment: –“The learning task for the naive Bayes classifier is to use a set of training documents to estimate the mixture model parameters, then use the estimated model to classify new documents.”[17] Step 1: Train a Naive Bayes Classifier Using Labeled Data Apply Bayes’ Rule Step 2: Combine the Labeled Data with Unlabeled Data Using EM EM: maximum likelihood estimates given incomplete data. Wait, where’s the incomplete data? Ah Ha! The unlabeled data is incomplete: it’s missing class labels! Step 2: Combine the Labeled Data with Unlabeled Data Using EM E-step: – the E-step corresponds to calculating probabilistic labels for every document by using the current estimate for , which we demonstrated the calculation for previously M-step: – The M-step corresponds to calculating a new maximum likelihood estimate for given the current estimates for document labels, Classifier Performance Results Experiment showed significant improvements from using unlabeled documents for training classifiers in three real-world text classification tasks. Using unlabeled data requires a closer match between the data and the model than those using only labeled data. – Warrants exploring more complex mixture models References 1. ^ Dempster, A.P.; Laird, N.M.; Rubin, D.B. (1977). "Maximum Likelihood from Incomplete Data via the EM Algorithm". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological) 39 (1): 1–38. JSTOR 2984875.MR0501537. 2. ^ Sundberg, Rolf (1974). "Maximum likelihood theory for incomplete data from an exponential family".Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 1 (2): 49– 58. JSTOR 4615553. MR381110. 3. ^ a b Rolf Sundberg. 1971. Maximum likelihood theory and applications for distributions generated when observing a function of an exponential family variable. Dissertation, Institute for Mathematical Statistics, Stockholm University. 4. ^ a b Sundberg, Rolf (1976). "An iterative method for solution of the likelihood equations for incomplete data from exponential families". Communications in Statistics – Simulation and Computation 5 (1): 55–64.doi:10.1080/03610917608812007. MR443190. 5. ^ See the acknowledgement by Dempster, Laird and Rubin on pages 3, 5 and 11. 6. ^ G. Kulldorff. 1961. Contributions to the theory of estimation from grouped and partially grouped samples. Almqvist & Wiksell. 7. ^ a b Anders Martin-Löf. 1963. "Utvärdering av livslängder i subnanosekundsområdet" ("Evaluation of sub-nanosecond lifetimes"). ("Sundberg formula") 8. ^ a b Per Martin-Löf. 1966. Statistics from the point of view of statistical mechanics. Lecture notes, Mathematical Institute, Aarhus University. ("Sundberg formula" credited to Anders Martin-Löf). 9. ^ a b Per Martin-Löf. 1970. Statistika Modeller (Statistical Models): Anteckningar från seminarier läsåret 1969–1970 (Notes from seminars in the academic year 1969-1970), with the assistance of Rolf Sundberg.Stockholm University. ("Sundberg formula") 10. ^ a b Martin-Löf, P. The notion of redundancy and its use as a quantitative measure of the deviation between a statistical hypothesis and a set of observational data. With a discussion by F. Abildgård, A. P. Dempster, D. Basu, D. R. Cox, A. W. F. Edwards, D. A. Sprott, G. A. Barnard, O. BarndorffNielsen, J. D. Kalbfleisch and G. Rasch and a reply by the author. Proceedings of Conference on Foundational Questions in Statistical Inference (Aarhus, 1973), pp. 1–42. Memoirs, No. 1, Dept. Theoret. Statist., Inst. Math., Univ. Aarhus, Aarhus, 1974. 11. ^ a b Martin-Löf, Per The notion of redundancy and its use as a quantitative measure of the discrepancy between a statistical hypothesis and a set of observational data. Scand. J. Statist. 1 (1974), no. 1, 3–18. 12. ^ Wu, C. F. Jeff (Mar. 1983). "On the Convergence Properties of the EM Algorithm". Annals of Statistics 11 (1): 95– 103. doi:10.1214/aos/1176346060. JSTOR 2240463. MR684867. 13. ^ a b Neal, Radford; Hinton, Geoffrey (1999). Michael I. Jordan. ed. "A view of the EM algorithm that justifies incremental, sparse, and other variants". Learning in Graphical Models (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press): 355–368. ISBN 0262600323. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 14. ^ a b Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; Friedman, Jerome (2001). "8.5 The EM algorithm". The Elements of Statistical Learning. New York: Springer. pp. 236–243. ISBN 0-387-95284-5. 15. ^ Jamshidian, Mortaza; Jennrich, Robert I. (1997). "Acceleration of the EM Algorithm by using Quasi-Newton Methods". Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology) 59 (2): 569–587.doi:10.1111/1467-9868.00083. MR1452026. 16. ^ Meng, Xiao-Li; Rubin, Donald B. (1993). "Maximum likelihood estimation via the ECM algorithm: A general framework". Biometrika 80 (2): 267– 278. doi:10.1093/biomet/80.2.267. MR1243503. 17. ^ Hunter DR and Lange K (2004), A Tutorial on MM Algorithms, The American Statistician, 58: 30-37 References 17. ^ K. Nigam, A. Mccallum, and T. Mitchell, “Learning to Classify Text From Labeled and Unlabeled Documents,” pp. 792–799, AAAI Press, 1998. 18. ^ G. Cong, W. S. Lee, H. Wu, and B. Liu, “Semi-Supervised Text Classification Using Partitioned EM,” in Database Systems for Advanced Applications, pp. 482–493, 2004. 19. ^ K. Nigam, A. Mccallum, and T. M. Mitchell, Semi-Supervised Text Classification Using EM, ch. 3. Boston: MIT Press, 2006. The End Thanks very much! Contents Introduction Example Silly Example Example Same Problem with Hidden Info Example Normal Sample EM-algorithm Explained EM-Algorithm Running on GMM EM-algorithm Application: Semi-Supervised Text Classification 8. Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Question #1 Describe a data mining application for EM? – Using EM to improve a classifier by augmenting labeled training data with unlabeled data. The example given illustrated a method for text classification using an initial naive Bayes classifier and assumes documents are generated probabilistically according to an underlying mixture model. – Question #2 What are the EM algorithm initialization methods? – Random guess. Any general classifier that builds a parameterized probability distribution model (i.e. naive Bayes). Initialized by k-means. After a few iterations of k-means, using the parameters to initialize EM. – – Question #3 What are the main advantages of parametric methods? – You can easily change the model to adapt to different distribution of data sets. – Knowledge representation is very compact. Once the model is selected, the model is represented by a specific number of parameters. – The number of parameters does not increase with the increasing of training data .