#### Transcript Sources of Data & Sampling

```Two Sorts of Statistics
• Descriptive statistics
• To describe and summarize the characteristics of
the sample
• Applied in the context of exploratory techniques
• Inferential statistics
• To infer something about the population from the
sample
• Applied in the context of confirmatory methods
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From Descriptive to Inferential
• We have to look at some aspects of the data we
use first
• The most important aspect of inferential statistics is
the selection of the sample
• A statistic is meaningless if the sample is not
representative
• We must consider:
– Data Acquisition, Quality, & Collection Procedures
– Sampling Design & Methods
– (Spatial Sampling Approaches)
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Data Acquisition
• Any descriptive summaries that we form from a
data set, or any inferences that we draw from the
data set fundamentally reply upon the notion that
the observations that the data record are an
accurate reflection of the phenomenon of interest
at the time they were taken
• To have any confidence in the usefulness of a
dataset, we need to be aware of how the data was
collected, and by whom, and make use of that
sound that source of data is for a given purpose 3
Data Acquisition
• The fundamental distinction we can draw between
sources of data is data that you have collected
yourself, versus data that has been collected by
others and archived
• Collected - In many ways, this is the best sort of
data because you can be absolutely certain of the
methods used, although this can be expensive
• Archived - Has the competing merit of already
being available, possibly having been collected over
a period of time, and others have undertaken the
expense of doing so
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Collected Data
• Collected Data - a.k.a. primary data, is collected
directly by the researcher through experiments,
measurements, field surveys etc.
• Benefits: Total certainty as to methods used and
error associated with them, can be customized to the
research question, the methods can be precisely
repeated on another occasion or in another location
• Drawbacks: Collecting data is expensive, there
may not be a comparable historical record of similar
measurements, gives critics an opportunity to criticize
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Collected Data
• Collected Data Cont. - We can further sub-divide
collected data into categories that denote the sort of
collection procedure used to produce the data:
• Experimental (controlled experiment) data is
produced under repeatable conditions and is
presumably an objective description of some
phenomenon (often used in physical geography)
• Non-experimental data, such as interview or
questionnaires are used to assess more qualitative
or subjective ideas or concepts (often applied in the
human geography context)
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Archived Data
•Archived Data - Data that is already available
because it has been collected by someone else
•Benefits: The expense of collecting the data has
been absorbed already, the methods used are often
a standard approach that allows for inter-comparison
with historical records or records for other places
•Drawbacks: One cannot be as sure of the data
quality, methods and associated errors here
(sometimes metadata is not available), the variable
of interest may not be available, or your definition
may vary slightly from that used by others
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Archived Data
• Archived Data cont. - We can characterize
archived data as being internal (meaning it was
collected by another member of your organization),
or external (meaning it was collected by someone
you do not know as well) … we can call these:
• Secondary data, which is obtained directly from
those that did collect the data
• Tertiary data, which we can obtain from a thirdparty (sometimes via publication, sometimes not),
often this is data which has already been analyzed
or transformed somehow
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Data Quality
• The further removed we are from those that actually
collect and create a data set, the worse off we are
when using that data
• The results of any statistical study are only as good
as the data that was used, thus the quality of the data
is very important because it in turn determines the
quality and reliability of descriptions and inferences
based upon it
• Data obtained externally should be used only after a
serious investigation and consideration of its quality
and reliability
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Data Collection Procedures
• The errors associated with data often are a
function of how they were collected (instruments
used), e.g.:
• The USGS coordinates a cooperative network of
stream flow gauges, and while many of these
instruments are maintained directly by USGS
employees, others are operated by universities,
research stations, local water authorities etc.
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Data Collection Procedures
• Some may have a weir and floating level that
records flow, others rotating current meters, or
acoustic Doppler meters, or electromagnetic flow
meters; each of these has different degrees of
accuracy … some require more maintenance
• If we are going to compare stream flow data
from multiple catchments, we need to know of
these differences
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Data Collection Procedures
• This applies to data in human geography too:
• For example, when a government takes a census, what
criteria does it use for who gets counted? Does a person have
to be in their home on the day of the census to be included?
What if we compare data from different countries?
• Population figures are then in turn used to calculate per
capita figures like GNPP or cost of living information … the
definition of what persons are included matters
• Likewise, suppose we are comparing city populations of
urban centers. Do both urban centers use the same definition
of what is included within the city? What about change over
time and annexations … definitions matter!
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Data Collection Procedures
• Procedural choices made in data aggregation, data
omissions, and the rounding of figures in the course of
collection can all vary and have an impact on how the data
portrays some variable
• These issues are further compounded if a data set is
created by merging multiple data sets which were procured
from different sources (and likely produced according to
different procedures and standards):
• Ideally, the provenance of a data set must be known so the
procedures used to collect the data are known by those who
would analyze it, and any choices made at the time of the
data collection can be taken into account
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Sampling Populations
• Typically, when we collect data, we are somewhat limited
in the scope of what information we can reasonably collect
• Ideally, we would enumerate each and every member of a
population so we could know its parameters perfectly
• In most cases this is not possible, because of the size of
the population (infinite populations?) and associated costs
(time, money, etc.)
• Usually it is not necessary, because by collecting data on
an appropriate subset of the population we can create
statistics that are adequate estimates of population
parameters
• Instead, we sample a population, trying to get information
about a representative subset of the population
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Sampling Concepts
• We must define the sampling unit - the smallest sub-division of the
population that becomes part of our sample
• We want to minimize sampling error when we design how we will
collect data: Typically the sampling error  as the sample size
because larger samples make up a larger proportion of the population
(and a complete census, for example, theoretically has no sampling
error)
• We want to try and avoid sampling bias when we design how we
will collect data: Bias here is referring to a systematic tendency in
the selection of members of a population to be included in a sample,
i.e. any given member of a population should have an equal chance of
being included in the sample (for random sampling)
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Steps in Sampling
1. Definition of the population - We first need to identify the
population we wish to sample, and do so somewhat formally
because any inferences we draw are really only applicable
to that population
2. Construction of a sampling frame - This involves
identifying all the individual sampling units within a
population in order that the sample can be drawn from
them. In a survey-type study, this could involve procuring a
list of all the potential individuals who could be included in a
sample. In my research, this involved mapping the terrain
of suburban watersheds so locations within the watersheds
could be selected for soil moisture readings … a means to
select which units to sample
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Steps in Sampling Cont.
3. Selection of a sampling design - This is a critical
decision about how to collect the sample. We will look
at some different sampling designs in the following
slides
4. Specification of information to be collected - The
formal definition of what data we will collect and how
(i.e. what questions are on the survey, at what depth will
the we use the soil moisture probe). Often, a pilot
sample is conducted to refine the sampling design and
specifications to help minimize biases that only become
apparent once the sampling design and specs are tested
5. Collection of the data - When we have steps 1-4
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straight, we go about collecting the sample
Types of Samples (Designs)
• We can distinguish between two families of sampling
designs:
• Non-probability designs are not concerned with
being representative by virtue of minimizing bias, are
typically used for non-scientific purposes, and are not
appropriate for statistical inference studies, although
they can be useful in an investigative sense
• Probability designs aim to representative of the
population they sample, follow rules of randomness
in selection to minimize bias, and are those that are
used in scientific studies were inferential statistics
will be used
• (We will primarily concerns ourselves with the latter) 18
Non-probability Sampling Designs
• Some types of non-probability designs:
• Volunteer sampling - A ‘self-selecting’ sample,
which is convenient, but rarely representative
• Quota sampling - Researchers select individuals to
include based on fulfilling counts of sub-groups
• Convenience sampling - Individuals are included in
the sample because they are available/accessible
• Judgmental or purposive sampling - Those that are
chosen to be included in the sample are chosen based
upon some preconceived notions of what sorts of
individuals would be most appropriate for this
investigative purpose (e.g. product testing based on
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ideas about the market for a product)
Probability Sampling Designs - Random
• Random sampling - In general, we need some degree of
randomness in the selection of a sample to be able to
draw any meaningful inferences about a population, but
in some cases this may conflict with representativeness
• These are drawn in such a way that every unit of a
population has an equal chance of being chosen and the
selection of one unit has no impact on whether or not
another individual will be selected (independence)
• This can be done with or without replacement (which
determines whether the same unit can be drawn twice)
• We can generate random numbers using a table (A.1 on
pp. 212-213), or using a computer, and can scale the 0 to
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1 values to any required range of values
Probability Sampling
Designs - Systematic
Representative approaches place restrictions on selection:
• Systematic sampling - This approach uses every kth
element of the sampling frame, by beginning at a
randomly chosen point in the frame, e.g. given a
sampling frame of size = 200, to create a sample of size
n=10 from such a sample, select a random point to begin
within the frame and then include every 20th value in the
systematic sample
• This approach assumes that the assignment of the
individuals in the sampling frame is random (i.e. they
have not been placed in the frame in some order or
grouping), and this should be checked before
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systematically sampling from a frame
Probability Sampling
Designs - Systematic
Some problems with systematic sampling:
• The possible values of sample size n are somewhat
restricted by the size of the sampling frame, since the
interval should divide evenly into the size of the
sampling frame
• If the population itself exhibits some periodicity, then a
stratified sample is likely to not be representative
• In geographic applications, with could be applied in 2
dimensions in (x,y) space with with Dx and Dy (which
are not necessarily the same) specifying a systematic
grid, but the sample size is still restricted by the extent
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of the study area (since the grid must fit evenly)
Probability Sampling Designs - Stratified
We may need to place restrictions on how we select units
for inclusion in a sample to ensure a representative
sample.
•Stratified sampling - Divide the population into
categories and select a random sample from each of these
•This approach can be used to decrease the likelihood of
an unrepresentative sample if the classes/categories/strata
are selected carefully (the individuals within a strata must
be very much alike, which means that the population must
be able to divided into relatively homogeneous groups)
•We need to know something about the population in
order to make good decisions about stratification
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Probability Sampling Designs - Stratified
•We can take a stratified sample that is
•Proportional - Where the random sample drawn from
each class/category/stratum is the same size OR
•Disproportional - Where random samples of different
sizes are drawn from each class/category/stratum, with
the sample size usually being chosen on the basis of the
size of that sub-population. This approach is best used
when the sizes of the categories are significantly
different, although it can also be applied to mitigate cost
issues (i.e. it may be more costly to sample in a swamp
than in a grassy field, so we might choose to take less
samples in the swamp, although this clearly would be
nothing to enhance representativeness in our sample) 24
Probability Sampling Designs - Stratified
WARNING:
•A class/category/stratum that is homogeneous with
respect to one variable may have high variation with
respect to another variable! Thus, stratification must
be performed with some foreknowledge of how the
sample will be analyzed, and if the sampling is being
performed in a preliminary fashion (still seeking the
relationships), there is a danger that the stratification will
be found to be inappropriate after the fact
•E.g. my soils sampling may have been stratified with
respect to TMI, but if I want to check if upstream landuse is a factor in Glyndon, I may find my samples are
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not representatively distributed with respect to land use
Probability Sampling Designs - Cluster
Another sampling approach that subdivides the population
into categories is cluster sampling
• Cluster sampling - Divides the population into
categories based on convenience rather than some structure
designed to promote unbiased representation of a particular
variable across all clusters, and sampling is performed
within individual clusters
•Certain clusters are selected for intensive study, usually
by a random procedure, and the content of clusters should
each be individually be heterogeneous (a cross-section of
the range of values seen in the whole population), and thus
representative
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•This is usually applied for reasons of cost and convenience
Choosing a Sampling Design
•In a geographic context:
•Stratified sampling works best if the regions are
reasonably homogeneous
•Cluster sampling works best if the regions are
heterogeneous
•From an efficiency point of view (the number of samples
required), stratified sampling is best since it can be
representative using a smaller number of samples, but if
there is no clear means of rational stratification, then
clustering might be the way to go
•Many sampling designs are hybrids of approaches (e.g.
stratify by ethnic group, cluster to pick neighborhoods,
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select houses randomly)
Random Spatial Sampling
•We can choose a random point in (x,y) space by choosing
pairs of random numbers … this produces a Poisson
distribution if we divide the area into quadrats and count
•This is easy with rectangular study areas, otherwise we
also need to reject any points outside the study area (e.g.
my method for selecting the beginning of a transect)
•We can also produce stratified and systematic point
samples by dividing the area into a group of mutually
exclusive and collective exhaustive strata:
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