#### Transcript Document

```Artificial Intelligence
Uncertainty
Chapter 13
Uncertainty
What shall an agent do when not all is crystal clear?
Different types of uncertainty effecting an agent:
The state of the world?
The effect of actions?
Uncertain knowledge of the world:
Inputs missing
Limited precision in the sensors
Incorrect model: action  state due to the complexity
A changing world
Uncertainty
Let action At = leave for airport t minutes before flight
Will At get me there on time?
Problems:
1) partial observability (road state, other drivers' plans, etc.)
2) noisy sensors (traffic reports)
3) uncertainty in action outcomes (flat tire, etc.)
4) immense complexity of modeling and predicting traffic
(A1440 might reasonably be said to get me there on time but I'd have
to stay overnight in the airport ...)
Rational Decisions
A rational decision must consider:
– The relative importance of the sub-goals
– Utility theory
– The degree of belief that the sub-goals will be achieved
– Probability theory
Decision theory = probability theory + utility theory :
the agent is rational if and only if it chooses the action
that yields the highest expected utility, averaged over
all possible outcomes of the action”
Using FOL for (Medical)
Diagnosis
 p Symptom(p, Toothache)  Disease(p, Cavity)
Not correct...
 p Symptom(p, Toothache)  Disease(p, Cavity)
 Disease(p, GumDisease)  Disease(p, WisdomTooth)
Not complete...
 p Disease(p, Cavity)  Symptom(p, Toothache)
Not correct...
Handling Uncertain Knowledge
Problems using first-order logic for diagnosis:
Laziness:
Too much work to make complete rules.
Too much work to use them
Theoretical ignorance:
Complete theories are rare
Practical ignorance:
We can’t run all tests anyway
Probability can be used to summarize the laziness
and ignorance !
Probability
Compare the following:
1) First-order logic:
“The patient has a cavity”
2) Probabilistic:
“The probability that the patient has a cavity is 0.8”
1) Is either valid or not, depending on the state of the world
2) Validity depends on the agents perception history, the
evidence
Probability
Subjective or Bayesian probability:
Probabilities relate propositions to one's own state of knowledge
e.g., P(A25 | no reported accidents) = 0.06
These are not claims of some probabilistic tendency in the
current situation (but might be learned from past experience of
similar situations)
Probabilities of propositions change with new evidence:
e.g., P(A25 | no reported accidents, 5 a.m.) = 0.15
(Analogous to logical entailment status KB ╞ )
Probability
Probabilities are either:
Before any evidence is obtained
After evidence is obtained
Probability
Notation for unconditional probability for a proposition A: P(A)
Ex:
P(Cavity)=0.2 means:
“the degree of belief for “Cavity” given no extra
evidence is 0.2”
Axioms for probabilities:
1. 0  P( A) 1
2. P(True) =1, P( False) = 0
3. P( A  B) =P( A) + P( B) - P( A  B)
Probability
The axioms of probability constrain the possible
assignments of probabilities to propositions. An agent
that violates the axioms will behave irrationally in
some circumstances
Random variable
A random variable has a domain of possible values
Each value has a assigned probability between 0 and 1
The values are :
Mutually exclusive (disjoint): (only one of them are true)
Complete (there is always one that is true)
Example: The random variable Weather:
P(Weather=Sunny) = 0.7
P(Weather=Rain) = 0.2
P(Weather=Cloudy) = 0.08
P(Weather=Snow) = 0.02
Random Variable
The random variable Weather as a whole is said to have a
probability distribution which is a vector (in the discrete
case):
P(Weather) = [0.7 0.2 0.08 0.02]
(Notice the bold P which is used to denote the prob.distribution)
Random variable - Example
Example - The random variable Season:
P(Season = Spring)
= 0.26 or shorter: P(Spring)=0.26
P(Season = Summer)
= 0.20
P(Season = Autumn)
= 0.28
P(Season = Winter)
= 0.26
The random variable Season has a domain
<Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter>
and a probability distribution:
P(Season) = [0.26 0.20 0.38 0.26]
The values in the domain are :
Mutually exclusive (disjoint): (only one of them are true)
Complete (there is always one that is true)
Probability Model
Begin with a set  - the sample space
e.g., 6 possible rolls of a die.
   is a sample point/possible world/atomic event
A probability space or probability model is a sample space
with an assignment P() for every   
0  P()  1
Σ P () = 1
e.g., P(1)  P(2)  P(3)  P(4)  P(5)  P(6)  1/6.
An event A is any subset of 
P(A) = Σ{  A} P()
E.g., P(die roll < 4) = 1/6 + 1/6 + 1/6 = 1/2
The Joint Probability Distribution
Assume that an agent describing the world using the
random variables X1, X2, ..Xn.
The joint probability distribution (or ”joint”) assigns
values for all combinations of values on X1, X2, ..Xn.
Notation: P(X1, X2, ..Xn) (i.e. P bold)
The Joint Probability Distribution
Joint probability distribution for a set of r.v.s gives the probability of
every atomic event on those r.v.s (i.e., every sample point)
P(Weather,Cavity) = a 4 x 2 matrix of values:
Weather =
sunny rain
cloudy snow
Cavity = true
0.144
0.02 0.016
0.02
Cavity = false
0.576
0.08 0.064
0.08
distribution because every event is a sum of sample points
Example of ”Joint”
P(Season, Weather)
Season
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Sun
Weather
Rain
Cloud
Snow
0.07
0.03
0.10
0.06
0.26 P(Spring)
0.13
0.01
0.05
0.01
+0.20P(Summer)
0.05
0.05
0.15
0.03
+0.28P(Autumn)
0.05
0.01
0.10
0.10
+0.26P(Winter)
0.30 0.10 0.40 0.20
P(Sun)+P(Rain)+P(Cloud)+P(Snow)
= 1.00
Example: P(Weather=Sun  Season=Summer) = 0.13
Conditional Probability
The Posterior prob. (conditional prob.) after obtaining evidence:
Notation:
P( A|B ) means:
”The probability of A given that all we know is B”. Example:
P( Sunny | Summer ) = 0.65
Is defined as:
P( A  B)
P( A | B) =
P( B)
Can be rewritten as the product rule:
P(A  B) = P(A|B)P(B) = P(B|A)P(A)
”For A and B to be true,
B has to be true, and A has to be true given B”
if P(B)  0
Conditional Probability
For the entire random variables:
P( A, B) = P( B)P( A | B)
should be interpreted as a set of equations for all
possible values on the random variables A and B.
Example:
P(Weather, Season) = P( Season)P(Weather | Season)
Conditional Probability
A general version holds for whole distributions, e.g.,
P(Weather,Cavity) = P(Weather|Cavity) P(Cavity)
(View as a 4 x 2 set of equations)
Chain rule is derived by successive application of product
rule:
P(X1,...,Xn) = P(X1,...,Xn-1) P(Xn | X1,...,Xn-1)
= P(X1,...,Xn-2)P(Xn-1 | X1,...,Xn-2) P(Xn | X1,...,Xn-1)
= ...
= ni=1 P(Xi | X1,...,Xi-1)
Bayes’ Rule
The left side of the product rule is symmetric w.r.t B and A:
P( A  B) = P( A) P ( B | A)
P( A  B) = P( B) P( A | B)
Equating the two right-hand sides yields Bayes’ rule:
P( A | B) P( B)
P( B | A) =
P( A)
Bayes' Rule
Useful for assessing diagnostic probability from causal
probability:
P(Cause|Effect) =
P(Effect|Cause)P(Cause)
P(Effect)
Example of Medical Diagnosis
using Bayes’ rule
Known facts:
Meningitis causes stiff neck 50% of the time.
The probability of a patient having meningitis (M) is 1/50.000.
The probability of a patient having stiff neck (S) is 1/20.
Question:
What is the probability of meningitis given stiff neck ?
Solution:
P(S|M)=0.5
P(M) = 1/50.000
Note: posterior probability of
P(S) = 1/20
meningitis still very small!!
P(S | M) P(M) 0.5  1 / 50000
P(M | S) =
=
= 0.0002
P(S)
1 / 20
Bayes' Rule
In distribution form
P(Y|X) =
P(X|Y) P(Y) = P(X|Y) P(Y)
P(X)
Combining Evidence
Task: Compute P(Cavity|Toothache  Catch )
1. Rewrite using the definition and use the joint. With N
evidence variables, the “joint” will be an N dimensional
table. It is often impossible to compute probabilities for all
entries in the table.
2. Rewrite using Bayes’ rule. This also requires a lot of
cond.prob. to be estimated. Other methods are to prefer.
Bayes' Rule and
Conditional Independence
P(Cavity|toothache  catch)
=  P(toothache  catch|Cavity) P(Cavity)
=  P(toothache|Cavity) P(catch|Cavity) P(Cavity)
This is an example of a naive Bayes model:
P(Cause,Effect1,...,Effectn) = P(Cause) i P(Effecti|Cause)
Total number of parameters is linear in n
Summary
Probability can be used to reason about uncertainty
Uncertainty arises because of both laziness and
ignorance and it is inescapable in complex, dynamic, or
inaccessible worlds.
Probabilities summarize the agent's beliefs.
Summary
Basic probability statements include prior probabilities and
conditional probabilities over simple and complex propositions
The full joint probability distribution specifies the probability of
each complete as assignment of values to random variables. It is
usually too large to create or use in its explicit form
The axioms of probability constrain the possible assignments of
probabilities to propositions. An agent that violates the axioms will
behave irrationally in some circumstances
Summary
Bayes' rule allows unknown probabilities to be computed from
known conditional probabilities, usually in the causal direction.
With many pieces of evidence it will in general run
into the same scaling problems as does the full
joint distribution
Conditional independence brought about by direct causal
relationships in the domain might allow the full joint distribution to be
factored into smaller, conditional distributions
The naive Bayes model assumes the conditional independence of
all effect variables, given a single cause variable, and grows linearly
with the number of effects
Next!
Bayesian Network!
Chapter 14
Artificial Intelligence
Bayesian Network
Chapter 14
Introduction
Most application requires a way of handling uncertainty to be
Bayesian decision theory is a fundamental statistical approach
to the problem of complex decision making
The expert system developed in the middle of the 1970s used
probabilistic techniques
Promising results - but not sufficient because of the
exponential number of probabilities required in the full joint
distribution
Bayesian Network - Syntax
A Bayesian network (or belief network) holds certain properties:
1. A set of random variables U={A1,…,An}, where each variable has a
finite set of mutually exclusive states: Aj={a1,…, am}
2. A set of directed links or arrow connects pairs of nodes {A1
An}
3. Each node has a conditional probability table (CPT) that quantifies
the effect that the parents have on the node
4. The graph is a directed acyclic graph (DAG)
Example
Topology of network encodes conditional independence
assertions:
Weather is independent of the other variables
Toothache and Catch are conditionally independent given Cavity
Example
I'm at work, neighbor John calls to say my alarm is ringing, but
neighbor Mary doesn't call. Sometimes it is set off by minor
earthquakes. Is there a burglar?
Variables: Burglar, Earthquake, Alarm, JohnCalls, MaryCalls
Network topology reflects “causal” knowledge:
A burglar can set the alarm off
An earthquake can set the alarm off
The alarm can cause Mary to call
The alarm can cause John to call
Example
Bayesian Network - Semantics
Every Bayesian network provides a complete description of the
domain and has a joint probability distribution:
n
P( X 1 ,..., X n ) =  P( X i | Parents( X i )).
i =1
In order to construct a Bayesian network with the correct
structure for the domain, we need to choose parents for each
node such that this property holds
The parents of node Xi should contain all those nodes in
X1,…,Xi-1 that directly influence Xi
Example - Semantics
"Global" semantics defines the full joint distribution as
the product of the local conditional distributions:
e.g., P(j  m  a  b  e)
= P(j|a) P(m|a) P(a|b,e) P(b) P(e)
Bayesian Network - Complexity
Since a Bayesian network is a complete and nonredundant
representation of the domain it is often more compact than the
full joint
General property of locally structure systems
In a locally structured, each subcomponent interacts directly
with only a bounded number of other components
It is reasonable to suppose that in most domains each random
variable is directly influenced by at most k others for some
constant k
Bayesian network - Complexity
Consider Boolean variable for simplicity:
then the amount of information need to specify the CPT for a
node will be at most 2k numbers, so the complete network
can be specified by n2k numbers. The full joint contains 2n
For example, suppose we have 20 nodes (n=20) and each
node has 5 parents (k=5). Then the Bayesian network
requires 640 numbers, but the full joint will require over a
million
Bayesian network - Complexity
I.e., grows linearly with n, vs. O(2n) for the full joint
distribution
For burglary net, 1 + 1 + 4 + 2 + 2 = 10 numbers (vs. 25-1 = 31)
Example
Conditional Independence
It is important to be aware of that the links between the
variables represent a direct causal relationship
New information can be “transmitted” trough nodes in the
same and opposite directions of the links
This effects the properties of conditional dependency and
independency in Bayesian belief networks
Local Semantics
Local semantics: each node is conditionally independent
of its nondescendants given its parents
Theorem: Local semantics  global semantics
Constructing Bayesian Networks
Need a method such that a series of locally testable assertions of
conditional independence guarantees the required global semantics
Choose the set of relevant variables that describe the domain
Choose an ordering of variables X1,...,Xn
For i = 1 to n
select parents from X1,...,Xi-1 such that
P(Xi|Parents(Xi)) = P(Xi|X1,..., Xi-1)
This choice of parents guarantees the global semantics:
P(X1,...,Xn)
=
=
n
i=1
n
i=1
P(Xi | X1,..., Xi-1) (chain rule)
P(Xi|Parents(Xi))(by construction)
Learning with BN - Problems
Steps are often intermingled in practice
Judgments of conditional independence and/or cause and effect
can influence problem formulation
Assessments in probability may lead to changes in the network
structure
Learning with BN
Learning with BN
Learning with BN
Learning with BN
Inference
The basic task for any probabilistic inference system is to
compute the posterior probability distribution for a set of
query variables, given exact values for some evidence
variables
Bayesian network are flexible enough so that any node can
serve as either a query or an evidence variable
By adding the evidence we get the posterior probability
distribution our query variable will give
Inference
The task of interest is to compute: P(X|E)
Summary
Bayesian networks, a well-developed representation
for uncertain knowledge
A Bayesian network is a directed acyclic graph whose
nodes correspond to random variables; each node has a
conditional distribution for the node, given its parents
Bayesian networks provide a concise way to represent
conditional independence relationships in the domain
Summary
A Bayesian network specifies a full joint distribution;
Each joint entry is defined as the product of the
corresponding entries in the local conditional
distributions
A Bayesian network is often exponentially smaller
than the full joint distribution
Learning in Bayesian networks involves: Parametric
estimation, parametric optimization, learning structures,
parametric optimization combined with learning structures
Next Time!
Repetition!
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