Download Report


 The ethnography of communication was proposed by D.H.
Hymes in the early 1960s.
 The ethnography of communication is an approach to discourse
that is based on anthropology and linguistics. Not only does it
focus upon a wider range of communicative behaviours than the
other approaches, but built into its theory and methodology is an
intentional openness to discovery of the variety of forms and
functions available for communication, and to the way such forms
and functions are part of different ways of life.
 The goal of ethnography of communication is to study the
communicative competence of a specific speech community by
discovering and analyzing patterns of communication that
organize the use of language in particular communicative
 The ethnography of communication examines speech events
within the social context in which they occur, and in particular,
examines patterns of language use in specific groups,
communities, institutions, and societies.
 The aim of the ethnography of communication is to explore the
means of speaking available to members of a particular
community. This includes the examination of formal, informal and
ritual events within a particular group of speakers. It explores
language use in particular social and cultural settings, drawing
together both anthropological and linguistic views on
communication. This examination also includes the varieties of
language used within the community as well as the speech acts
and genres available to the members of the community.
“The ethnography of communication is not an approach that can
simply take separate results from linguistics, psychology,
sociology, ethnology, as given, and seek to correlate them”
(Hymes, 1974a: 20, fn.6). Rather, it is an approach that seeks to
open new analytical possibilities (by finding new kinds of data
and asking new questions) and to propose new theories. It seeks
to do so by analyzing patterns of communication as part of
cultural knowledge and behaviour; this entails a recognition of
both the diversity of communicative possibilities and practices,
e.g. cultural relativity and fact that such practices are an
integrated part of what we know and do as members of a
particular culture, e.g. a holistic view of human beliefs and
 The notion of speech community is the central to the
ethnography of communication. Hymes (1986) describes a
speech community as a group which share rules for the conduct
and interpretation of speech.
 Gumperz (1986) defines a speech community as a group that
has regular and frequent interaction that is characterized by
shared patterns of interaction and communication.
 As Coulthard (1985) observes, this is not always an easy task.
For example, speakers who share the same language may have
different norms for the appropriate use and interpretation of
language. A common language on its own, then, cannot be the
only way of identifying such a group.
 A number of criteria for identifying a speech community have
been suggested by researchers in this area, each of which often
interact. These includes:
1. Shared language use.
2. Frequency of interaction by a group of people.
3. Shared rules of speaking and interpretation of speech
4. Shared attitudes and values regarding language forms and
5. Shared sociocultural understanding and presuppositions with
regard to speech. (Saville-Troike)
 Hymes describes speech events often coinciding with what other
researchers might term ‘genres’. Speech events, for Hymes, are
activities that are directly governed by rules or norms for the use
of speech. (1974a:52). Hymes gives stories, conversation,
lectures and formal introductions as examples of speech events.
 In Hymes’ view speech events should be treated as analytically
independently of one another, as one speech event (for example,
a sermon) may be invoked in another speech event, or situation
for a certain effect.
 Hymes (1974:65) describes three units which can be identified to
analyze communicative activities as follows:
1. The communicative situation, the context in which the
communicative activity occurs. Typically, terms exist in the
language by which to label situation, such as: a church,
classroom, etc.
2. The communicative event, an event which has the same
components throughout, such as: the same general purpose,
setting, topic, participants, language variety, tone, and rules for
3. The communicative acts or ‘stages’ within the communicative
event. The communicative act is generally coterminous with a
single interactional function, such as: a referential statement, a
request, or a command, and may be either verbal or non verbal.
 “Hymes creates a framework which is intended to be
used to look at any naturally occurring speech to
discover the rules for speaking (modes of speaking,
topics, message forms within particular settings and
activities).” (Hymes, 1972a, b:55-57)
 Hymes uses the word SPEAKING as an acronym for
the various factors that he deems to be relevant.
The key elements [SPEAKING] are:
1. The Setting and Scene (S) of speech are important. Setting
(physical circumstances) refers to the time and place, e.g. the
concrete physical circumstances in which speech takes place.
Scene (subjective definition of an occasion) refers to the
abstract psychological setting, or the cultural definition of the
2. The participant refers to the actors in the scene and their role
relationships, including personal characteristics, such as: age,
sex, social status, and relationships. The Participant includes
various combinations of speaker-hearer, addresser-addressee,
or sender-receiver. It generally fills certain socially specified
Ends (purposes/goal/outcomes) refer to the conventionally
recognized and expected outcomes of an exchange as well as
to the personal goals that participants seek to accomplish on
particular occasion.
Act sequence (message form and content) refers to the actual
form and content of what is said: the precise words used, how
they are used and the relationship of what is said to the actual
topic at hand.
Key refers to the tone, manner, or spirit in which a particular
message is conveyed: light-hearted, serious, mocking,
sarcastic, etc. The key may also be marked nonverbally by
certain kinds of behaviour, gesture, posture, or event
Instrumentalities refer to the choice of particular channel, e.g.
oral, written, or telegraphic, and to the actual forms of speech
drawn from community repertoire, such as: the language,
dialect, code, or register that is chosen.
Norms of interaction and interpretation refer to the specific
behaviours and proprieties that attach to speaking and also to
how these may be viewed by someone who does not share
them, e.g. loudness, silence, gaze return, etc.
Genre (textual categories) refers to the clearly demarcated types
of utterance, such as: poems, proverbs, riddles, sermons,
prayers, lectures and editorials, the cultural category of talk (e.g.
insults, compliments, apologies).
What Hymes offers us in his SPEAKING formula is a very
necessary reminder that talk is complex activity, and that any
particular bit of talk is actually a piece of ‘skilled work’. To be
successful, the speaker must reveal a sensitivity to and
awareness of each of the eight factors outlined above. Speakers
and listeners must also work to see that nothing goes wrong.
When speaking does go wrong, as it sometimes does, that goingwrong is often clearly describable in terms of some neglect of
one or more of the factors. Since we acknowledge that there are
‘better’ speakers and ‘poorer’ speakers, we may also assume
that individuals vary in their ability to manage and exploit the total
array of factors. Working with an ethnographic or functional
approach, then, we may attempt to specify just what is meant to
be a competent speaker of a particular language.