An Introduction to Speech, Language and Communication difficulties.

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Transcript An Introduction to Speech, Language and Communication difficulties.

An Introduction to
Speech, Language and
IDP SLCN Network Day #1
Catherine Pass
Learning Difficulties Team
Aims for today
 To become familiar with the IDP for SLCN
 To become familiar with the processes involved
in communication.
 To have an understanding of the terminology.
 To have become familiar with classroom
strategies to support pupils with SLCN.
Inclusion Development Programme
 Quality First Teaching….not SEN!
 web-based materials, which include:
 teaching and learning resources
 training materials
 guidance on effective classroom strategies
 models of good practice
 information about sources of more specialist advice.
Activity 1
 What do these terms mean?
 Speech
 Language
 Communication
 Articulation of sound
 Co-ordination of the tongue, teeth, soft and
hard palates, abdominal muscles and breath to
produce sound.
 Speech involves language because you have
to have a thought to articulate and then be able
to construct this thought into words.
 Language is a rule governed process and incorporates
the following aspects: grammar (syntax), meaning
(semantics), use (pragmatics), vocabulary. (Link)
 Thinking
 Remembering: working memory, long term memory
 Reasoning
 Predicting
 Language without speech e.g. writing, sign language.
 Use of language and or speech to convey a message to other people.
 93% of information transmitted in conversation is done so non-verbally,
Mehrabian, 1972.
 Consider also the use of intonation (prosody) and how this changes
 Difficulties in reading non verbal communication are a key feature of ASD
and SEBD.
 Communication requires a sender and receiver.
 Receiver – needs to be able to receive it in the first place. They need to
hear, listen and understand the message and then show they have
understood it through their response.
 Sender – needs opportunities to communicate, an ability to formulate a
message in thought and to then convey the message in an appropriate
Activity 2:
The Communication Chain
Understand Ideas and
Choose words
Understand sentence structure
Understand words
(auditory memory)
Choose sentence structure
Select sounds
Co-ordinate speech
Interpret non-verbal
Articulate sounds
Look/Attend Speak
Delay versus Disorder
 Delay is when language development follows
a normal pattern of development but at a
slower rate (see stages of language
development chart in your pack).
 Disorder is where development is different in
form or function from other children.
 Children with speech and language disorder
should be referred to SALT.
A growing area of concern…
It is estimated that in some more
deprived parts of the UK up to 60% of
children start school with some form of
speech, language or communication
delay or disorder (ICAN).
Most of these difficulties are due to
language deprivation and with the right
support can be resolved…..
…..Only 10% of children have
difficulties that are persistent and long
How does this fit in with your school
Impact of SLCD on literacy
Spelling- phonological awareness;
The ability to segment sentences into words,
Words into syllables
Syllables into phonemes
Awareness of rhyme
Reading comprehension
and reading aloud
Expressive writing;
syntax and vocabulary
 “hidden disability”….studies estimate that
of children with SEBD have communication difficulties.
 In a summary of research, Stringer and Clegg (2006)
estimate that approximately “…40-60%
children with SLCD, not including those
diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders, also
experience secondary EBD.”
 Poor language skills will affect the ability to understand and
express their own emotions and those of others.
Receptive language difficulty
 Difficulties in understanding spoken language at
the level expected for their age.
 Can be difficult to identify as children become
adept at using visual and contextual cues to
support their understanding of what is being said.
 Problems arise where the complexity of the
language being used outstrips these types of
support, as the demands of the curriculum
Receptive language difficulty
 Points to look out for include:
 Difficulty following instructions
 Severe and persistent expressive language difficulties
 Attention problems, especially in large groups.
 Difficulty in answering questions.
 Behaviour problems (appears off task, inattentive).
 Misunderstanding of written language and of concepts.
Top Tips for Support (Receptive)
 Keep talk and instructions simple
 Assess level of child’s understanding and give
input at the right level; make all staff aware.
 Allow time and opportunity to respond.
 Check understanding of vocabulary; pre-teach
topic vocabulary (link).
 Reinforce vocabulary and concepts with visual
aids and real life objects/activities.
Expressive Language Difficulty
 The ability to use words and to combine words
into sentences using appropriate vocabulary,
concepts, grammatical structure and meaning.
 All of the above are dependent on the ability to
retrieve words and syntax from the memory
 Points to look out
for include Difficulty
 Withdrawn and isolated
 Difficulty establishing relationships
 Behaviour difficulties; may get easily frustrated.
 Use of gesture and empty words such as ‘thingy’ and
‘this’ or ‘that’.
 Difficulties with literacy as written language reflects
spoken language.
 Difficulties with sequencing, predicting and inferring.
Top Tips for Support (Expressive)
 Give the child time to respond and don’t let
others talk for them (adults included!).
 Model language at the appropriate level.
 Link the child with ‘good speakers’ for some
 Prompt child to continue, reinforce and expand
on their utterances.
 Create reasons to communicate.
Tips contd…
 Plan and ask open ended questions (despite the
fact that it takes time)
 If the child can’t think of a word try prompting
 Use turn taking games
 Barrier games help and can be fun
 Essential for successful relationships with
others and managing all aspects of life:
 Using language for different purposes.
 Adapting language to the listener.
 Following the rules of conversation and
narrative (topic maintenance, repairs, eyecontact ).
 Understanding non-verbal rules.
Top Tips for support (Social communication)
 Visual timetables to reinforce structure and routine.
 Make explicit the start and end of a task/activity.
 Give gentle reminders if communication breaks down.
 Provide choices and encourage them to tell you what they want.
 Use visual cues, real objects and prompts.
 Circle time, turn taking, barrier games, role/small world play.
 If necessary, explicitly teach turn taking and conversation skills..
 First Steps to Emotional Literacy by Kate Ripley and
Elspeth Simpson. EYFS and KS1; structured programme,
links to SEALs.
Word Map
A Simple Task Plan
Planning an investigation
Story frameworks
Visual time line
Venn Diagram
• Look
• Sound
• Smell
• Taste
• Feel
Attribute Web (use for story writing)
Mind map of the Victorians
Mind mapping
devised by Tony
Activity 4
 In groups of 5, write as many words as you can
about holidays on the Post-Its
 Now categorise these words as a group
the prior
a topic
to assess
Add to the mind map as different areas are
 As a whole class or individual activity
To send home so parents are aware of topic
areas and can reinforce the vocabulary
To link information learned one year with that
learned in the next
 After the topic to assess the amount of learning
which has occurred.
Bradford Schools Online
 Special Educational Needs
 Learning Support Services
 Learning Difficulties Team
 Top Ten Tips
 QFT Strategies