Tang and Song PPT

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Transcript Tang and Song PPT

AP World History
Chapter 10
The Era of the Tang and Song
Tang Dynasty
618-907 C.E.
Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.)
• Established by Chinese general
• Considered one of the greatest
dynasties of China
• Strengthened central government;
influenced by scholar-gentry
• Restored the civil service; civil
service exam strengthened
• Population in south (rice) surpassed
north (wheat & millet)
• Created a more stable economy;
paper money & flying money
• Broke up power of large land owners
- urban areas increased in size
Extensive networks of transportation
Adopted the equal-field system
Bureaucracy of merit
Recruited government officials
through civil service examinations
Career bureaucrats relied on central
government, loyal to the dynasty
Restored Confucianism as state
ideology, training for bureaucrats
Foreign relations
Tributary system became diplomatic policy
Tang decline
Casual and careless leadership led to
dynastic crisis
The Uighurs became de facto rulers (Turkic
speaking mercenaries)
The equal-field system deteriorated
A large scale peasant rebellion led by
Huang Chao lasted from 875 to 884
*Regional commanders gained power,
beyond control of the emperor
The last Tang emperor abdicated his
throne in 907
Tang Dynasty
• Extended boarder to Afghanistan.
• Continued the re-building of the Great
• Re-building of the bureaucracy.
–Aristocracy weakened
–Confucian ideology revised
–Scholar-gentry elite reestablished
–Bureau of Censors
Confucianism and Buddhism
Confucianism and Buddhism potential rivals
Buddhism had been central
Mahayana (Great Vechicle) Buddhism popular in era of
Chan (Zen) Buddhism common among elite
Early Tang support Buddhism
Empress Wu (690-705)
Endows monasteries
Tried to make Buddhism the state religion
50,000 monasteries by c. 850
Appeal of Mahayana Buddhism
to common individuals
• Faith in enlightened beings (postponed
nirvana to help others)
• Absorption of other gods and goddesses
of local faith and tradition
• Translation of sculptures into local
• Accepted religious practices not written
(oral traditions)
• “Cultural diffusion” into belief system 
The Anti-Buddhist Backlash
Confucians in administration
• Support taxation of Buddhist monasteries
Persecution under Emperor Wuzong (841-847)
• Monasteries destroyed
• Lands redistributed
Confucian emerges the central ideology
Tang Decline
755 CE, Revolts
Ineffective leaders
Frontier boarders raided
Corrupt government officials
907 CE, last Tang emperor resigns
Song Dynasty
960-1279 C.E.
Video Review
• Clip
• What accomplishments of the Song
impacted World History?
SONG DYNASTY (Politics and Military)
Song Taizu Reigned 960-976 C.E. Founder of the Song dynasty
Song weaknesses
Song never had military, (diplomatic strength of Sui & Tang
Financial problems
Enormous bureaucracy high salary devoured surplus
Forced to pay large tribute to nomads to avoid war
Military problems
Civil bureaucrats in charge of military forces
Military was largely foot soldiers at war with cavalry
External pressures
Semi-nomadic Khitan, nomadic Jurchen attacked in north.
Constant drain on treasury to pay tribute to nomads
The Song moved to the south, ruled south China until 1279
Nomads invaded, overran northern Song lands
Song retreated to the South along Yangtze, moved capital
After defeat, constantly forced to pay tribute
Song Dynasty
• Problems: Uighurs, lost control of Tibet, paid tribute to
Jurchen peoples from Manchuria
• Warfare technology: catapults w/bombs & grenades;
flame throwers and rocket launchers
• Innovations: printing with moveable type, compass,
abacus (for taxes)
• Alliance with Mongols backfired (Mongols defeated
Jurchen and overthrew Song
Song Dynasty Society
• Civil service exams emphasized
• Scholar gentry gains higher status over
• Neo-Confucianism emerges - respect for
family and authority, but Chinese elite
withdraw from society; hostility to foreign
thought prevents entry of innovations while
stressing tradition (stifles critical thinking)
• Women – status improved under
the Tang and early Song
(especially upper class), but
steadily declined during late
Song (Confucianism, NeoConfucianism marriage
alliances, foot-binding)
• Islam & Christianity spread to
• Gentry class emerges (well-todo people from education and
civil service
Primary Source
While we listen to the source
Write down details of the young girl’s
experience with foot binding
How does the event of foot binding
represent the cultural and societal outlook
on women?
How does foot binding compare with today’s
world POV on beauty, women, status, etc?
• Farming society – aristocrats
owned most of the land
• New technologies: steel,
gunpowder, porcelain,
mechanical clock, & magnetic
• Guilds (association of
merchants) formed
• Money economy instead of
• Paper money & coal (for fuel) is
• Long distance trade (Silk Road)
w/ Arabs & Romans
Industry and Technology
Technology diffused to other societies, especially to Abbasid
Exported vast quantities to southeast Asia, India, Persia, and
Improvement: used coke instead of coal in furnaces to make iron,
Bamboo "fire lances," a kind of flame thrower, and primitive
Gunpowder chemistry diffused throughout Eurasia
From block-printing to movable type
Books became widespread
Naval technology
"South-pointing needle" - the magnetic compass
Double hulled junks with rudder, water-tight compartments
A Market Economy
Merchants in Charge
Only period in China where merchants socially
superior to aristocrats
Merchants attempted to intermarry with
aristocrats, become landowners
Merchants attempted to have sons admitted as
Confucian bureaucrats
Merchants tended to espouse Confucianism as
way into traditional elites
Most large cities had large merchant
Financial instruments
Banking and credit institution
“Flying money " were letters of credit
Paper money backed by state, treasury
Market Economy Con’t
• A cosmopolitan society
– Foreign merchants in large cities of China
– Mostly Arab (Muslim), Indian, S.E. Asian
– Chinese merchants journeyed t
throughout region
• Economic surge in China
– An economic revolution (Made China the
wealthiest nation in the world at
time)Promoted economic growth in the
eastern hemisphere
Song Dynasty
Song Politics
Settling for Partial Restoration
• Scholar-gentry patronized
• Given power over military
The Revival of Confucian Thought
• Libraries established
• Old texts recovered
• Stress on personal morality
• Zhu Xi (next slide)
• Importance of philosophy in everyday life
• Hostility to foreign ideas
• Gender, class, age distinctions reinforced
Roots of Decline: Attempts at Reform
Khitan independence encourages others
Tangut, Tibet
• Xi Xia
• Song pay tribute
Wang Anshi
• Confucian scholar, chief minister
• Reforms
• Supported agricultural expansion
• Landlords, scholar-gentry taxed
Southern Song Dynasty
Jurchens defeat Liao in the North
• 1115, found Jin kingdom
• Invade China
Southern Song Dynasty
• New capital at Hangzhou
• Southern Song Dynasty (11271279)
Review of Song Dynasty
Tang and Song Prosperity:
The Basis of a Golden Age
Canal system
• Built to accommodate population shift
• Yangdi's Grand Canal
• Links North to South
Silk routes reopened
• Greater contact with Buddhist, Islamic regions
Sea trade
• Developed by late Tang, Song
• Junks
Commerce expands
• Credit
• Deposit shops
• Flying money
Urban growth
• Changan
– Tang capital
– 2 million
Tang and Song Prosperity:
The Basis of a Golden Age
Expanding Agrarian Production and Life in the Country
• New areas cultivated
• Canals help transport produce
Aristocratic estates
• Divided among peasants
• Scholar-gentry replace aristocracy
Family and Society in the Tang-Song Era
• Great continuity
• Marriage brokers
• Elite women have broader opportunities
– Empresses Wu, Wei
• Divorce widely available
The Neo-Confucian Assertion of Male
Neo-Confucians reduce role of women
• Confinement
• Men allowed great freedom
• Men favored in inheritance, divorce
• Women not educated
• Foot binding
Glorious Age Conclusion
Invention and Artistic Creativity
• Influence over neighbors
• Economy stimulated by advances in farming, finance
• Explosives
• Used by Song for armaments
• Compasses, abacus
• Bi Sheng
– Printing with moveable type
• Scholarly Refinement and Artistic Accomplishment
– Scholar-gentry key
– Change from Buddhist artists
– Secular scenes more common
• Li Bo (handout)
– Poet
– Nature a common theme in poetry, art
• Du Fu (Social injustice and suffering
of ordinary people)
Chinese influences on other
• Be aware that cultural exchanges in East Asia took place in
isolation from the rest of the world
• The major influence in this region was China
• Track the extent of Chinese influence in Korea, Vietnam and
• The upper class of all 3 regions modeled their societies after
the Chinese
• Japan unlike the other 2 never came under Chinese rule
• As a result Japan was more selective in adapting Chinese
ways to its own culture
• Vietnam adopted cultural traits from both China and India
• Korea was rule by China and had the greatest mix of Chinese
and local cultural traits
Shifting fortunes
• Korea gained independence in the early Tang
period after the collapse of the Sui
• Vietnam won independence after the fall of the
• Japan was the least affected by internal Chinese
• Japan was never part of the Chinese empire and
was able to reject Chinese influences
• The growing authority of regional warlords in
Japan led to the reduction of Chinese cultural
• The reason for this was ties to a central
government and Confucian bureaucracy
Compare the degree of sinification in
Korea , Japan and Vietnam
• Korea was the most sinified , although
Chinese influence was limited to the
aristocratic elite
• Up to the 20th century Koreans had to
accept Chinese political dominance and
pay tribute
• Korea was heavily influenced by Chinese
art, writing, Confucian bureaucracy and
commercial practices and goods
Sinification Continued
• Vietnam was in the middle
• Vietnam was under Chinese rule from Han
times to the 10th century
• A Confucian bureaucracy was established
and was dominated by the aristocracy
• Chinese agriculture and military organization
were followed
• The effect of Chinese culture separated the
Vietnamese from the more indianized people
of SE Asia
• After the 10th century , Chinese influence
More Sinification
• Japan was the least affected
• Many Chinese influence came earlyConfucian ideas and bureaucracy, script, art
• Due to Japanese political independence they
were able to select among elements of
Chinese culture
• Chinese influence declined after the Taika
reform failures and the rise of the aristocracy
• An end to centralized bureaucracy and
decline in Confucian influence went along
with the revival of indigenous culture
combining Buddhism and Shintoism
CCOT Essay
• Analyze the cultural and political
changes and continuities in the
following civilization during the last
centuries of the classical era.
• Chinese, 200BCE – 1200CE
• Essay should be five paragraphs….
• Changes paragraph stating why
• Changes paragraph stating why
• Continuities paragraph stating why
• Include Global Connection
Chinese, 200BCE – 1200CE
• Analyze the cultural and political changes
and continuities in the following civilization
during the last centuries of the classical era.
What Chinese empires are between these