Transcript Blue Border
How did early Muslims treat people with different
What were the main reasons for the split
between Sunni and Shia?
Who was Muhammad?
Decline of the Abbasids
Powerful Abbasid Empire faces many attacks
during 700s and 800s
Persians conquer Abbasid capital, Baghdad, in
The Conquering Seljuks
Turks are a nomadic group living along western
border of China led by Turkish family—the Seljuks
seizes Baghdad in 1055
In 1071 Seljuk sultans crush Byzantine Empire at
Battle of Manzikert
Seljuks take most of Anatolia; bring Turks close
The Turks Secure Persian Support
Turks seek support of Persians and embrace
Give Persians key posts, including that of vizier,
or prime minister
Adopt Persian language and religion—Islam
Malik Shah was one of the most famous Seljuk
rulers, or shahs
He and other shahs support Persian artists; build
Malik Shah Dies
1092 Malik Shah dies; no capable shah replaces
Seljuk Empire turns into group of minor kingdoms
The Seljuks and the Crusaders
Crusades begin in 1095—Christians drive Turks out
In 1099, Crusaders capture Jerusalem; massacre
Muslims and Jews
Fragment of Seljuk Empire fights back, Muslims
Captain Saladin allows Western pilgrims access to
Christian holy places
Seljuks Face the Mongols
Mongol armies under leader Hulagu capture
Baghdad in 1258
Hulagu, Genghis Kahn’s grandson, burns palace,
kills Abbasid caliph
Ends Turkish rule with much bloodshed
945 Persians move into Baghdad
10th c. Turks migrate to Abbsaid
Slejuks march on Byzantine Empire
Seljuks name Isfahan as their capital
Turks adopt Persian as language
and Persian culture
Malik Shah dies
Seljuks fight back against Crusaders
Further Crusades occur but each is
weaker than the last one
Why did the Seljuks need to seek religious
guidance from the Persian peoples they had
How did the death of Malik Shah affect the Seljuk
Do you think it was wise for the Seljuks to place
members of the conquered Persians in
government positions? Why or why not?
Nomads of the Asian Steppe
Steppe—dry grassland of Eurasia, main expanses
Central Asia to eastern Europe, and Mongolia
Steppe has little rain, dramatic seasonal
The Nomadic Way of Life
Steppe nomads are pastoralists—
Way of life teaches Asian nomads to be skilled
horse riders who travel in clans
Nomads and people living in settled communities
often interact peacefully, as in trade Sometimes
nomads raid towns and cities to seize wealth, goods
The Rise of the Mongols
1200, Genghis Khan unites Mongols
In early 1200s, begins campaign of conquest
By 1225, controls Central Asia
Genghis the Conqueror dies in 1227
The Mongol Empire
Successors continue conquests for 50 years
Conquer territory from China to Poland
In east, Mongols conquer northern China and
In west, Mongols take Kiev and threaten Vienna
In 1250s, Mongols turn their attention to Persia
By 1260, Mongol Empire split into khanates, four
The Mongols as Rulers
Mongol rulers are tolerant of other peoples,
Some Mongols adopt local ways, leading to split
The Mongol Peace
Peaceful period from mid-1200s to mid-1300s
called Pax Mongolica
Much east-west trade, exchange of ideas during
What was the primary cause of conflict between
steepe nomads and sttled communities?
How was Genghis Khan able to unite the
What traits enabled Genghis Khan to conquer
most of Asia?
Into what four khanates did the successors of
Genghis Khan divide the Mongol Empire?
How did the Mogols rule?
How did cultural differences among thd khantes
eventually affect the empire?
What was the Mongol peace?
How did the peace affect trade and cultural
Place your wager
Explain how the terms pastoralist and clan apply
to the nomads of the Asian steppe?
Who was Genghis Kahn?
Why was terror so important to Genghis Kahn?
What happened to the Mongol Empire in the
years after Genghis Khan's death?
Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis becomes
emperor in 1260
Kublai conquers China by 1279
Establishes Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368), peace,
prosperity adopts Chinese ways, capital at Beijing
In 1274 and 1281, Kublai fails to conquer Japan
Massive second invasion destroyed by typhoon
Mongol Rule in China
Mongols live apart from Chinese, separate laws
keep top government posts, Chinese in local positions
xtends Grand Canal to Beijing, builds highway
Trade increases, sending Chinese products to other
lands and invites merchants from other lands to China
Marco Polo at the Mongol Court
Venetian trader Marco Polo visits China in 1275
Polo returns to Venice in 1292; tells stories of what
he saw in China
- fabulous cities, fantastic wealth
- burning “black stones” (coal) to heat Chinese
- Kublai Khan’s government and trade in Beijing
These stories gathered into a book; most readers
doubt its truth
The End of Mongol Rule
Failed expeditions to Southeast Asia show
weakness of Yuan Dynasty
High taxes cause resentment
Yuan Dynasty Overthrown
Kublai dies in 1294; successors are weak
In 1300s, rebellions break out, leading to formation
of Ming Dynasty
Decline of the Mongol Empire
Mongol rule collapses in Persia in 1330s; in Central
Asia in 1370s
By end of 1300s, only Mongol rule in Russia
remains, the Golden Horde
Who was Kublai Khan & Marco Polo?
When did the Mongols gain control of all of
China? When did Kublai Khan rule?
Where did Kublai Khan build palaces?
Move the capital of his empire?
Why did Mongols give high gov't post to
foreigners? Why were they unable to
conquer Japan? Why is the Yuan Dynasty
important in Chinese history?
How did the Mongol rulers treat their
How did they expand trade?
What brought about the fall of the Yuan