Mongols 2 - Fulton County Schools

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Transcript Mongols 2 - Fulton County Schools

Questions to address in group
• How did the Mongols govern the regions
of their empire?
• How did the Mongols impact regions of
the empire?
• What was the nature of cultural exchange
in the empire?
• How did Mongol rule impact the future?
Positive/ Negative
• How and why did perceptions of the
Mongols vary?
The Mongols
Mongol Empire Under
Genghis (Chinggis) Khan
• Nomadic herders
• Social division
• Confederations
• Leadership - merit
How important was Genghis Khan
to the success of the Mongols?
Mongol Empire Under Chinggis
(Genghis) Khan
• Building the war machine
–Best cavalry and weapons
• Mongols Under Chinggis Khan
–Resisting cities
destroyed/cooperating cities pay
tribute/ conq. N. Chinese areas
- battle tactic – attack with cavalry,
feign retreat draw enemy into trap
• "The
greatest happiness is to
vanquish your enemies, to chase
them before you, to rob them of
their wealth, to see those dear to
them bathed in tears, to clasp to
your bosom their wives and
Life Under Mongol Imperium
• How/ why were the Mongols
successful in creating an
• What would it have been like
to live in the Empire?
Mongol Empire Under
Genghis Khan – Pax Mongolia
–Fearsome yet tolerant - religion
–Open to new ideas –
–Advisors diverse
–Law code
–Peace and commerce to Eurasia
Death of Genghis Khan (1227 CE)
–Empire divided
Mongols drive westward…
• How did the
conquer eastern
Europe &
western Asia?
Mongols Drive West –
the Golden Horde
• Kiev and Novgorod differences
• Tatars/Tartars; “from hell”
• Russia under Mongol rule
– Vassals and tribute
– Moscow prospers - tax collectors
Mongol influence on Russia –
– Military, politics and isolation from
Mongols &
• Why didn’t the Mongols
conquer the rest of Europe?
• How did the Mongols impact
the Islamic world?
• How did the adoption of Islam
impact the western Mongol
II. Mongols Drive West
• Mongol Incursions and Retreat in Eur.
–Western view of Khan –Death of Ogodei (the great Khan)
• Mongol Assault on Islam –ILKHAN Empire
–Conquered Islamic Persia
–Conquered Islamic “Abbasid” Iraq
–Defeated by Turkish Malmuks / Battle of
Ain Jalut - 1260
–Khan of Golden Horde converts to Islam
Mongols in China
• How did the Mongols impact
government and social
• How did the role/status of
Mongol women compare to
the Confucian tradition?
Mongols in China –
Yuan dynasty
• What was the impact of the
Mongols on China?
• What was the impact of
China on the Mongols?
• How did urban life evolve?
Mongols in China
Khubilai Khan defeats Song
Mongol cultural distinction by law
Refused Civil Service exams
New social order among elite:
Mongols Nomadic and Islamic
allies N. Chinese S. Chinese
Central govt positions: Top groups
Local admin: bottom groups
Yuan cont’d
• Gender Roles and Culture
–Mongol women refuse
Confucianism – no footbinding!
–Helped artisan & merchant classes;
merchants: privileges
• Cities flourish…
• Confucian scholar gentry hated it!
• But also helped the peasants
• However:
• included Confucian values and
ideals in laws
• standardized the government
• tax farming (burden to the peasants
– esp in the beginning)
• districts for the purpose of census
taking and administration/ broke
down distinctions of Tanggut, Jin &
• Increased prestige for
• Technology booms
• Silk road and maritime trade
• Created unified China
• Paper $ (again)
• Idea of elementary education
• Mongol Tolerance
–Open to new ideas and all
–Welcomed foreigners
• Muslims, Daoists, European
Christians, Persians
• Ibn Battuta & Marco Polo
Polo Bros greet Khubilai
• What was the overall
impact of the Mongols on
• Mongol impact
–40% decline of Chinese population
–Social upheavals
–Caused pop. movement to south
– poverty & infanticide
– Mandarin language
–Black Death spread throughout
empire & beyond (14th century)
– Perhaps 16 million descendants of Ghengis
• New military knowledge to
Europe and Asia
• Increased trade and cultural
• Trading empires later used for
European expansion
• But again…transmitted Black
Mongol Interlude interrupted!
• Brief Time of Timur/ Tamerlane
–Turk from noble clan (though
Mongol wannabe)
–Didn’t bring same positive
effects as Mongols
• Cultured & violent; pyramids of
• How was the Ming similar to
and different from the Yuan?
• What did the Ming
• Why did the Ming eventually
isolate themselves?
Ming Dynasty 1368-1500
• 1368- established by former soldier,
bandit, and Buddhism monk Zhu
Yangzhang  Hongwu
• organized dynasty into highly centralized
military empire
• Hongwu sought 1st to remove any
remaining Mongol influences in China
–Trade and the economic system was
–Removal of the paper money economy
• Yongle – cap back to Beijing;
• Re-instituted civil service exam – led
to many elite withdrawing from
• Ming rulers kept the Mongols in
position of interpreters and kept
many of the innovations introduced
during the Yuan Dynasty
• Agric never rose to Song level
The Forbidden city or Imperial
Palace of the Ming Emperors
Ming porcelain
Zheng He
• Ocean voyages: 1405-31.
–Chinese Treasure Junks
–Effective Muslim ambassador to Middle
–twofold mission:
–see what the outside world had to offer
and gain prestige for the Ming
–visit Chinese merchants and ensure
their alliance to the emperor
Model of Zheng He’s junk
Comparison to Columbus’s vessel
• Expense, attacks by northern
nomads and disregard for
merchants led to the end of
naval exploration
• Isolation…
• Korea & Japan begin to
eclipse China in
Developments in East Asia
• Korea – failed to defend from
Mongols (20 yr war!); became Mongol
state but was stimulated by it;
• 1392-1910 - Yi/ Joseon (Chosun)
dynasty; hangul; cotton production
• Vietnam – pd tribute; during Ming
Annam conq. & unif w/ Champa =
vietnam; kept conf. phil. but more rts
for women
• Korean
• Japan – Mongols fail to
conquer: Kamikazi; built
defenses; new shogunate;
• Zen warrior elite
• Superior steel
• Regional wars begin late 1400’s
– last ca. 100 yrs; ag. Shogun &
each other
Japanese Noh theater
Same mask/diff anglediff emotion