Spanish American War (1898)

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Transcript Spanish American War (1898)

Building a World Power
How the US Obtained It
Purchased from Russia
Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown by American planters
Puerto Rico
Gained from Spain after the Spanish American War
Gained from Spain after the Spanish American War
Gained from Spain after the Spanish American War
Panama Canal
A treaty with Panama
Virgin Islands
Purchased from the Danes (Denmark)
The Purchase of Alaska
Many Americans thought it was foolish for the US
to buy Alaska from Russia in 1867 because it was
so far away and so unknown
 It cost America $7.2 million, that’s 2 cents an acre
 They called it “Seward’s Folly” after William
Seward, the Secretary of State who bought Alaska
The Purchase of Alaska
Buying Alaska turned out to be very profitable, in
1896 gold was discovered in the Klondike region
 Resources of fish, lumber, oil, coal, and copper
poured in, many felt that we should search for new
lands across the seas
Excerpt from The Annexation of Hawaii
The United States was the biggest market for Hawaii's sugar. The
transplanted planters longed for Hawaii to become part of the United
States so they wouldn't have to worry about tariffs. The U.S. minister
to Hawaii, John L. Stevens, was anxious to annex the islands as well.
Sensing this, Queen Liliuokalani was on the verge of imposing a new
Constitution shifting power back to the monarchy - but she never got
the chance.
On Jan. 16, 1893, U.S. Marines landed in Honolulu armed with
Howitzer cannons and carbines. A group of 18 men - mostly American
sugar farmers - staged a coup, proclaiming themselves the
"provisional government" of Hawaii. Stevens gave immediate
recognition to them as Hawaii's true government.
Excerpt from The Annexation of Hawaii
Imprisoned in Iolani Palace, Queen Liliuokalani issued a statement:
"I yield to the superior force of the United States of America,
whose minister, his Excellency John L. Stevens, has caused
United States troops to be landed at Honolulu. ... Now, to avoid
any collision of armed forces and perhaps the loss of life, I do,
under this protest, and impelled by said force, yield my authority
until such time as the government of the United States shall
undo the action of its representative and reinstate me."
Excerpt from The Annexation of Hawaii
President Grover Cleveland investigated the coup and fired Stevens. He
apologized to the queen. And on Dec. 18, 1893, he briefed Congress on his
"By an act of war, committed with the participation of a diplomatic
representative of the United States and without authority of Congress,
the government of a feeble but friendly and confiding people has been
overthrown," Cleveland said. "A substantial wrong has thus been done,
which a due regard for our national character, as well as the rights of the
injured people, requires we should endeavor to repair."
Cleveland refused to approve the annexation of Hawaii. Soon, however, he
was out of office, and President William McKinley gave it his blessing.
Acquisition of Hawaii
US interest in Hawaii was because of two major
reasons: strategic location along trade routes to
Asia and fertile soil
During the 1820s, New England Protestant
missionaries travel to Hawaii
Acquisition of Hawaii
By 1870s, their descendants had become major
landowners in Hawaii
In 1866, Hawaiian King Kalakaua attempts to
restrict American influence
Acquisition of Hawaii
The Hawaiian League is formed to overthrow the
monarchy and they persuade a US annexation –
led by plantation owner Sanford Dole
1887: The Hawaiian League forces Kalakaua to
sign a new constitution that limited his power
Sanford Dole
Acquisition of Hawaii
US gets rights to use Pearl Harbor as a naval
In 1891, King Kalakaua is succeeded by his
sister, Queen Liliukalani
Acquisition of Hawaii
Queen Liliuokalani tries to encourage Hawaiian
Hawaii doesn’t get annexed until 1898, then
becomes a state in 1959 (50th State)
Spanish American War (1898)
Why America Took an Interest in a Foreign War…
oEconomics: US invested $50 million into Cuba sugar
oHumanitarian: Americans sympathized with the Cubans
revolting against Spain
oExpansionism: some recognized the opportunity to seize
land from Spain
Spanish American War (1898)
Immediate Causes Leading America to War…
o Yellow Journalism: distorted and exaggerated newspaper articles
(Examples: William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer)
o The DeLome Note: a Spanish minister wrote a note that stated,
“President McKinley is weak and a bidder for the admiration of the
o Sinking of the Maine: a US battleship that exploded in the harbor
of Havana, Cuba (it was never determined at that time if Spain
was responsible)
Spanish American War (1898)
Joseph Pulitzer
William Randolph
Spanish American War (1898)
Spanish American War (1898)
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The Splendid Little War…
o Thousands of Americans volunteered to fight in the war against
o Our Army quickly grew from 30,000 soldiers to more than
274,000; included were the Buffalo Soldiers
o Theodore Roosevelt was one of the war volunteers and led a
company of cowhands and college athletes who called
themselves the Rough Riders
Spanish American War (1898)
Rough Riders…
o A volunteer cavalry group led by Teddy Roosevelt
o Made up of cowboys, miners, actors, lawmen, socialists, etc...
o They captured San Juan Hill
Spanish American War (1898)
Spanish American War (1898)
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Buffalo Soldiers…
o All black regiment – led by Black Jack Pershing
o Developed into the most distinguished fighting units in the Army
(9th, 10th, 24th, and 25th Cavalries)
Spanish American War (1898)
Battles of the Spanish American War…
o Manila Bay, Philippines – Theodore Roosevelt sent Admiral
Dewey and the American Navy to destroy the Spanish Naval
Fleet harbored in Manila Bay and captured the entire Spanish
o San Juan Hill, Cuba – Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders
led a charge up “San Juan Hill” and defeated the Spanish
Spanish American War (1898)
Spanish American War (1898)
Spanish American War (1898)
Spanish American War Facts…
o April 25, 1898 to August 13, 1898
o Main Combatants: Spain vs. America
o American President: William McKinley
o Fought in Cuba and Philippines and Puerto Rico
o More Americans died from disease, than from Spanish battles
Spanish American War (1898)
The Results of the Spanish American War…
o The war lasted less than 4 months
o The Americans won the war
o About 5,000 died (most from disease)
o Treaty of Paris ended the war
o Cuba granted independence from Spain and Cuba must lease
Guantanamo Bay to the US for naval and coaling station
o US gets the Philippines for $20 million
o Spain gave the US…Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines
"Benevolent Assimilation" Proclamation of
President William McKinley December 21, 1898
…It will be the duty of the commander of the forces of
occupation to announce and proclaim in the most public
manner that we come not as invaders or conquerors, but
as friends, to protect the natives in their homes, in their
employment, and in their personal and religious rights.
All persons who . . . cooperate with the Government of the
United States . . . will receive the reward of its support
and protection. All others will be brought within the lawful
rule we have assumed, with firmness if need be, but
without severity, so far as may be possible…
War in the Philippines
America paid $20 million for the Philippines after the
Spanish American War
 Emilio Aguinaldo sets up provisional Philippine
government and proclaims himself President
 McKinley felt the Filipinos were unfit for self
government and the Filipinos wanted their
 1899: Filipino rebels revolted – fighting a 3 year war
against US for their independence
War in the Philippines
America had 4,324 soldiers die and 3,000 wounded
 Filipino’s had 20,000 soldiers die and about 250,000
 The war cost America $400 million
 In 1902 – American Congress passed the Philippine
Government Act which states that Philippines would be
ruled by a governor and two house legislatures
 Invaded by Japan during WW II: total independence
will not come to the Philippines until 1946
Puerto Rico
Made into a territory like Samoa and Cuba
Foraker Act: governor and upper house to be
appointed by US and low house would be elected by
Puerto Ricans
Jones Act of 1917: made Puerto Ricans, American
citizens and they can elect both houses of their own
legislature. (1 vote in America’s House of
Puerto Rico
1952: becomes a Commonwealth, but America maintains
ultimate sovereignty over the Latin American territory
Puerto Rico
What America Governs: the United States Congress
legislates over many fundamental aspects of Puerto Rican
life, including citizenship, currency, postal service, foreign
affairs, military defense, communications, labor relations,
the environment, commerce, finance, health and welfare,
and many others…Puerto Ricans CANNOT vote for the
Panama’s Revolution
Reasons for the Panama Canal:
◦ An expanded navy was needed to defend overseas colonies
◦ Quicker route to the northwest by joining the Atlantic & Pacific Ocean
Colombia refused the financial terms offered to them to
buy the area
So President Roosevelt sent word to the people of
Panama, that IF a revolution would take place against
Colombia’s rule, the US Navy would be nearby to help. It
would prevent Colombian troops from entering Panama
Panama’s Revolution
1903: Hay-Herran Treaty is drafted (99 year lease over a
six mile stretch across Panama in exchange for $10 million
and 250,000 yearly rental)
Philippine Bunau-Varilla, former chief engineer for France
asked the US to support a Panamanian Revolution
November 2, 1903: American gunboat arrives in Panama
November 4, 1903: US recognizes Panama and declare
Panama an independent nation
Panama’s Revolution
November 6, 1903: US recognize Panama and begin
negotiations and America builds the canal!
Colonel George W. Goethals completed the Panama
Canal in 1913
President Roosevelt was the first President of the US to
leave the United States while President. He visited the
Panama Canal on August 15, 1914. The canal today still
helps move people and goods all around the world
The Great White Fleet
1907: President Theodore Roosevelt sends 4 destroyers
and 16 battleships on a world cruise
 Teddy Roosevelt’s Motto – “Speak Softly and Carry a Big
Stick” meant American diplomacy should be backed by a
strong navy (the Great White Fleet) a threat of military
action only if other nations don’t meet US demands
Open Door Policy
1899 American Secretary of State John Hay issued a
series of policies stating Asian nations should share
trading rights with America
 Spheres of Influences – where a foreign nation has
exclusive rights over trade, mines and railroads
Open Door Policy
Boxer Rebellion
◦ Caused by Chinese resentment of foreigners
◦ Society of Right and Harmonious Fists (Boxers) begins the
◦ In 1900, they attacked Western missionaries and traders in
northern China, killing 300 foreigners
◦ The Boxer’s laid siege to foreign settlements in Beijing, China
◦ The 55 day rebellion ends and international forces enter China
Imperialists vs. Anti-Imperialists
After the Spanish American War it was greatly
debated if we should ratify the Treaty of Paris. Those
for it were called the Imperialists and those against it
were Anti-Imperialists.
The Supreme Court in 1901 ruled “Annexed people
don’t automatically have the rights of US citizens.”
The United States needs colonies to
compete economically.
Supporting an empire would be a
financial burden.
It is Americas’ destiny to expand and
its duty to care for the weak and poor.
The U.S. should concentrate its energies
on solving our problems at home
It’s only honorable to keep land that
Americans lost their lives for.
Nonwhite people can’t be assimilated
into American society.
To Abandon those territories makes the
U.S. appear cowardly before the world.
To be a true World Power, the U.S.
needs colonies and Naval bases.
It’s a violation of democratic principles
not offering its people the same rights as
those of American citizens.
Being a World Power would
involve the U.S in more wars.