US History II - Andrewshistoryportal

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Transcript US History II - Andrewshistoryportal

USII.5: Late 19th Century to
World War I
Lisa Pennington
Social Studies Instructional Specialist
Portsmouth Public Schools
• Yellow journalism: publishing of
exaggerated and/or made up news stories
to attract readers and influence their ideas.
• Imperialism: practice of establishing and
controlling colonies.
• Dollar Diplomacy: U.S. policy in the early
1900’s of investing money in Latin
American countries in the hopes that more
stable governments would develop.
• Gunboat Diplomacy: policy of making a
show of force to prevent both Latin
American instability and European
interference in the Western Hemisphere.
The Spanish American War
• The United States
emerged as a world
power as a result of
victory over Spain in
the Spanish American
The Spanish American War
• Economic interests
and public opinion
often influence U.S.
involvement in
international affairs.
Reasons for the Spanish American
• Protection of
American business
interests in Cuba.
• What kinds of
businesses was the
U.S. trying to protect?
• (coffee and sugar)
Reasons for the Spanish American
• American support of
Cuban rebels to gain
independence from
• Why do you think
Americans supported
the Cuban rebels?
Reasons for the Spanish American
• Rising tensions as a
result of the sinking of
the U.S.S. Maine in
Havana Harbor.
. . . FEB. 15 . .."
16 February 1898, State Journal
Reasons for the Spanish American
• Exaggerated news
reports of events
(yellow journalism)
Results of the Spanish American
• The United States
emerged as a world
• How did the United
States emerge as a
world power? Who
did they defeat?
Results of the Spanish American
• Cuba gained
independence from
Results of the Spanish American
• The United States
gained possession of
the Philippines,
Guam, and Puerto
Results of the Spanish American
Results of the Spanish American War
Puerto Rico
• Roosevelt Corollary: policy that extended the
Monroe Doctrine and said the U.S. had the
right to force countries in the Western
Hemisphere to pay their debts in order to
prevent European interference.
• Rough Riders: a group of cowhands, college
students, and African American soldiers who
fought with Teddy Roosevelt in the Spanish
American War, who charged San Juan Hill.
• Big Stick Diplomacy: Teddy Roosevelt’s
belief that if you show that you are strong,
no one will pick on you. “Big Stick”
equaled a big navy.
• Monroe Doctrine: President Monroe’s
U.S. policy that no future European
colonization could take place in North or
South America.
The Roosevelt Corollary to the
Monroe Doctrine
• Asserted the United
States right to
interfere in economic
matters of nations in
the Americas.
• Claimed the United
States right to
exercise international
police power.
The Roosevelt Corollary to the
Monroe Doctrine
• Advocated Big Stick
Diplomacy (building
the Panama Canal)
• How is the Roosevelt
Corollary an example
of the United States’
new position as a
world power?
• Nationalism: feelings of loyalty and pride people
have for their country.
• Alliance: group of countries that share
allegiance to each other through treaties.
• Imperialism: nations built colonies in varied
areas of the world which created resentment in
other nations.
• Lusitania: British passenger ship sunk by
German u-boats in 1915. Americans were
among the 1,200 who died.
• Balance of power: groups of countries
that have equal power.
• U-boats: German submarines.
• Zimmerman note: document that showed
that Germany was trying to make an
alliance with Mexico in 1917.
• Sussex Pledge: promise by Germany
during WWI not to sink passenger or
merchant ships.
• Treaty of Versailles: 1919; ended WWI.
• League of Nations: peace keeping plan
developed by Woodrow Wilson in 1920. It
was point 14 of the 1918 Fourteen Points
speech to Congress. It consisted of a
General Assembly of representatives of
countries who were required to protect one
another’s territories against attack.
• Isolationism: the U.S. should not become
involved in foreign affairs, nor should the U.S.
allow other countries to become involved in
our affairs.
• Self-determination: people should decide for
themselves what nation they belong to.
• Reparations: money paid by defeated
nations as payment for wrongs, damages, or
injuries suffered by other nations during a
U.S. Involvement in World War I
• The United States involvement in World
War I ended a long tradition of avoiding
involvement in European conflicts and set
the stage for the United States to emerge
as a global superpower later in the 20th
• There were disagreements about the
extent to which the United States should
isolate/separate itself from world affairs.
Reasons for U.S. involvement in
• Inability to remain
neutral. (1917)
• German submarine
warfare: the sinking
of the Lusitania.
• U.S. political and
economic ties to
Great Britain.
Reasons for U.S. Involvement in
• The Zimmerman
• This document showed
that Germany was trying
to make an alliance with
Mexico in 1917.
• Why was the telegram a
threat to the U.S.? How
is that threat depicted in
the cartoon?
Major Allied Powers
• Great Britain
Major Allied Powers
• France
Major Allied Powers
• Russia
Major Allied Powers
• Serbia
Major Allied Powers
• Belgium
Central Powers
• Germany
Central Powers
• Austria-Hungary
Central Powers
• Bulgaria
Central Powers
• Ottoman Empire
Allied Powers vs. Central Powers
U.S. Leadership as the War Ended
• At the end of World War I,
President Woodrow
Wilson prepared a peace
plan known as the
Fourteen Points that
called for the formation of
the League of Nations, a
U.S. Leadership as the War Ended
• The United States
decided not to join the
League of Nations.
• Why did the U.S.
decide not to join the
League of Nations?
Who did join? Is it
really a peacekeeping
organization if not all
nations have joined? The opening session of the League of Nations.