Tribal or unity Diverge or Converge

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Transcript Tribal or unity Diverge or Converge

Tribal or unity
Diverge or Converge
Barbie vs. Sara & Dara
Four Imperatives
Market imperative
A resource imperative
An information-technology imperative
Ecological imperative
Is this a victory over nationalism?
Jihad or Lebanonization of the World
• Subnational factions in permanent rebellion
against uniformity and integration
• Redraw boundaries
• War an instrument of policy but “rather as an
emblem of identity, an expression of
community, an end to itself”
(Barber, Jihad vs. McWorld)
• Hyperdisentegrataion
of former Soviet Union
Soviets post Stalin
Break up of USSR
Haves and Have Nots
Impact - Extremism
• Global Terrorism
– Terrorism is the sustained, clandestine use of violence,
including murder, kidnaping, hijacking, and bombing, to
achieve a political purpose. Definitions in the U.S.
intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1979 stress the use
of violence to coerce or intimidate the civilian population
with a view to affecting government policy. Used now as
a generic term for all kinds of political violence, especially
as manifested in revolutionary and guerrilla warfare.
• Characteristics:
– Spectacular horror effects in order to attract media
International dimension--the ability of terrorists to move
across national frontiers, attract international media
attention, and involve different international factions.
Oklahoma City Bombing
Black September and the 1972 Olympics
Iranian Seizure of the US Embassy in 1979
Gassing of commuters in Japan in 1995 by
Aum Shrinrikyo
Bombing of army Hqs in Lebanon
Entebbe Hijacking
World Trade Center Bombing
Bombing of Pan Am flight 103 in 1987
Assassination of Yitsak Rabin
Terrorist Acts
• Irish Republican Army (IRA) "Bloody Friday" bombing attacks in
Belfast, Northern Ireland (1972)
• Japanese Red Army and Popular Front for the Liberation of
Palestine (PFLP) attacks at Lod Airport, Israel (1972)
• Red Army Faction's (RAF) Baader-Meinhof Gang kidnapping of
Hanns-Martin Schleyer in West Germany (1977)
• Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski's starts a serial bombing
campaign in the United States (1978)
• Red Brigades' kidnapping of Aldo Morro in Italy (1978)
• Libyan intelligence officers' bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over
Lockerbie, Scotland (1988)
• Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam's suicide bombing of former
Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in India (1991)
• Aum Shinrikyo's ("Supreme Truth") releasing of Sarin nerve gas
in a Tokyo, Japan subway (1995)
• Timothy McVeigh's bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal
Building in Oklahoma City, United States (1995)
Groups in Europe:
Groups in Middle East: (all very closely related)
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
Sinn - Fein
Baader-Meinhoff Gang
Red Army Faction
Red Brigades (Italy)
Basque Terrorists Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)( now government of Palestine)
Black September
Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)
Carlos the Jackal(Org. of Armed Arab Struggle)
Abu Nadal
Groups in North America:
RTBA (right to bear arms) military factions in the United States
Front for the Liberation of Quebec
Freemen in the United States
FALN (Puerto Rican) Terrorists Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front
Groups in Asia and Russia:
Japanese Red Army
Sikh Moslem Terrorists (India)
Chechna Guerrilla Front
Moluccan Freedom Fighters
Intolerance and unwilling to compromise or
coexist with others
• Fundamentalism is a reaction to modernism
– Reactionary
– Changing institutions
– Usually not inclusive but exclusionary
• Either isolate themselves or conquer and force
themselves on others
• Ethnic and religious extremism
• Fundamentalism
– Jewish hasidic
– Taliban
– Some LDS who broke away in early 1900s FLDS
• Nationalistic and Religious intolerance
– Tribalism
Initial Phase – Post World War II
“Economic Miracle”
• Germany (also Japan)
– Unprecedented economic growth in European
– Result of Marshall Plan and Japanese model
• High rate of investment by Japanese and increased
education by Europeans and Japanese
– Europe entered period of rapid economic progress
lasting into late 1960s.
– By 1963, western Europe produced more than 2.5X
more than before the war.
• Decolonization
Schuman Plan
• 1950 created the European Coal and Steel Community
• Put forth by French statesman Jean Monnet and Foreign
Minister Robert Schuman.
• Special international organization to control & integrate
European steel and coal production.
• West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, & Luxembourg
accepted in 1952; Britain refused to enter
• Immediate economic goal: a single competitive market w/o
national tariffs or quotas.
• "The Six": By 1958 coal and steel moved freely among six
nations of the European Coal and Steel Community
• Far-reaching political goal: bind six member nations so
closely together economically that war among them would
become unthinkable and virtually impossible.
European Economic Community (EEC)
• Treaty of Rome, 1957
• Created European Economic Community (EEC) or the
Common Market
• Signed by same six nations in the Schuman Plan – “the Six”
• First goal of treaty: Gradual reduction of all tariffs among the
Six in order to create a single market almost as large as the
• Other goals:
– Free movement of capital and labor.
– Common economic policies and institutions.
– Tariffs were rapidly reduced and regions specialized in what they did
– EEC encouraged hopes of political and economic union.
• Union frustrated in 1960s by resurgence of more traditional
• Euratom (European Atomic Energy Agency) also created by
• Communist states responded by forming their own economic
Four Tigers
Brazil, Russia, India, China
Estimated Human Population
Over the Past two Millennia
(Cohen 1995)
WWII and beyond
• WWII forces changes in gender roles
• 1950s backlash against this
• Gradual rise of feminist movement in 1960s
and 70s
• Growth of female employment, and female
• Patchy development, USA seen as forefront
of gender battles, Latin America more
backwards, but still developing
The Permissive Society
• The 1920’s introduced drugs, hardcore pornography, and a new
sexual freedom to the world.
• The “sexual revolution” took place in the 1960’s in Sweden and
the rest of the world soon followed. The introduction of the pill,
which gave way to freedom in sexual behavior.
• Sexual explicit movies, books, and plays broke new ground in
the treatment of once hidden subjects. Cities like Amsterdam
allowed prostitution and the open sale of hardcore porn which
attracted thousands of tourists.
• Divorce rates rose dramatically, especially in the 1960’s. Preand extramarital sexual experiences also rose substantially.
• The introduction of Playboy magazine confirmed the message
the public sent to adult males, which was they were supposed
to seek sexual gratification outside of marriage.
• The 1960’s was also the emergence of a drug culture. Although
marijuana was the most widely used drug of the time, LSD was
very present at the time. Timothy Leary had done research on
the drug and became the high priest of hallucinogenic
Glass Ceiling
Support staff
(Majority women)
Glass Walls
Glass Ceiling
Glass walls
Support staff
(majority women)