You must understand the similarities and differences between electric fields and field lines,
and magnetic fields and field lines.
Magnetic Force on Moving Charged Particles.
You must be able to calculate the magnetic force on moving charged particles.
Magnetic Flux and Gauss’ Law for Magnetism.
You must be able to calculate magnetic flux and recognize the consequences of Gauss’ Law
Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field.
You must be able to calculate the trajectory and energy of a charged particle moving in a
uniform magnetic field.
Magnetic Flux and Gauss’ Law for Magnetism
We have used magnetic field lines to visualize magnetic fields
and indicate their strength.
We are now going to count the
number of magnetic field lines passing
through a surface, and use this count
to determine the magnetic field.
The magnetic flux passing through a surface is the number of
magnetic field lines that pass through it.
Because magnetic field lines are
drawn arbitrarily, we quantify
magnetic flux like this: M=BA.
If the surface is tilted, fewer lines cut
If these slides look familiar, refer back to lecture 4!
We define A to be a vector having a
magnitude equal to the area of the
surface, in a direction normal to the
The “amount of surface” perpendicular
to the magnetic field is A cos .
Because A is perpendicular to the surface, the amount of A
parallel to the magnetic field is A cos .
A = A cos so M = BA = BA cos .
Remember the dot product from Physics 1135? M B A
If the magnetic field is not uniform, or the surface is not flat…
divide the surface into
elements and add the
flux through each…
M B dA
your starting equation
sheet has B B dA
if possible, use
M B A BAcos
If the surface is closed (completely encloses a volume)…
…we count lines going out
as positive and lines going
in as negative…
a surface integral, therefore a
But there are no magnetic monopoles in nature (jury is still out
on 2009 experiments, but lack of recent developments suggests
nothing to see). If there were more flux lines going out of than
into the volume, there would be a magnetic monopole inside.
B dA 0
Gauss’ Law for Magnetism!
This law may require modification if the existence of
magnetic monopoles is confirmed.
Gauss’ Law for magnetism is not very useful in this course. The
concept of magnetic flux is extremely useful, and will be used
You have now learned Gauss’s Law for both electricity and
E dA o
B dA 0
These equations can also be written in differential form:
Congratulations! You are ½ of the way to being qualified to wear…
The Missouri S&T Society of Physics Student T-Shirt!
This will not be tested on the exam.