Chapter 2 Judaism

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Transcript Chapter 2 Judaism

Exploring the Religions
of Our World
Chapter 2: Judaism
Chapter 2: Judaism
A Living Religion
1. Judaism is the religion practiced by Jesus when he was
living on earth; Jews not responsible for his death.
2. Judaism is the religion of the Hebrew Bible and a religion
still longing for God’s chosen one but not essence of Judaism
3. Personal & communal prayer, Torah study, & lived
holiness rather than abstract doctrine, one God, the nation &
people of Israel, sacred places & times
4. Being a Jew has both an ethnic & a religious connotation.
5. A religious Jew practices Judaism; an ethnic Jew may or
may not practice Judaism; worldwide; focus on religious
6. Mark Twain’s description in 1899 Harper’s Magazine
Modern Period 1783 CE- present
Medieval Period
638 CE - 1783 CE
Rabbinic Period
323 BCE – 625 CE
Biblical Period
1800 BCE – 323 BCE
Chapter 2, Section 1: A Brief History of Judaism
Periods of Jewish History
Chapter 2, Section 1: A Brief History of Judaism
 Thousands of years of twisting history beginning with Moses & Abraham
 Minority group from the Sinai desert; vast contribution to Western culture
Biblical Period (1800 BCE – 323 BCE)
 Abraham to death of Alexander the Great
 Faith and obedience of Abraham to leave Ur, Mesopotamia with Sarah
 Settled in Fertile Crescent & 3 promises fulfilled (land = Canaan, people =
Isaac to habiru to Hebrews, blessing = later with Law and Covenants)
 Nomadic and foreign controlled to agricultural to Egyptian slaves to
covenantal people under Moses and Joshua believing in one God
 After 400 years necessary to reconquer Promised Land
 Confederation of tribes to kingdom under Saul, David, & Solomon
 Jerusalem with Temple by Solomon became a political & religious center
 Oral tradition began to be written down as Torah = law or instruction
 Power and comfort led to secularism so God sent prophets like Samuel &
Nathan to call back to covenant & monotheism away from idolatry
 Kingdom divided; conquered—North 722 Assyrians; South 586 Babylonians
 Exile purified culture & religion; Cyrus allows Jews to return; Torah
completed, Temple rebuilt, & Wisdom literature emerges
Chapter 2, Section 1: A Brief History of Judaism
Rabbinic Period (323 BCE – 625 CE)
Classical Judaism--Death of Alexander to Muslim conquest of Jerusalem
Foreign occupation & conquest led to Diaspora = Jews not in Judea
Greek Antiochus IV seized Temple & banned Judaism
Maccabean revolt in 168 regained Temple in 165 BCE
Hellenization led to synagogues & schools under Philo of Alexandria
Synthesis of Greek philosophy & Jewish theology—septuagint = 70
Sectarianism—Sadducees (Zadok, strict), Pharisees (loose, resurrection,
angels, & miracles), & Essenes (monastic, scrupulous, Qumran, Dead Sea S.)
 Romans conquered Greeks in 63 BCE and Temple in 70 CE
 Sectarianism disappeared in ebb of rabbis—spiritual leasders of Judaism today
 Shammai & Hillel most prominent among dozens & interpretations
The Golden Rule—“Whatever is hateful to you do not do to your neighbor.”
Babylonian and Jerusalem/Palestinian Talmud—200 CE
Growing tension between Jews & Jewish Christians aggravated by Gentiles
led to separation by 150 CE to protect Jewish religion & culture
Chapter 2, Section 1:
A Brief History of Judaism
Rabbinic Period cont. (323 BCE – 625 CE)
 Hadrian put down Simon bar Kociba’s (“Kochba” & “son of the star”)
revolution in 130 CE, built shrine to Jupiter, renamed Palestine & banned Jews
 Hybrid Jews of the Diaspora were protected by Roman Empire & attracted
converts due to moral code & monotheism as did Christians
 Empire declined & Diocletian split at end of 3rd century CE
 Constantine reconquered & legalized Christianity due to vision of cross
 Judaism declined in the Empire but not before allowing Christianity to spread
through their network of synagogues
 As Empire totally fell in the West, Christianity was strong enough to form
alliances with barbarian “states” that were emerging—spiritual & temporal pope
Chapter 2, Section 1: A Brief History of Judaism
Medieval Period (638 – 1783 CE)
Diaspora spread further away from Palestine
Resurgence of learning—commentaries of Shlomo ben Itsak “Rashi” French Jew
Moses Maimonides attempted to reconcile philosophy & Jewish theology
“No contradiction between Aristotle and Jewish religion”
Jews were persecuted as another monotheistic religion Islam surfaced
• Paid taxes for protection but free to worship & rule self as second class
Jerusalem captured and Dome of the Rock built over Holy of Holies
Babylonian Jews flourished under Persian rule & exploded when Muslims moved
capital from Damascus to Baghdad & reintroduced Greek culture—G to A to L
Jewish merchant class arose with Muslim trade expansion as mediators
First time Jews expand out of the Middle East—Spanish center, Sephardim
Muslim Berbers oust including Moses ben Maimon or Maimonides (RAMBAM)
Persecution continued with Fr. & Ger. Crusaders—clothing, houses, & land
Jews became moneylenders as trade system moved from barter to cash
Chapter 2, Section 1: A Brief History of Judaism
Medieval Period (638 – 1783 CE)
Pogroms in 13th century England spurred immigration to Poland under Boleslav
Security ended in the 17th century—Ashkenazim & Yiddish
Persecution spread to France, Germany, & Austria in 14th century—black death
Spread back to Spain in 15th century in the Spanish Inquisition & Reconquesta
under Ferdinand & Isabella—conversos = false killed & never expelled in 1492
Disappeared from Spain where flourished in the 8th-12th centuries
*Fled to Portugal, Italy, Netherlands, & Turkey (flourished under expansion of
the Islamic Ottoman Empire)
Protestant Reformation was no kinder—Martin Luther’s Concerning the Jews
and Their Lies advocated the destruction of everything Jewish
Medieval Jews left materially and religiously poor on the margin of society
17th century Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer “Master of the Good Name” emphasized the
presence of God in all aspects of Jewish life
Message spread into 18th century Polish movement of Hasidism = pious found
today in Orthodox Judaism—devotion to God is as important as Torah study
Chapter 2, Section 1: A Brief History of Judaism
Modern Judaism (1783 CE -- Present)
Age of Enlightenment led to Jewish philosophy of enlightenment
Czarist Russia under Alexander III “May Laws” & The Protocols of the
Learned Elders of Zion; led to immigration
Reform Judaism – advocates full integration into the culture where one
lives; Germany and late U.S.
Conservative Judaism – counteracts reformed Judaism, modifying Jewish
traditions in a limited manner; U.S.
Orthodox Judaism – the most traditional wing, insists its members strictly
follow the Torah
Reconstructionist Judaism – advocates Judaism as a culture, not only a
religion; God not omnipotent and Torah not inspired
Zionism – 19th century movement to restore Jewish homeland in
Palestine; Holocaust catalyzed; 1948 State of Israel by UN
*Six Day War 1967 captured Jerusalem & opened holy sites to all; tension
continues to this day
You Tube Videos: Judaism
The Promised Land
of the Jews
Overview of
Chapter 2, Section 1 Review Questions
What did the Hebrews become in the 40 years it
took to return to Canaan from Egypt?
After the death of Solomon, why did the kingdom
become more vulnerable to outside attacks?
What is the diaspora?
According to Rabbi Hillel, what is the summation of
the Torah?
Who is Moses Maimonides, & what did he argue for?
Define Hasidism
Name the four types of Judaism in the Modern era.
Chapter 2, Section 2: Sacred Stories & Scriptures
 Several sources of Sacred Jewish writing centers around the Torah or first 5
books of the Hebrew bible; not just theoretical but practical & concrete
 Bible central to Jewish life; Hebrew Bible = Christian Old Testament
Tanakh (acronym)
 Torah—law in Gn., Ex., Lv., Nm., & Dt.; most important; Five Books of
Moses (author); source of 613 laws (248+ & 365 -); not all livable;
handwritten artistic scrolls; 1 year cycle beginning after Sukkot
 Nevi’im--prophets
 Ketuvim--writings
 Oral Torah = explanation & interpretation of Written Torah
• Written, codified, & arranged near 200 CE by Yehudad Ha Nasi (Judah the Prince)
• Mishnah = teaching
• 6 Sections—agriculture & land; holidays; family life; relations with others;
sacrifices & dietary laws; ritual purity
Chapter 2, Section 2: Sacred Stories & Scriptures cont.
 In the wake of the destruction of the second Temple in 70 CE two centers of
rabbinic Judaism emerged—Judea outside Jerusalem (refugees) & Babylonia
(ancestors of exiled Israelites)
 Commentaries & discussions known as learnings from reading & studying the
Tanakh, especially the Torah, & Mishnah
 Two versions arose—Palestinian or Jerusalem & Babylonian (more authoritative)
Midrash (key word)
 Means to examine or seek out
 A way of interpreting the Tanakh
• Uses imagination & story to see how far the text will go like hist. fiction
 Found in the Talmud but not a particular book
 Makes use of various literary genres as a literary genre itself
 Assumes that the Scriptures provide answers for every question & situation
 Not unique to Judaism—Ben Hur
Chapter 2, Section 2: Sacred Stories & Scriptures cont.
Sacred writings
First five books
The Hebrew Bible
Chapter 2, Section 2: Sacred
Stories & Scriptures cont.
Other sacred writings
Chapter 2, Section 2 Review Questions
What are the three divisions of the Tanakh?
What is the difference between the Oral Torah & the
Written Torah?
What is Midrash?
You Tube Videos: Judaism
The Hebrew Bible
Jewish Scriptures
Chapter 2, Section 3: Beliefs & Practices
 Summary = “God gave the Torah to Israel” (people w/ a purpose not an area)
Sh’ma (daily)—“Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One” (Dt. 6: 4)
Monotheistic, Exists, One, Creator, Good, Supreme
No formal doctrines that articulate beliefs
Desires goodness from his creation (Dt. 10: 12-13)
• Fear, walk ways, love, serve all heart & soul, keep commands & decrees
God’s self revelation that provides central source for living
Most sacred of objects—formality/reverence/exord. & intimacy/familiarity/ord.
Ark, prayers b4/after, procession, reverence by touch, kiss, or dance, joyous
Law or teaching that penetrates all aspects of life—encounter with God & will
Not sterile or intellectual but spiritual exercise
Chapter 2, Section 3: Beliefs & Practices cont.
Torah (cont.)
Keep Torah to keep law/commandments of God = relationship
613 words of Decalogue for 613 commandments not 10 = mitzvot
Guide for happiness & freedom not bondage
History = interpretation & application of mitzvot to new situations = halakhah
God’s Chosen People in the sense of holy and separate
Originate with Abram—Abraham (Gn. 12) leaving fatherland of Ur
Faith in one God gifted with progeny, land, & blessing/curse for own & others
Privilege—covenant = solemn binding agreement between God & man
Responsibility—active not passive choice to accept God & his
commandments, to live lives of holiness, that are examples to humanity
 Passed down among generations—traditionally by blood
 Traditional Judaism = observe commandments & halakhic obligations
Chapter 2, Section 3: Beliefs & Practices cont.
“Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God,
the Lord is One”
(Deuteronomy 6:4)
Chapter 2, Section 3: Beliefs & Practices cont.
God gave Moses Two
 Oral
 Written
Judaism can be summed
up in three words:
 God Torah, Israel
Chapter 2, Section 3: Beliefs & Practices cont.
God’s covenant with Israel:
“The Chosen People”
“I have given you as a covenant to the people,
a light to the nations”
(Isaiah 42:6)
You Tube Videos: Judaism
Beliefs & Practices
Chapter 2, Section 3 Review Questions
What do Jews believe about God?
What do Jews understand the Torah to be?
How are both reverence & familiarity operational
with the Torah?
When did the call to be a Chosen People originate
with the Jews?
What does it mean to say that Jews are God’s
Chosen People?
Chapter 2 Judaism
Sacred Times
Annual Feasts:
Rosh Hashanah - Jewish New Year, feast of Trumpets
Yom Kippur – Day of Atonement (10 days after Rosh
Hashanah )
Pesach – Passover (God’s saving Hebrews)
Sukkot – Feast of Tabernacles/Booths (Desert times)
Shavuot – Harvest festival / Moses’ reception of Torah
Hanukkah – Festival of Lights (menorah)
Purim – Feast of Lots
Chapter 2 Judaism
Sacred Times (continued)
Shabbat – the Jewish Sabbath
• Weekly event
• Begins Sunset Friday through sunset Saturday
• Obedience to fourth commandment
• Jews rest on the seventh day, as God did
• Shabbat dinner – Friday evening
• Celebrated as a family with Ritual Prayers,
candles, wine, bread (at home more than the
Chapter 2 Judaism
Sacred Places and Sacred Spaces
Temple is associated with ritual sacrifices
Temple was destroyed in 70 CE
House of prayer
House of study
House of assembly
Sabbath and
Passover Prayer
Chapter 2 Judaism
Sacred Places and Sacred Spaces (continued)
At Passover, Jews pray, “Next year in Jerusalem”
Land of Israel (AKA:)
• Israel
• Canaan
• Promised Land
• Judea
• Palestine
• State of Israel
Jerusalem (AKA:)
• Holiest city
• City of David
• Temple
• Holy city for: Judaism,
Christianity, Islam
Chapter 2 Judaism
Judaism through a Catholic Lens
Chapter 2 Judaism
Judaism through a Catholic Lens (continued)
Still awaits a Messiah or
messianic age to come
Messiah would be a
human (not God)
warrior-king, political
figure from the House
of David
Jesus was the Messiah
Jesus is God
Jesus will return at the
2nd coming
Chapter 2 Judaism
Judaism through a Catholic Lens (continued)
Jewish influences in Catholicism
The Hebrew Bible
Passover meal
Old Testament
The Lord’s Supper
Holy Thursday
Chapter 2 Judaism - Vocabulary
Holy of Holies
Yom Kippur
Rosh Hashanah
Chapter 2 Judaism - Vocabulary
Torah – 1st five books of the Bible, Pentateuch,
Idolatry – giving worship to something other than God
Diaspora – Jews living outside Judea (Holy Land)
Hellenization – The adoption of Greek ways and speech
Septuagint – “70” translators of Jewish scriptures to Greek
Sadducees – Jewish leaders who strictly interpreted Torah
Pharisees – Loose interpretation of Torah (resurrection)
Essenes – Monastic Jews responsible for Dead Sea scrolls
Rabbi – My Teacher religious leader who teaches and judges
Talmud – Books of commentaries on the interpretation of Torah
Monotheistic – A belief on one God
Shoah – Hebrew for “calamity”, refers to holocaust in WWII
Chapter 2 Judaism - Vocabulary
Pogrom – the massacre and expulsion of a minority
Yiddish – a language developed from German and Hebrew
Hasidism – Meaning pious, founded by devout Polish Jews, called
Orthodox Jews today
Zionism – the movement which sought the creation of a Jewish
home state (now Israel)
Tanakh - The Hebrew word for the Jewish bible
Mitzvot – A commandment of the Jewish law
Mishnah – the oral Torah or teaching
Midrash – Biblical interpretation typically found in the Talmud's,
which can provide answers for every situation in life
Sh’ma – “Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One” Dt 6:4
Chapter 2 Judaism - Vocabulary
Covenant – a binding, solemn agreement or sacred promise
between God and His people
Shabbat – The Sabbath, begins at sunset on Friday
Pesach – Passover, an annual meal celebrating the Exodus
Yom Kippur - Day of Atonement, the holiest day of the year
Mezuzah – the parchment of Sh’ma in the right doorpost
Kosher – Hebrew for proper, refers to permitted dietary laws
Rosh Hashanah – Jewish New Year
Holy of Holies – The sanctuary inside the tabernacle in the
Temple of Jerusalem
Conversos – the Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity at
the time of the Spanish Inquisition