Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

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Transcript Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

Mood Disorders
(aka – Affective Disorders)
**Now divided into “Bipolar and Related Disorders” and
“Depressive Disorders” in DSM-5**
Mr. Koch
AP Psychology
Forest Lake High School
Depressive Disorders
• Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
• Major Depressive Disorder, Single and
Recurrent Episodes
• Persistent Depressive Disorder
• Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
• Substance/Medication-Induced
Depressive Disorder
• Depressive Disorder Due to Another
Medical Condition
• Other Specified Depressive Disorder
• Unspecified Depressive Disorder
Major Depression
• Disorder where person feels sad,
overwhelmed, hopeless for weeks or
• Typically lose interest in activities &
relationships and take pleasure in nothing
• Despite best efforts, everything from
conversation to bathing is an unbearable,
exhausting effort
• Often exaggerated feelings of inadequacy,
worthlessness, hopelessness, or guilt
– Can begin suddenly or gradually
– Single episode or repeated
• “Common cold” of all disorders
• 9.5% of pop. in any given year
• 1 in 5 over lifetime
• Young adults & women most susceptible
Major Depression
• To be diagnosed, must experience 5 of
following (usually for >2wks):
Persistent depressed mood most of the day
Loss of interest or pleasure in most activities
Significant weight loss or gain
Sleep changes
Speeding up or slowing down of physical &
emotional reactions
Loss of energy
Feelings of worthlessness, guilt
Reduced concentration, inability to make
meaningful decisions
Recurring thoughts of death/suicide
• (depression a factor in 40-70% of suicides)
Related Disorders
• Persistent Depressive Disorder
– Sad mood, lack of interest, loss of
pleasure like Major Depression –
but chronic in nature
– Must last at least 2 years to qualify
• Post-partum Depression
– Major Depression that begins
following birth of child
• Seasonal Affective Disorder
– Symptoms of depression
connected to lack of sunlight in
winter months
Bipolar and Related Disorders
Bipolar I Disorder
Bipolar II Disorder
Cyclothymic Disorder
Bipolar and Related Disorder
• Bipolar and Related Disorder Due
to Another Medical Condition
• Other Specified Bipolar and
Related Disorder
• Unspecified Bipolar and Related
Bipolar Disorder
(formerly known as Manic Depressive Disorder)
• Alternating b/w extremes of mood
• depression & mania
– Mania – extremely agitated,
usually elated, emotional state
• Usually very optimistic, extremely
energetic, certain of extraordinary
powers/abilities, bursting w/ ideas
• May make impulsive/unwise
decisions, irritated by those trying to
reason or “slow them down”
Manic Episode
Variations of Disorder
• Bipolar I
– mania & deep depression
• About 1% pop. – equal M/F
• Bipolar II
– major depression & hypomania
(less severe)
• Also 1% pop.
• Cyclothymic Disorder
– Bipolar equivalent of dysthymia
– intensity less severe
Bipolar I
Major Depression
Bipolar II
Dysthymic Disorder
Cyclothymic Disorder
Causes of Depressive and Bipolar
• Appears to be a genetic link
• Clear connection with chemical imbalance
• Depression – low norepinephrine & serotonin
• Mania – high norepinephrine
• Social Cognitive explanations:
– Self-defeating beliefs, learned helplessness
– But some research suggests depressed people assess world more
accurately (but not adaptively) – Depressive Realism
– Attribution of blame
– Internal vs. external?
– Stable vs. unstable?
– Global vs. specific?