#### Transcript Matter and Energy

```Science Proficiency Review
Matter and Energy
Kinetic Molecular Theory
Matter is composed of tiny particles (atoms,
molecules, or ions) with definite and
characteristic sizes that do not change. Particles
are in constant random motion and possess
kinetic energy
The amount of kinetic energy is directly related
to Kelvin temperature
Kinetic energy is transferred through collisions
States of Matter
Summary of Solid, Liquid, and Gas
Characteristics
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Fixed, Close
Random, Close
Random, Far
Apart
Attraction
between
Particles
Strong
Moderate
Little to none
Motion of
Particles vibrate Particles slide
about fixed sites over each other
Arrangement
and Closeness
of Particles
Particles
Particles move
constantly and
randomly
States of Matter
Summary of Solid, Liquid, and Gas
Characteristics
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Volume
Definite volume
Define volume
Takes volume of
container
Shape
Definite shape
Takes the shape Takes the shape
of container
of container
Density
High density
High density
(usually lower
than that of
same solid)
Low density
States of Matter
Summary of Solid, Liquid, and Gas
Characteristics
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Flow
Does not flow
Flows easily
Flows easily
Compressibility
Small
compressibility
Small
compressibility
to
incompressible
Large
compressibility
Thermal
Expansion
Small thermal
expansion
Small thermal
expansion
Moderate
thermal
expansion
Phase Changes
An energy transfer is needed to change from
one phase to another
Heating or cooling of a substance changes the
amount of kinetic energy and motion of particles
When enough heat is added or removed from a
substance, intermolecular attractions amongst
particles decrease or increase enough for phase
changes to occur
Heating and Cooling Curves
Phase transitions occur at specific
temperature when the energy of particles
exceeds that allowed for a given state
During a phase change, the temperature
of the substance stays constant until the
phase change is complete
Sample Heating Curve
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
1. A sample of carbon dioxide that
undergoes a transformation from solid
to liquid to gas would undergo a
change in
a. density
b. mass
c. composition
d. chemical properties
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
2. Which statement is NOT true?
a. To change from a solid to a liquid
requires energy.
b. Water can exist in solid, liquid, or
gas states.
c. Solids and liquids have similar
densities.
d. Particles in a solid do not move.
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
3. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the
average kinetic energy of its molecules
will
a. decrease
b. increase
c. remain the same
d. quickly increase, then slowly decrease
to zero
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
4. Under the same conditions of
temperature and pressure, a liquid
differs from a gas because the particles
of the liquid
a. are in constant straight-line motion
b. take the shape of the container they
occupy
c. have no regular arrangement
d. have stronger forces of attraction
between them
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
5. Which of the following is true as a
gas is changing to a liquid during
condensation?
a. There is a decrease in particle order.
b. The particles gain freedom.
c. The temperature rises.
d. Energy is released.
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
6. The relative randomness of
molecules in the states of matter is
best indicated by:
a. solid > liquid > gas
b. liquid > gas > solid
c. liquid > solid > gas
d. gas > liquid > solid
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
7. The physical state of matter is related to
the potential energy and kinetic energy
between molecules of the substance. The
gaseous state is characterized by
a. high potential energy and high kinetic energy
b. high potential energy and low kinetic energy
c. low potential energy and high kinetic energy
d. low potential energy and low kinetic energy
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
8. Low density and high compressibility
are characteristic of
a. the liquid state
b. the solid state
c. the gaseous state
d. both the liquid and solid states
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
9. Gases have a low density because
a. gas molecules have strong
intermolecular attractions.
b. gas molecules are very far apart.
c. gas molecules take the shape of their
container.
d. gas molecules have an indefinite
volume.
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
10. A pot of water is placed on a hot
stove. Small bubbles begin to appear at
the bottom of the pot. The bubbles rise
to the surface of the water and seem to
pop or disappear. What is inside the
bubbles?
a. oxygen or hydrogen
b. air
c. oxygen and hydrogen
d. steam
Matter and Energy Review
Quesitons
11. In a pure sample of oxygen gas,
what exists between the oxygen
molecules?
a. matter
b. air
c. nothing
d. atmosphere
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
12. Which of the following statements
is correct?
a. Heat causes molecules to expand.
b. Molecular size depends on temperature
c. Gases have mass and volume.
d. Bonds within molecules are broken
during melting.
Matter and Energy Review
Questions
13. Consider three samples of water in three
phases. The first is solid water (ice) at 0 °C,
the second is liquid water at 24 °C, and the
third is gaseous water at 100 °C. The water
molecules in the liquid phase _______ the
water molecules in the solid phase.
a. move faster than
b. move slower than
c. move less randomly than
d. travel in the same direction as.
Matter and Energy Review
1. (a)
2. (d)
3. (a)
4. (d)
5. (d)
6. (d)
7. (c)
8. (c)
9. (b)
10. (d)
11. (c)
12. (c)
13. (a)
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