The Language of Anatomy

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Transcript The Language of Anatomy

The Language of Anatomy
Anatomical Position
Person stands erect
Feet flat on floor
Arms at sides
Palms, eyes & face facing forward
Terms referring to Direction:
Superior vs Inferior
•Used to identify vertical
levels of position
•When a structure is above
another it is referred to as
•When a structure is below
another, it is inferior
•Example 1: the trachea is
superior to the heart
•Example 2: the intestines
are inferior to the
Anterior vs Posterior
•Used to identify front and back
•Anterior means the front part or
in front of.
•Posterior means the back part or
in back of.
•Example 1: the heart is anterior
to the spine
•Example 2: the spine is
posterior to the heart
•Ventral is the same as Anterior
•Dorsal is the same as Posterior
These terms
used for
Cranial vs Caudal
These directional
terms are typically
used in describing
Cranial means
toward the head
Caudal means
toward the tail
Proximal vs Distal
•Describe with respect to
point of attachment
•Proximal means closer to
the point of attachment
•Distal means further from
the point of attachment
•Example 1: the wrist is
distal to the elbow
•Example 2: the wrist is
proximal to the hand
Medial vs Lateral
•Describe surface
structure with
respect to midline.
•Medial means closer
to midline
•Lateral means
further from the
Superficial vs Deep
•Describe body organs
according to closeness to the
body surface.
•Superficial means closer to
the body surface
•Deep means further from the
body surface
•Example 1: Lungs are deep
to the rib cage
•Example 2: Skin is
superficial to the skeletal
Anatomical Planes and Sections
• Planes are imaginary flat
surfaces passing through the
– sections are anatomical views if
body is cut on a plane
• Sagittal plane divides body into
right and left halves
– median plane creates equal
• Frontal (coronal) plane divides
body into front & back portions
• Transverse (horizontal) plane
divides the body into upper &
lower portions
Body Sections
•Sagittal section: A section resulting from a cut
made parallel to the sagittal plane.
•Coronal Section: A section resulting from a cut
made parallel to the coronal(frontal plane).
•Cross-section: A section resulting from a cut made
through the transverse plane
Typical Sectional Views of the
Regional terms are used to identify
specific areas on the body.
REGIONAL TERMS(anterior view)
pertaining to mouth
•Orbital: pertaining to the bony eye socket
•Buccal: pertaining to the cheek
•Cervical: pertaining to the neck
•Acromial: pertaining to the top of the shoulder
•Thoracic: pertaining to the chest
•Axillary: pertaining to the armpit
•Mammary: pertaining to the breast
REGIONAL TERMS(anterior view)
•Brachial: pertaining to the arm(region of upper
extremity between the shoulder and the elbow)
•Antebrachial:pertaining to the forearm(region
of lower extremity between elbow and wrist)
•Antecubital: pertaining to front of the elbow
•Carpal: pertaining to the wrist
•Abdominal: pertaining to the anterior trunk
region between the thorax and the pelvis
•Inguinal: pertaining the area where the thigh
meets the body trunk
REGIONAL TERMS(anterior view)
•Femoral: pertaining to the thigh
•Pubic: pertaining to the region of the
pubis(pubic bone)
•Patellar: pertaining to the anterior knee region
•Tarsal: pertaining to the ankle
•Pedal: pertaining to the foot
•Digital: pertaining to the fingers/toes
Posterior View
REGIONAL TERMS(posterior view)
•Cephalic: pertaining to the head(as a
complete unit)
•Occipital: pertaining to the lower posterior
surface of the head
•Deltoid: pertaining to the curve of the shoulder
formed by the large deltoid muscle
•Scapular: pertaining to the scapula or
shoulder blade area
•Olecranal: pertaining to the back of the elbow
REGIONAL TERMS(posterior view)
•Lumbar: pertaining to the loins(area between
ribs & hips)
•Gluteal: pertaining to the buttocks
•Popliteal: pertaining to the hollow of the back
of the knee
•Sural: pertaining to the back of the leg
•Calcaneal: pertaining to the heel
•Plantar: pertaining to the sole of the foot
Abdominal Subdivisions
used for anatomical studies
Abdominopelvic Quadrants
used by clinicians to locate pain, tumors, or
other abnormalities
Body Cavities
All of the internal organs
are contained in body
cavities that are completely
or partially lined with
smooth membranes.
Dorsal Body Cavity
Dorsal Cavity: large cavity that
is nearest to dorsal surface;
includes cranial & spinal cavity
•Cranial Cavity: the hollow
portion of the skull that
contains the brain
•Spinal Cavity: the long
tubular area within the
vertebrae, which contains the
spinal cord
Ventral Cavity: the
cavity that’s nearest to
the ventral surface.
Superior & inferior
portions separated by
the diaphragm.
lies superior to the
•Pericardial cavity:
in the thoracic cavity;
contains the heart
Ventral Cavity continued…
lies inferior to the diaphragm
•Abdominal cavity:
contains the stomach, liver,
gallbladder, pancreas,
spleen, kidneys, and
•Pelvic cavity: contains the
bladder, sigmoid colon,
rectum & male/female
reproductive organs
Body Cavities continued…
Nasal Cavity: entire chamber
inside the nose; nostrils are the
opening to this cavity
Oral Cavity: the chamber is
bordered by the cheeks, hard/soft
palates of the mouth, and the