File - World History

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Explorers Establish New France
◦European countries wanted to find a direct route to Asia through the Pacific instead the French,
English, Dutch established colonies in North America.
◦New France
◦1524: Giovanni de Verrazzano (Italian under French service) sailed to find a sea route to the Pacific
instead discovered what today is the New York harbor
◦10 years later (1534): Frenchmen Jacques Cartier reached E. Coast of Canada that led to a river
called St. Lawrence- followed it to an island and named it Mont Real (Mount Royal) today it’s
called Montreal
◦1608: Samuel de Champlain sailed to St. Lawrence with 32 colonists and founded Quebec and
became the base of France’s colonial empire known as New France
◦1623: Jesuit priest Jacques Marquette and trader Louis Joliet explored the Great Lakes and upper
Mississippi River
◦1633: Sieur de La Salle explored lower Mississippi River and claimed the entire valley for France: it
became known as Louisiana after the French King Louis XIV.
◦New France covers present day Mid-West of US and Easter Canada
Explorers Establish New France
◦Trading Empire
◦Empire was huge but sparsely populated
◦1760: Only 65,000 Frenchmen occupied North America
◦French had no desire to build towns and raise families
◦Settlers included:
◦Catholic priests looking to convert Native Americans
◦Young, single men engaged in New France’s main economic activity: FUR TRADE
The English Arrive in North America
◦1606: London investors received a charter from King James to found a colony in N. America
◦3 Company Ships, 100 settlers traveled for 4 months and reached the coast of Virginia
◦Colonists claimed land as theirs and named the settlement Jamestown in honor of their King
◦Jamestown: Disastrous colony that was more interested in finding gold than planting crops.
◦First few years: 7 out of 10 people died of hunger, disease, or battles with the Natives
◦First permanent settlement in N. America
◦Colony improved greatly with the discovery of tobacco= profitable cash crop
◦Puritans create a “New England”
◦1620: Group known as Pilgrims founded a second English colony in Plymouth, Massachusetts. (They
were persecuted for their religious beliefs in England and wanted religious freedom in the New
◦1630: Group known as the Puritans would also want religious freedom from England’s Anglican
Church and established a larger colony nearby the Massachusetts Bay
◦Wanted to build a model community that would set and example for other Christians to follow.
(Experienced many difficulties but thanks to numerous families were able to take hold unlike the
mostly single male populations in Jamestown.
The Dutch found New Netherland
◦1690: Henry Hudson (Englishmen under service of the Netherlands) sailed west in search
of northwest sea route to Asia.
◦While he did not find a route, he did explore three waterways that were later named
after him: The Hudson River, the Hudson Bay and the Hudson Strait
◦The Dutch claimed the region along these waterways and established trade with the
Iroquois Indians.
◦Built trading posts along the Hudson River at Fort Orange (current day Alban) and
Manhattan Island.
◦1621: The Dutch government granted the company permission to colonize the region
and expand the fur trade. This Dutch holding in N. America became known as New
◦Slow to attract Dutch colonists; opened it’s doors to a variety of peoples: Germans,
French Scandinavians, and other Europeans settled the area
Colonizing the Caribbean
◦The French seized control of present-day Haiti, Gudaeloupe, and Martinique.
◦The English settled Barbados and Jamaica.
◦1634: The Dutch captured what are now the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba from
◦Europeans built large cotton and sugar plantations: Profitable products but would
demand a large and steady supply of labor.
◦Enslaved Africans would eventually supply this labor.
The Struggle for North America
◦As the settlements expanded, all three nations would battle each other over colonial supremacy.
◦The English Oust the Dutch:
◦1664: The English King (Charles II) granted his brother (the Duke of York) permission to drive out the
◦The Duke’s fleet arrived to New Netherlands; the Dutch surrendered without firing a shot. The Duke
of York claimed the colony for England and renamed it New York.
◦Without the Dutch, the English colonized the Atlantic coast. By 1750 about 1.2 million English settlers
lived in 13 colonies from Maine to Georgia.
◦England battles France
◦The English became hungry for more land, so they start pushing west- running into the French…
◦1754: A dispute over land claims in the Ohio Valley led to a war between the British and the French
on the N. American continent- French and Indian War aka Seven Years’ War.
◦Britain and France (along with their European Allies) battled for supremacy in Europe, the West
Indies and India.
◦N. America: The British colonies (with the help of the British Army) defeated the French in 1763)
◦The French surrendered their N. American holdings. The British seized control of the eastern
half of N. America.
Native Americans Respond
◦ French and Dutch settlers develop a mostly cooperative relationship with the Native
◦Mutual benefits of the fur trade allowed for this. Native Americans did most of the
trappings and then traded the furs with the French for items like guns, hatchets,
mirrors and beads. As well as the Dutch.
◦There were some disputes over land claims and trading rights but for the most part
the French and Dutch colonists lived peacefully with the Natives.
◦The English: Early relations were cooperative but this changed over the issues of land
and religion.
◦English wanted to populate their colonies and this meant pushing the natives off their
land. The English seized more land for their population and to grow tobacco.
◦Religious differences: The English settlers considered Native Americans heathens
(people without faith). Puritans believed they were agents of the devil sent as a
threat to their godly society.
◦Native Americans developed a similar harsh view of the European invaders.
Native Americans Respond
◦Hostility between the English settlers and Native Americans led to warfare.
◦1622: the Powhatan tribe attacked colonials villages around Jamestown and killed
about 350 settlers. The colonist struck back and massacred hundreds of Powhatan.
◦Bloodiest battle was known as King Phillip’s War.
◦1675: Native American Ruler Metacom aka King Phillip led an attack on colonial
villages throughout Massachusetts. Colonists defeated the natives after both sides
massacred hundreds of people.
◦Natives Fall to Disease:
◦Europeans brought diseases to N. America that devastated the native population
◦1616: Smallpox ravaged Native Americans living along the New England coast.
◦The population of one tribe dropped from 240,000 to 750 in 1631.
◦From S. Carolina to Missouri tribes fell to smallpox, measles, and other diseases.
◦Europeans viewed this a shortage of labor, and in order to meet their growing labor
needs they would turn to another group of people: Africans who would be enslaved
by the millions.
The Atlantic Slave Trade
◦ Causes of African Slavery
◦ 1500’s European colonists in the Americas would need cheap labor on plantations and farms.
◦ Slavery in Africa:
◦ Slavery already existed in Africa: The spread of Islam increased slavery and slave trade.
◦ Muslim rulers justified enslavement with the Muslim belief that non Muslim prisoners of war could be
bought and sold as slaves.
◦ Between the years 650-1600 Muslims transported 17 million Africans to the Muslim lands of North
Africa and Southwest Asia.
◦ Salves Here did have some legal rights and even positions of influence and power.
◦ Demand for Africans:
◦ 1400’s Firs Europeans in Africa were the Portuguese; initially traded for gold. This would change with
Natives dying in the Americas.
◦ Europeans saw the advantages of using Africans in the Americas: Africans had already been
exposed to European diseases (not die), Africans already had experience in farming and could
easily be taught plantation work, Africans could not escape in new land that they did not know and
if they did escape the color of their skin would make it easier to catch them.
The Atlantic Slave Trade
◦ The buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas would become known as the Atlantic Slave
◦ Between 1500-16000 nearly 300,000 Africans were transported to the Americas. That number would
increase to 1.3 million.
◦ 1870: When the slave trade ended- Europeans had imported 9.5 million Africans to the Americas.
◦ The Spanish and Portuguese led the way in North America:
◦ Spain: Moved from the Caribbean to colonize the American mainland; they imported and enslaved
thousands of Africans.
◦ 1650: 300,000 Africans labored throughout Spanish American on plantations and in gold/silver
◦ Portugal: Brazil dominated the European sugar market- as the sugar industry grew so did the
demand for cheap labor.
◦ During the 17th century, more than 40% of all Africans brought to the Americas went to Brazil.
Slavery spreads throughout the
◦England dominates the Slave Trade: England’s presence grew and it came to dominate the Atlantic
Slave Trade.
◦1690-1807: England was the leading carrier of enslaved Africans. It transported 1.7 million Africans to
their colonies in the West Indies.
◦Nearly 400,000 Africans were sold to Britain's N. American colonies. Once here, the slave population
grew by 1830 there was roughly 2 million slaves in the United States.
◦African Cooperation and Resistance:
◦Many African rulers and merchants played a willing role in this trade.
◦European traders waited along the coasts in the ports of Africa, while African merchants captured
Africans to be enslaved in exchange for goods like gold and guns.
◦As the trade grew, some African rulers voiced their opposition but the trade continued. Some
African merchants developed new trade routes to avoid rulers who refused to cooperate.
A Forced Journey
◦Africans transported to the Americas were part of the transatlantic trade network known as the
triangular trade.
◦Two Routes: Europeans transported manufactured goods to the west coast of Africa, traders
exchanged these goods for capture Africans, Africans were transported across the Atlantic and sold
in West Indies. Merchants bought sugar, coffee, and tobacco in the West Indies and sailed to Europe
with these products.
◦Merchants carried rum and other goods from New England colonies to Africa, exchange their
merchandise for Africans. Traders transported the Africans to the West Indies and sold them for sugar
and molasses. Then sold these goods to run producers in New England.
◦Middle Passage
◦The voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and later to North/South American.
◦Considered the middle leg of the transatlantic trade triangle.
◦In African ports, European traders packed Africans into dark holds of large ships. Africans endured
whippings and beatings from merchants. Many died from diseases or physical abuse. Many
committed suicide. Roughly 20% of Africans aboard each ship would perish during the brutal trip
◦Warning the following clip shows very graphic scene:
A Forced Journey
Slavery in the Americas
◦ Harsh Life: Africans were usually auctioned off to the highest bidder once they arrived
to the Americas
◦ Slaves worked in mines, fields, or as domestic servants.
◦ Many lived on little food in small, dreary huts, worked long days, suffered beatings,
lifelong condition that was hereditary.
◦ Resistance and Rebellion
◦ To cope with the horrors of slavery; Africans developed a way of life based on their
cultural heritage. Musical traditions and told the stories of their ancestors.
◦ Resisted: Made themselves less productive by breaking tools, uprooting plants and
working slowly, thousands ran away.
◦ 1522: 20 slaves in Hispaniola revolted and killed several Spanish colonists. Large
revolts occurred throughout Spanish settlements.
◦ Uprisings occurred in Brazil, the West Indies, and N. America
◦ 1739: A group of slaves in S. Carolina led an uprising known as the Stono Rebellion.
Consequences of the Slave
◦ Africa lost generations of their fittest members (young and able) to European traders
and plantation owners.
◦ African families were torn apart.
◦ Slave trade devastated African societies by introducing guns.
◦ Africans contributed greatly to the economic and cultural development of the
Americas: Biggest contribution was labor. They also brought expertise in agriculture,
culture, art, music, religion, food.
◦ Population: From the U.S. to Brazil many of that nation in the W. Hemisphere today have
substantial African-American populations. Latin American countries have mixed race
• Why were slaves important at this time?
• Why was it easy to trade slaves?
• Why was Atlantic Slavery different from slavery in the
• What was used to justify slavery and how?
The Columbian Exchange
◦The global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the
Americas is known as the Columbian Exchange.
◦Ships from the Americas brought back a wide array of items that Europeans, Asians,
and Africans hadn’t seen before.
◦Plants: Tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, cacao beans (for chocolate!)
◦Animals: Turkey!
◦Most important items: Corn and Potatoes. Both were inexpensive to grow and
◦Potatoes supplied many essential vitamins and minerals.
◦Both crops became staples in diets throughout the world, helped people live longer,
boosted world’s population. Planting of first white potato in Ireland and 1st sweet
potato in China changed many lives.
The Columbian Exchange
◦Europeans introduced various livestock animals into the Americas.
◦Horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs
◦Foods from Africa and Asia migrated west.
◦Bananas, black-eyed peas, yams. Grains such as wheat, rice, barely, and oats.
◦Disease was just as much a part of Columbian Exchange as goods and food.
◦Europeans brought smallpox and measles- led to the deaths of millions of Native
◦Other diseases included influenza, typhus, malaria, diphtheria, and syphilis.
Global Trade
◦ The establishment of colonial empires influenced Europe in other ways; new business and trade
practices. Many of which are the roots of today’s financial dealings.
◦ Capitalism: An economic system based on private ownership and investment of resources, such as
money, for profit.
◦ Government were no longer the sole owners of great wealth. Numerous merchants obtained great
wealth and invested their money in trade and overseas exploration. The money from this allowed
them to reinvest in other enterprises.
◦ Overall increase in nations’ money supply -> led to inflation. (People have more money so spend,
thus demand more goods and services, because the supply of goods is less, they become more
scare and valuable and prices rise.)
◦ Joint-Stock Company:
◦ Worked much like a modern-day corporation; investors buy shares of stock in a company. It
involved a number of people combining their wealth for a common purpose. Common purpose
during 1500’s-1600’s was American colonization.
◦ IT took large amounts of money to establish oversea colonies- while many profits also many risks.
Sometimes voyages didn’t make, but because companies involved many investors- people only
paid a fraction of the cost and lost a small share. But gained lots of profits if settlement thrived.
◦ Jamestown was established under a joint-stock company.
• What main diseases impacted both the New World and Old
• What was brought from the New World to the Old World? Where
did New World products end up? (Make a List)
◦Mercantilism: A country’s power depends on its wealth. Wealth allowed nations to
build strong naives and purchase vital goods. The goal of every nation became the
attainment of as much wealth as possible.
◦Two ways to increase wealth and power:
◦Obtain as much gold and silver as possible
◦Establish favorable balance of trade ( A nation sold more goods than it bought)
◦Ultimate goal: Become self-sufficient and not dependent on other countries for goods.
◦Mercantilism went hand in hand with colonization: Colonies provided silver, gold, and
raw materials that the home country could sell. Also colonies provided a market, the
home country could sell its goods to the colonies.
◦Economic Revolution caused changes in European Society:
◦Spurred growth of towns and the rise of a class of merchants who controlled great
wealth. (However, much of Europe’s population still lived in rural areas)
◦The majority of Europeans remained poor.
◦Economic revolution increased the wealth of European nations.
See you tomorrow!