Unit #13 PowerPoint - Chandler Unified School District
Transcript Unit #13 PowerPoint - Chandler Unified School District
The Great War
AP World History Unit #13
Militarism – Glorification of the military; The belief held by European Imperialist
nations that their respective militaries were the best was another cause of World
Nationalism, or devotion to one’s nation, kick-started international and domestic tension. In the late 1800s, many
Europeans began to reject the earlier ideas of a nation as a collection of different ethnic groups. Instead, they believed
that a nation should express the nationalism of a single ethnic group. This belief evolved into an intense form of
nationalism that heightened international rivalries. For example, France longed to avenge its humiliating defeat by a
collection of German states in 1871 and regain Alsace-Lorraine. Nationalism also threatened minority groups within
nation states. If a country existed as the expression of “its people”, the majority ethnic group, where did ethnic
minorities fit in?
The spread of the theory of Social Darwinism did not help soothe the competitive instinct. Social Darwinism applied
biologist Charles Darwin’s ideas of natural selection and “survival of the fittest” to human society. Social Darwinism
believed that the best nation would come out ahead in the constant competition among countries.
Nationalism also destabilized old multinational empires such as Austria, Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire. This was
particularly true in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. For example, when Serbia emerged as an independent
nation in 1878, it challenged the nearby empire of Austria-Hungary in two ways: by trying to gain territory controlled by
the empire, where Serbia lived, and by the example it offered to Austria-Hungary’s diverse peoples. The Nationalist
sentiment of the period sometimes spilled over into the economic goals of each nation. Industrial output, trade, and the
possession of an overseas empire were the yardsticks of wealth and greatness. The leading industrial nations competed
for lands rich in raw materials as well as for places to build military bases to protect their empires.
Closure Question #1: Which of the forces at work in Europe played the
greatest role in helping to prompt the outbreak of war?
• While peace and harmony characterized much of Europe at the beginning of the
1900s, there were less visible – and darker – forces at work as well. One such
development was the growth of nationalism, or a deep devotion to one’s nation.
Nationalism can serve as a unifying force within a country. However, it also can
cause intense competition among nations, with each seeking to overpower the
other. By the turn of the 20th century, a fierce rivalry indeed had developed among
Europe’s Great Powers. Those nations were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great
Britain, Russia, Italy, and France.
• Another forces that helped set the stage for war in Europe was imperialism. The
nations of Europe competed fiercely for colonies in Africa and Asia. The quest for
colonies sometimes pushed European nations to the brink of war. As European
countries continued to compete for overseas empires, their sense of rivalry and
mistrust of one another deepened.
• Yet another troubling development throughout the early years of the 20th century
was the rise of a dangerous European arms race. The nations of Europe believed
that to be truly great, they needed to have a powerful military. By 1914, all the
Great Powers except Britain had large standing armies.
Triple Alliance / Triple Entente
• Triple Alliance – Pact between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed in
• Triple Entente – Pact between France, Great Britain, and Russia formed in 1907.
19th-century liberals believed that if European states were organized along national lines, these states would work
together and create a peaceful Europe. They were wrong. The system of nation-states that emerged in Europe in the
last half of the 19th century led not to cooperation but to competition. Rivalries over colonies and trade grew during an
age of frenzied nationalism and imperialist expansion. At the same time, Europe’s great powers had been divided into
two loose alliances.
In the early years of the 20th century, a series of crises tested these alliances. Especially troublesome were the crises in
the Balkans between 1908 and 1913. These events left European states angry at each other and eager for revenge.
Self-interest and success guided each state. They were willing to use war to preserve their power. Nationalism in the
19th century had yet another serious result. Not all ethnic groups had become nations. Slavic minorities in the Balkans
and the Hapsburg Empire, for example, still dreamed of their own national states. The Irish in the British Empire and
the Poles in the Russian Empire had similar dreams.
National desires were not the only source of internal strife at the beginning of the 1900s. Socialist labor movements
also had grown more powerful. The Socialists were increasingly inclined to use strikes, even violent ones, to achieve
their goals. Some conservative leaders, alarmed at the increase in labor strife and class divisions, feared that European
nations were on the verge of revolution. This desire to suppress internal disorder may have encouraged various leaders
to take the plunge into war in 1914.
Closure Question #2: Who were the members of the Triple Alliance? The Triple Entente?
World War I Alliances
• Leader of Germany who joined with Austria-Hungary in declaring war on Serbia
on July 28th, 1914 following the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand.
The growth of mass armies after 1900 heightened the existing tensions in Europe. These large armies made it obvious
that if war did come, it would be highly destructive. Most Western countries had established conscription, a military
draft, as a regular practice before 1914. (The United States and Britain were exceptions.) European armies doubled in
size between 1890 and 1914. Militarism – the aggressive preparation for war – was growing. As armies grew, so too did
the influence of military leaders. They drew up vast and complex plans for quickly mobilizing millions of soldiers and
enormous quantities of supplies in the event of war.
Fearing that any changes would cause chaos in the armed forces, military leaders insisted that their plans could not be
altered. This left European political leaders with little leeway. In 1914 they had to make decisions for military instead of
political reasons. Militarism, nationalism, and the desire to stifle internal dissent may all have played a role in the
starting of World War I. However, it was the decisions that European leaders made in response to a crisis in the Balkans
that led directly to the conflict.
By 1914, Serbia, supported by Russia, was determined to create a large, independent Slavic-state in the Balkans.
Austria-Hungary, which had its own Slavic minorities to contend with, was equally determined to prevent that from
happening. On June 28, 1914, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, and his wife
Sophia visited the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia. A group of conspirators waited there in the streets.
On June 28th, 1914 Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie left for what they thought would be a routine visit to Sarajevo,
the capital city of the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia. But a handful of young Bosnians had other plans for the
archduke and his wife. These men were ethnic Serbs who believed that Bosnia rightfully belonged to Serbia, and they
saw Francis Ferdinand as a tyrant. After the archduke’s driver made a wrong turn, Gavrilo Princip, one of the
conspirators, noticed the couple in the car, pulled a pistol from his pocket, and fired it twice. First Sophie and then
Francis Ferdinand died. People around the world were shocked by the senseless murders.
Closure Question #3: Do you think World War I was avoidable? Use information from the text
to support your answer.
Closure Assignment #1
• Answer the following questions based on what you
have learned from Chapter 29, Section 1:
1. Which of the forces at work in Europe played the
greatest role in helping to prompt the outbreak of
war? Explain your answer.
2. Who were the members of the Triple Alliance? The
3. Do you think World War I was avoidable? Use
information from the text to support your answer.
Central Powers / Allies
• Central Powers – The combined forces of Germany and Austria-Hungary in WWI;
Their name comes from their location in the heart of Europe.
• Allies – The combined forces of France, Great Britain, Russia, and, eventually,
Japan, Italy, and the United States in WWI.
In the group of conspirators in Sarajevo was Gavrilo Princip, a 19-year-old Bosnian Serb. Princip was a member of the
Black Hand, a Serbian terrorist organization that wanted Bosnia to be free of Austria-Hungary and to become part of a
large Serbian kingdom. An assassination attempt earlier that morning by one of the conspirators had failed. Later that
day, however, Princip succeeded in fatally shooting both the archduke and his wife. The Austro-Hungarian government
did not know whether or not the Serbian government had been directly involved in the archduke’s assassination, but it
did not care. Austrian leaders wanted to attack Serbia but feared that Russia would intervene on Serbia’s behalf. So,
they asked for – and received – the backing of their German allies. Emperor William II of Germany gave AustriaHungary a “blank check,” promising Germany’s full support if war broke out between Russia and Austria-Hungary. On
July 28th, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
Soon after the assassination, Kaiser William II, the German emperor, assured Austria Hungary that Germany would
stand by its ally if war came. Confident in German’s support, Austria-Hungary then sent a harsh ultimatum to Serbia
demanding Serbia’s total cooperation in an investigation into the assassination. When Serbia did not agree to all of the
demands, Austria-Hungary declared war on July 28th, 1914. Because of the alliance system, what otherwise might have
been a localized quarrel quickly spread. In early August, Russia mobilized for war to help its ally Serbia against Austria.
This caused Germany to declare war against Russia. France, Russia’s ally, promptly declared war against Germany. The
very next day, German declared war against neutral Belgium, so that it could launch an invasion of France through that
small country. Great Britain, which had a treaty with France and Belgium, immediately declared war against Germany.
The key battlefront in WWI, located along the border between France and Belgium; 450
miles of trenches extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Swiss Alps, with both sides
taking high casualties (soldiers killed or wounded in battle) without gaining any territory.
German soldiers fought through Belgium and moved southwest into France toward Paris. Then in September, with
the German advance only 30 miles from Paris, the French and the British counterattacked and stopped the German
forces near the Marne River. After the battle of the Marne, the Germans settled onto high ground, dug trenches, and
fortified their position. When the French and British attacked, the German troops used machine guns and artillery to
kill thousands of them. The French and British then dug their own trenches and used the same weapons to kill
thousands of counterattacking Germans. Soon, 450 miles of trenches stretched like a huge scar from the coast of
Belgium to the border of Switzerland. Although fighting went on in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and in other
parts of the world, this Western Front in France became the critical battlefront. The side that won there would win
The war dragged on for years, and it was hideously deadly – much more so than anyone had expected. The primary
reason for the length of the war and its deadly nature was the simple fact that the defensive weapons of the timer
were better and more devastating than the offensive ones. Generals on each side threw their soldiers into assaults
against the enemy without fully considering the new technology. Charging toward trenches that were defended by
artillery, machine guns, and rifles was futile. In virtually every battle on the Western Front, the attacking force
suffered terribly. Even the use of poison gas did nothing to benefit the offense, despite its horrifying effects. The
stalemate led to gruesome conditions for the men in the trenches of the Western Front. The soldiers battled the
harsh conditions of life often as fiercely as they attacked the enemy. They developed “trench foot” from standing for
hours in wet, muddy trenches. Dug into the ground, the soldiers lived in constant fear, afraid to pop their heads out
of their holes and always aware that the next offensive might be their last.
Closure Question #1. Why did a stalemate develop on the Western Front?
(At least 1 sentence)
• The battle strategy used by Germany in WW1; Germany fought on two sides, or
fronts. In the east, they would hold the line with Russia; on the west, they would
send the majority of their troops to quickly invade France.
Russia was determined to support Serbia’s cause. On July 28th, Czar Nicholas II ordered partial mobilization of the
Russian army against Austria-Hungary. Mobilization is the process of assembling troops and supplies for war. In 1914,
mobilization was considered an act of war. Leaders of the Russian army informed the czar that they could not partially
mobilize. Their mobilization plans were based on a war against both Germany and Austria-Hungary. Mobilizing against
only Austria-Hungary, they claimed, would create chaos in the army. Based on this claim, the czar ordered full
mobilization of the Russian army on July 29th, knowing that Germany would consider this order an act of war.
Indeed, Germany reacted quickly. The German government warned Russia that it must halt its mobilization within 12
hours. When Russia ignored this warning, Germany declared war on Russia on August 1. Like the Russians, the
Germans had a military plan. General Alfred von Schlieffen had helped draw up the plan, which was known as the
Schlieffen Plan. It called for a two-front war with France and Russia since the two had formed a military alliance in
According to the Schlieffen Plan, Germany would conduct a small holding action against Russia while most of the
German army would carry out a rapid invasion of France. This mean invading France by moving quickly along the level
coastal area through Belgium. After France was defeated, the German invaders would move to the east against Russia.
Under the Schlieffen Plan, Germany could not mobilize its troops solely against Russia. Therefore, it declared war on
France on August 3. About the same time, it issued an ultimatum to Belgium demanding that German troops be
allowed to pass through Belgian territory. On August 4, Great Britain declared war on Germany for violating Belgian
neutrality. In fact, Britain, which was allied with France and Russia, was concerned about maintaining its own world
power. As one British diplomat put it, if Germany and Austria-Hungary won the war, “what would be the position of a
friendless England?” By August 4, all the Great Powers of Europe were at war.
• Style of war fought in World War I; both sides dug trenches which reached from
the English Channel in the north to the borders of Switzerland, holding the same
positions for four year.
Trench warfare baffled military leaders who had been trained to fight wars of movement and maneuver. At times, the
high command on either side would order an offensive that would begin with an artillery barrage to flatten the
enemy’s barbed wire and leave the enemy in a state of shock. After “softening up” the enemy in this fashion, a mass of
soldiers would climb out of their trenches with fixed bayonets and hope to work their way toward the enemy trenches.
The attacks rarely worked because men advancing unprotected across open fields could be fired at by the enemy’s
machine guns. In 1916 and 1917, millions of young men died in the search for the elusive breakthrough. In just ten
months at Verdun, France, 700,000 men lost their lives over a few miles of land in 1916.
The German advance was halted a short distance from Paris at the First Battle of the Marne (September 6-10). To stop
the Germans, French military leaders loaded 2,000 Parisian taxicabs with fresh troops and sent them to the front line.
The war quickly turned into a stalemate as neither the Germans nor the French could dislodge each other from the
trenches they had dug for shelter. These trenches were ditches protected by barbed wire. Two lines of trenches soon
reached from the English Channel to the frontiers of Switzerland. The Western Front had become bogged down in
trench warfare. Both sides were kept in virtually the same positions for four years.
On the Western Front, the trenches dug in 1914 had by 1916 become elaborate systems of defense. The Germans and
the French each had hundreds of miles of trenches, which were protected by barbed wire entanglements up to 5 feet
high and 30 yards wide. Concrete machine-gun nests and other gun batteries, supported further back by heavy
artillery, protected the trenches. Troops lived in holes in the ground, separated from each other by a strip of territory
known as no-man’s land.
Closure Question #2: What were the characteristics of trench warfare? (At
least 1 sentence)
• A stretch of battlefield along the German and Russian border. Here, Russians and
Serbs battled Germans and Austro-Hungarians. The was in the east was a more
mobile war than in the west, though here, too, slaughter and stalemate were
common. The end result of fighting in the east was a truce between Russia and
the Central Powers following a violent revolution within Russia which overthrew
the Czar and established a Communist government.
Unlike the Western Front, the war on the Eastern Front was marked by mobility. The cost in lives, however, was equally
enormous. At the beginning of the war, the Russian army moved into eastern Germany but was decisively defeated at
the Battle of Tannenberg on August 30 and the Battle of Masurian Lakes on September 15. After these defeats, the
Russians were no longer a threat to Germany. Austria-Hungary, Germany’s ally, fared less well at first. The Austrians
had been defeated by the Russians in Galicia and thrown out of Serbia as well. To make matters worse, the Italians
betrayed their German and Austrian allies in the Triple Alliance by attacking Austria in May 1915.Italy thus joined
France, Great Britain, and Russia, who had previously been known as the Triple Entente, but now were called the Allied
Powers, or Allies.
By this time, the Germans had come to the aid of the Austrians. A German-Austrian army defeated the Russian army in
Galicia and pushed the Russians far back into their own territory. Russian casualties stood at 2.5 million killed,
captured, or wounded. The Russians had almost been knocked out of the war. Encouraged by their success against
Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary, joined by Bulgaria in September 1915, attacked and eliminated Serbia from the
war. Their successes in the east would enable the German troops to move back to the offensive in the west.
Closure Question #3: How was war on the Western and Eastern fronts
different? How was it the same? (At least 2 sentences)
Closure Assignment #2
• Answer the following questions based on what you
have learned from Chapter 29, Section 2:
1. Why did a stalemate develop on the
Western Front? (At least 1 sentence)
2. What were the characteristics of trench
warfare? (At least 1 sentence)
3. How was war on the Western and
Eastern fronts different? How was it the
same? (At least 2 sentences)
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
• Policy adopted by the German navy in 1917 under which any ship sailing in the
waters around Britain would be sunk without warning. Germany adopted this
policy in an effort to cut off supplies to Great Britain; however, in doing so several
American ships, which had previously sold war supplies to both the Central and
Allied Powers came under German attack.
The Allies immediately felt the impact of the renewed unrestricted warfare. German U-Boats sank merchant ships in
alarming numbers, faster than replacements could be built. As one merchant ship after another sank to the bottom of
the sea, the Allies lost crucial supplies. Together, the Allies addressed the problem of submarine warfare by adopting
an old naval tactic: convoying. In a convoy, groups of merchant ships sailed together, protected by warships. The
arrangement was designed to provide mutual safety at sea. Convoys made up of British and American ships proved to
be an instant success. Shipping losses from U-Boat attacks fell as sharply as they had risen. Germany’s gamble had
Meanwhile, the situation on land began to swing in favor of the Central Powers. The Allies were exhausted by years of
combat. Russia was torn by revolutions. In March 1917, a moderate, democratic revolution overthrew Czar Nicholas II
but kept Russia in the war. In November 1917, radical communists led by Vladimir Lenin staged a revolution and gained
control of Russia. Russia stopped fighting in mid-December, and on March 3, 1918 the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ended the
war between Russia and Germany. The end of the war on the Eastern Front allowed Germany to send more soldiers to
the Western Front. In the spring of 1918, Germany launched an all-out offensive on the Western Front. The fierce
attack threatened to break through Allied defenses and open a path to Paris. The hard pressed Allies organized a join
command under French General Ferdinand Foch.
• Total War – A complete mobilization of resources and people within a country for
the war effort. Every citizen of a country was expected to contribute in some way
to the military. As a total war, WWI became a war of attrition, one based on
wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses.
By the end of 1915, airplanes had appeared on the battlefront for the first time in history. Planes were first used to
spot the enemy’s position. Soon, planes also began to attack ground targets, especially enemy communications. Fights
for control of the air occurred and increased over time. At first, pilots fired at each other with handheld pistols. Later,
machine guns were mounted on the noses of planes, which made the skies considerably more dangerous. The
Germans also used their giant airships – the zeppelins – to bomb London and eastern England. This caused little
damage but frightened many people. Germany’s enemies, however, soon found that zeppelins, which were filled with
hydrogen gas, quickly became raging infernos when hit by antiaircraft guns.
As World War I dragged on, it became a total war involving a complete mobilization of resources and people. It affected
the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, however remote they might be from the battlefields. Masses of men
had to be organized and purchased for years of combat. (Germany alone had 5.5 million men in uniform in 1916.) This
led to an increase in government powers and the manipulation of public opinion to keep the war effort going .The
home front was rapidly becoming a cause for as much effort as the war front.
Closure Question #1: Illustrate, by using a diagram
similar to the one below, the ways in which government
powers increased during the war.
Most people had expected the war to be short. Little thought had been given to long-term
wartime needs. Governments had to respond quickly, however, when the new war machines
failed to achieve their goals. Many more men and supplies were needed to continue the war
effort. To meet these needs, governments expanded their powers. Countries drafted tens of
millions of young men, hoping for that elusive breakthrough to victory. Wartime
governments throughout Europe also expanded their power over their economies. Freemarket capitalistic systems were temporarily put aside. Governments set up price, wage,
and rent controls. They also rationed food supplies and materials; regulated imports and
exports; and took over transportation systems and industries. In effect, in order to mobilize
all the resources of their nations for the war effort, European nations set up planned
economies – systems directed by government agencies. Under conditions of total war
mobilization, the differences between soldiers at war and civilians of home were narrowed.
In the view of political leaders, all citizens were part of a national army dedicated to victory.
Woodrow Wilson, president of the United States, said that the men and women “who
remain to till the soil and man the factories are no less a part of the army than the men
beneath the battle flags.
• System adopted by most of the nations involved in WWI under which people
could buy only small amounts of those items that were also needed for the war
effort. Rationing covered a wide range of goods, from butter to shoe leather.
A new set of illusions also fed the enthusiasm for war. In August 1914, almost everyone believed that the war would be
over in a few weeks. After all, almost all European wars since 1815 had, in fact, ended in a matter of weeks. Both the
soldiers who boarded the trains for the war front in August 1914 and the jubilant citizens who saw them off believed
that the warriors would be home by Christmas. German hopes for a quick end to the war rested on a military gamble.
The Schlieffen Plan had called for the German army to make a vast encircling movement through Belgium into northern
France. According to the plan, the German forces would sweep around Paris. This would enable them to surround most
of the French army.
What Bernard Baruch did for industry, future U.S. president Herbert Hoover achieved for agriculture. As head of the
Food Administration, he set prices high for wheat and other foodstuffs to encourage farmers to increase production. He
also asked Americans to conserve food as a patriotic gesture. If the American people ate less, then more food could be
shipped overseas. To this end, Hoover instituted wheatless Mondays and Wednesdays, meatless Tuesdays, and porkless
Thursdays and Saturdays. Before the war, some American women campaigned for women’s suffrage. They won the vote
in several western states, and still hoped to gain the franchise nationally. Many feared that the war would draw
attention away from their efforts. In fact, the war gave women new chances and won them the right to vote.
As men entered the armed forces, many women moved into the workforce for the first time. Women filled jobs that
were vacated by men who had gone to fight. They worked in munitions factories, on the railroads, as telegraph
operators and trolley conductors, and in other jobs that were previously open only to men. Others labored on farms.
Some joined the Red Cross or the American Women’s Hospital Service and went overseas. They worked as doctors,
nurses, ambulance drivers, and clerks. Thousands enlisted when the Army Corps of Nurses was created in 1918.
Propaganda – Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause; During
WW1, governments used propaganda to stir up national hatreds to win support for
the war effort.
Because of the stalemate on the Western Front, both sides sought to gain new allies. Each side hoped new allies would provide
a winning advantage, as well as a new source of money and war goods. Bulgaria entered the war on the side of the Central
Powers, as Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire were called. Russia, Great Britain, and France – the Allied
Powers – declared war on the Ottoman Empire. The Allies tried to open a Balkan front by landing forces at Gallipoli, southwest
of Constantinople, in April 1915. However, the campaign proved disastrous, forcing the Allies to withdraw. In return for Italy
entering the war on the Allied side. France and Great Britain promised to let Italy have some Austrian territory. Italy on the side
of the allies opened up a front against Austria Hungary.
By 1917, the war had truly become a world conflict. That year, while stationed in the Middle East, a British officer known as
Lawrence of Arabia urged Arab princes to revolt against their Ottoman overlords. In 1918 British forces from Egypt mobilized
troops from India, Australia, and New Zealand and destroyed the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East. The Allies also took
advantage of Germany’s preoccupations in Europe and lack of naval strength to seize German colonies in the rest of the world.
Japan, a British ally, beginning in 1902, seized a number of German-held islands in the Pacific. Australia seized German New
At first, the United States tried to remain neutral. As World War I dragged on, however, it became more difficult to do so. The
immediate cause of the United States involvement grew out of the naval war between Germany and Great Britain. Britain had
used its superior naval power to set up a blockade of Germany. The blockade kept war materials and other goods from reaching
Germany by sea. Germany had retaliated by setting up a blockade of Britain. Germany enforced its blockade with the use of
unrestricted submarine warfare, which included the sinking of passenger liners.
Closure Question #2: What methods did governments use to counter the loss of enthusiasm
and opposition to the war at home? (At least 2 sentences)
• Armistice – A truce or agreement to end fighting; On November 11th, 1918
representatives of the new German government signed an armistice with Allied
Before 1914, many political leaders believed war to be impractical because it involved so many political and economic
risks. Others believed that diplomats could easily prevent war. At the beginning of August 1914, both ideas were
shattered. However, the new illusions that replaced them soon proved to be equally foolish. Government propaganda
had stirred national hatreds before the war. Now, in August 1914, the urgent pleas of European governments for
defense against aggressors fell on receptive ears in every nation at war. Most people seemed genuinely convinced that
their nation’s cause was just.
On May 7, 1915, German forces sank the British ship Lusitania. About 1,100 civilians, including over 100 Americans,
died. After strong protests from the United States, the German government suspended unrestricted submarine warfare
in September 1915 to avoid antagonizing the United States further. Only once did the Germans and British engage in
direct naval battle – at the Battle of Jutland on May 31, 1916, when neither side won a conclusive victory.
By January 1917, however, the Germans were eager to break the deadlock in the war. German naval officers convinced
Emperor William II that resuming the use of unrestricted submarine warfare could starve the British into submission
within six months. When the emperor expressed concern about the United States, Admiral Holtzendorf assured him, “I
give your Majesty my word as an officer that not one American will land on the continent.” The German naval officers
were quite wrong. The British were not forced to surrender, and the return to unrestricted submarine warfare brought
the United States into the war in April 1917. U.S. troops did not arrive in large numbers in Europe until 1918. However,
the entry of the United States into the war gave the Allied Powers a psychological boost and a major new source of
money and war goods.
Closure Question #3: Which of the non-European countries had the greatest impact on the war
Closure Assignment #3
• Answer the following questions based on what you
have learned from Chapter 29, Section 3:
1. Illustrate, by using a diagram the ways in which
government powers increased during the war.
2. What methods did governments use to counter
the loss of enthusiasm and opposition to the war
at home? (At least 2 sentences)
3. Which of the non-European countries had the
greatest impact on the war effort? Explain.
• President of the United States during WWI; Wilson kept the U.S. out of the war
from 1914 to 1917 before coming in on the side of the Allies. After the war’s end,
Wilson was an architect of the Treaty of Versailles & League of Nations.
Delegates met in Paris in early 1919 to determine the peace settlement. At the Paris Peace Conference, complications
became obvious. For one thing, secret treaties and agreements that had been made before the war had raised the
hopes of European nations for territorial gains. These hopes could not be ignored, even if they did conflict with the
principle of self-determination put forth by Wilson. National interests also complicated the deliberations of the Paris
Peace Conference. David Lloyd George had won a decisive victory in elections in December 1918. His platform was
simple: make the Germans pay for the dreadful war.
France’s approach to peace was chiefly guided by its desire for national security. To Georges Clemenceau, the French
people had suffered the most from German aggression. The French desired revenge and security against future
German attacks. Clemenceau wanted Germany stripped of all weapons, vast German payments to cover the costs of
war, and a separate Rhineland as a buffer state between France and Germany. The most important decisions at the
Paris Peace Conference were made by Wilson, Clemenceau, and Lloyd George. Italy, as one of the Allies, was
considered one of the Big Four powers. However, it played a smaller role than the other key powers – the United
States, France, and Great Britain, who were called the Big Three. Germany was not invited to attend, and Russia could
not be present because of its civil war.
In view of the many conflicting demands at the peace conference, it was no surprise that the Big Three quarreled.
Wilson wanted to create a world organization, the League of Nations, to prevent future wars. Clemenceau and Lloyd
George wanted to punish Germany. In the end, only compromise made it possible to achieve a peace settlement.
Wilson’s wish that the creation of an international peacekeeping organization be the first order of business was
granted. On January 25, 1919, the conference accepted the idea of a League of Nations. In return, Wilson agreed to
make compromises on territorial arrangements. He did so because he believed that the League could later fix any
• Georges Clemenceau – Premier of France in 1918 who participated in the Paris
Peace Conference; Clemenceau argued that Germany alone was responsible for
WWI and should be forced to pay for the damages caused by the war.
In January 1919, representatives of 27 victorious Allied nations met in Paris to make a final settlement of World War I.
Over a period of years, the reasons for fighting World War I had changed dramatically. When European nations had
gone to war in 1914, they sought territorial gains. By the beginning of 1918, however, the were also expressing more
idealistic reasons for the war. No one expressed these idealistic reasons better than the president of the United States,
Woodrow Wilson. Even before the end of the war, Wilson outlined “Fourteen Points” to the United States Congress –
his basis for a peace settlement that he believed justified the enormous military struggle being waged.
Wilson became the spokesperson for a new world order based on democracy and international cooperation. When he
arrived in Europe for the peace conference, Wilson was enthusiastically cheered by many Europeans. President Wilson
soon found, however, that more practical motives guided other states.
The principle of self-determination supposedly guided the Paris Peace Conference. However, the mixtures of peoples in
eastern Europe made it impossible to draw boundaries along strict ethnic lines. Compromises had to be made,
sometimes to satisfy the national interests of the victors. France, for example, had lost Russia as its major ally on
Germany’s eastern border. Thus, France wanted to strengthen and expand Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and
Romania as much as possible. Those states could then serve as barriers against Germany and Communist Russia.
Closure Question #1: Although Woodrow Wilson came to the Paris Peace Conference with high
ideals, the other leaders had more practical concerns. Why do you think that was so? (At least
Fourteen Points / Self-Determination
Fourteen Points – Outline of U.S. goals in WW1 outlined by Woodrow Wilson; the heart
of the 14 points was the idea of “peace without victory.”
Self-Determination – The right of people to choose their own form of government; Part
of Wilson’s 14 Points, argued that after the war ethnic groups in the former German and
Austro-Hungarian Empires should have the right to establish their own independent
governments and countries.
The Fourteen Points sought to fundamentally change the world by promoting openness, encouraging
independence, and supporting freedom. Critical of all secret treaties. Wilson called for open
diplomacy. He insisted on freedom of the seas, free trade, a move toward ending colonialism, and a
general reduction of armaments. In early 1919, the victorious Allies held a peace conference in
Versailles, a suburb of Paris, in the former palace of Louis XIV. President Wilson believed that the
peace conference was too important to be left to career diplomats and lesser politicians, so he crossed
the Atlantic Ocean himself to represent the United States at the conference, something no President
had ever done.
Wilson did not invite any leading Republicans to join him in his peace delegation. This decision angered
Republicans, who had won control of Congress in the 1918 elections. However, when the American
President arrived in France, adoring crowds greeted him. “Never has a king, never has an emperor
received such a welcome,” wrote one journalist.
Closure Question #2: Compare and contrast Wilson’s 14 Points
to the Treaty of Versailles. (At least 2 sentences)
Wilson’s 14 Points: Wilson’s proposals for a truly just and lasting peace included reaching
the peace agreements openly rather than through secret diplomacy. His proposals also
included reducing armaments (military forces or weapons) to a “point consistent with
domestic safety” and ensuring self-determination (the right of each people to have their
own nation). Wilson portrayed World War I as a people’s war against “absolutism and
militarism.” These two enemies of liberty, he argued, could be eliminated only by creating
democratic governments and a “general association of nations.” This association would
guarantee “political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.”
The Treaty of Versailles: The Germans considered it a harsh peace. They were especially
unhappy with Article 231, the so-called War Guilt Clause, which declared that Germany and
Austria were responsible for starting the war. The treaty ordered Germany to pay
reparations for all damages that the Allied governments and their people had sustained as a
result of the war. The military and territorial provisions of the Treaty of Versailles also
angered Germans. Germany had to reduce its army to 100,000 men, cut back its navy, and
eliminate its air force. Alsace and Lorraine, taken by the Germans from France in 1871, were
now returned. Sections of eastern Germany were awarded to a new Polish state.
Treaty of Versailles
• Official treaty ending WWI for Germany which was signed in 1919 by and
declared that Germany was responsible for starting the war and would have to
pay reparations to the governments of the Allied countries.
German officials soon found that the Allies were unwilling to make peace with the autocratic imperial government of
Germany. Reforms for a liberal government came too late for the tired, angry German people. On November 3, 1918,
sailors in the northern German town of Kiel mutinied. Within days, councils of workers and soldiers formed throughout
northern Germany and took over civilian and military offices. Emperor William II gave into public pressure and left the
country on November 9. After William II’s departure, the Social Democrats under Friedrich Ebert announced the
creation of a democratic republic. Two days later, on November 11, 1918, the new-German government signed an
The war was over, but the revolutionary forces set in motion in Germany were not yet exhausted. A group of radical
socialists, unhappy with the Social Democrats’ moderate polices, formed the German Communist Party in December
1918. A month later, the Communists tried to seize power in Berlin. The new Social Democratic government, backed by
regular army troops, crushed the rebels and murdered Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, leaders of the German
Communists. A similar attempt at Communist revolution in the city of Munich, in southern Germany, was also crushed.
The new German republic had been saved. The attempt at revolution, however, left the German middle-class with a
deep fear of communism.
League of Nations
• League of Nations – Part of Wilson’s 14 Points; A world organization where
countries could gather and peacefully resolve their quarrels. Though the
American President proposed the establishment of the League, the American
people refused to support U.S. involvement in the organization.
Wilson’s idealism did not inspire the other Allied leaders at the peace conference. They blamed Germany for starting
the war, reminded Wilson that they had suffered more in the war than the United States, and insisted that Germany
pay reparations. They wanted to weaken Germany so that it would never threaten Europe again. British prime minister
David Lloyd-George and French premier Georges Clemenceau knew that the citizens of their countries expected both
peace and victory. Lloyd-George insisted on protecting the existing colonial status quo and punishing Germany.
Clemenceau wanted to make Germany pay dearly for what it had done to France. In addition to reparations, he
demanded the return of Alsace-Lorraine and several key German colonies.
Once the Versailles Conference began, Clemenceau, Lloyd-George, Italian Premier Vittorio Orlando, and other Allied
leaders began to chip away at Wilson’s 14 Points. Onto the scrap heap of failed proposals they piled freedom of the
seas, free trade, the liberation of colonial empires, a general disarmament, and several other ideas. Wilson lost a
number of battles but kept fighting to salvage the League of Nations. On this point, Wilson refused to compromise. The
other delegates finally voted to make the League of Nations part of the treaty. In the end, the various peace treaties
created almost as many problems as they solved. In the new map that emerged from the conference, national selfdetermination was violated almost as often as it was confirmed. In Europe, several populations of Germans found
themselves attached to non-German nations. The same was true for several Austrian populations.
Closure Question #3: Explain why the mandate system was created. (1
sentence) Which countries became mandates? (At least 3) Which
countries governed them? (At least 2)
• After World War I, the Ottoman Empire was broken up by the peace
settlement. To gain Arab support against the Ottoman Turks during
the war, the Western Allies had promised to recognize the
independence of Arab states in the Ottoman Empire. Once the war
was over, however, the Western nations changed their minds. France
took control of Lebanon and Syria and Britain received Iraq and
• These acquisitions were officially called mandates. Woodrow Wilson
had opposed the outright annexation of colonial territories by the
Allies. As a result, the peace settlement created the mandate system.
According to this system, a nation officially governed another nation
as a mandate on behalf of the League of Nations but did not own the
Closure Assignment #4
• Answer the following questions based on what you have
learned from Chapter 29, Section 4:
1. Although Woodrow Wilson came to the Paris Peace
Conference with high ideals, the other leaders had more
practical concerns. Why do you think that was so? (At least 1
2. Compare and contrast Wilson’s 14 Points to the Treaty of
Versailles. (At least 2 sentences)
3. Explain why the mandate system was created. (1 sentence)
Which countries became mandates? (At least 3) Which
countries governed them? (At least 2)
• A government which controls the political, economic, social, intellectual, and
cultural lives of its citizens.
Like other European countries, Italy experienced severe economic problems after World War I. Inflation grew, and both
industrial and agricultural workers staged strikes. Socialists spoke of revolution. The middle-class began to fear a
Communist takeover like the one that had recently occurred in Russia. Industrial and agricultural strikes created more
division. From this background of widespread unrest emerged Mussolini. In the early 1920s, Benito Mussolini set up
the first European fascist movement in Italy. Mussolini began his political career as a Socialist. In 1919 he created a new
political group, the League of Combat.
By 1922, Mussolini’s movement was growing quickly. The middle-class fear of socialism, communism, and disorder
made the Fascists increasingly attractive to many people. Mussolini knew that many Italians were still angry over the
peace settlement. The failure to receive more land under the treaty was a deep source of resentment. He knew
nationalism was a powerful force and demanded more land for Italy. Mussolini converted thousands to the Fascist
Party with his nationalistic appeals. By 1922 Mussolini and the Fascists threatened to march on Rome if they were not
given power. Victor Emmanuel II, the king of Italy, gave in and made Mussolini prime-minister.
Mussolini used his position as prime minister to create a Fascist dictatorship. New laws gave the government the right
to stop any publications that criticized the Catholic Church, the monarchy, or the state. The prime minister was made
head of the government with the power to make laws by decree. The police were given unrestricted authority to arrest
and jail anyone for either political or nonpolitical crimes. In 1926 the Fascists outlawed all other political parties in Italy
and established a secret police known as the OVRA. By the end of the year, Mussolini ruled Italy as Il Duce, “The
• Launched by Joseph Stalin in 1937, the purge was a campaign of terror directed at
eliminating anyone in the Soviet Union who threatened Stalin’s power.
Thousands of old Bolsheviks stood trial and were executed or sent to labor camps
for “crimes against the Soviet state.” Historians estimate that during this time
between 8 and 13 million Russians were killed.
Stalin’s government controlled all newspapers, motion pictures, radio, and other sources of information. Many Soviet
writers, composers, and other artists also fell victim to official censorship. Stalin would not tolerate individual creativity
that did not conform to the views of the state. Soviet newspapers and radio broadcasts glorified the achievements of
communism, Stalin, and his economic programs.
The divisions in the Politburo were further strained by an intense personal rivalry between Leon Trotsky and Joseph
Stalin. In 1924, Trotsky held the post of commissar of war. Stalin held the bureaucratic job of party general secretary.
The general secretary appointed regional, district, city, and town party officials. Thus this bureaucratic job actually
became the most important position in the party. Stalin used his post as general secretary to gain complete control of
the Communist Party. The thousands of officials Stalin appointed provided him with support in his bid for power. By
1929, Stalin had removed the Bolsheviks of the revolutionary era from the Politburo and had established a powerful
dictatorship. Trotsky, pushed out of the party in 1927, eventually made his way to Mexico. There he was murdered in
1940, probably on Stalin’s orders.
Closure Question #2: How would the actions of the Great Purge increase
• A system in which the government made all economic decisions. Under this
system, political leaders identify the country’s economic needs and determine
how to fulfill them.
As discussed earlier, Lenin follow a policy of war communism during the civil war in Russia. The government controlled most
industries and seized grain from peasants to ensure supplies for the army. Once the war was over, peasants began to sabotage
the Communist program by hoarding food. The situation became even worse when drought caused a terrible famine between
1920 and 1922. AS many as 5 million lives were lost. With agricultural disaster came industrial collapse. By 1921, industrial
output was only 20% of its 1913 level. Russia was exhausted. A peasant banner proclaimed, “Down with Lenin and horseflesh.
Bring back the czar and pork.” As Leon Trotsky said, “The country, and the government with it, were at the very edge of the
abyss.” In March 1921, Lenin pulled Russia back from the abyss. He abandoned war communism in favor of his NEP. In 1922
Lenin and the Communists formally created a new state called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The state is also known as
the USSR or as the Soviet Union. By that time, a revived market and a good harvest had brought an end to famine. Soviet
agricultural production climbed to 75% of its prewar level. Overall, the NEP saved the Soviet Union from complete economic
disaster. Lenin and other leading Communists, however, intended the NEP to be only a temporary retreat from the goals of
Lenin died in 1924. A struggle for power began at once among the 7 members of the Poliburo. The Poliburo was severely
divided over the future direction of the Soviet Union. One group, led by Leon Trotsky, wanted to end the NEP and launch Russia
on a path of rapid industrialization, chiefly at the expense of the peasants. This group also wanted to spread communism
abroad. It believed that the revolution in Russia would not survive without other communist states. Another group in the
Politburo rejected the idea of worldwide communist revolution. Instead, it wanted to focus on building a socialist state in Russia
and to continue Lenin’s NEP. This group believed that rapid industrialization would harm the living standards of the Soviet
• Five-Year Plans – Economic policy supported by Stalin which set economic goals
for five-year periods; Their purpose was to transform Russia virtually overnight
from an agricultural into an industrial country.
• The Stalin Era marked the beginning of an economic social, and political revolution
that was more sweeping in its results than were the revolutions of 1917. Stalin
made a significant shift in economic policy in 1928 when he ended the NEP. That
year he launched his First Five-Year Plan, emphasizing maximum production of
military equipment and capital goods. (good devoted to the production of other
goods, such as heavy machines). The plan quadrupled the production of heavy
machinery and doubled oil production. Between 1928 and 1937, during the first
two Five-Year Plans, steel production in Russia increased from 4 million to 18
million tons per year.
Closure Question #3: What was the goal of the Five-Year Plans
during the 1920s and 1930s in the Soviet Union? (At least 1 sentence)
• Communist Russian system in which private farms were eliminated and the
government owned all of the land. By 1934, Stalin’s government had collectivized
26 million family farms, leading to widespread famine which is estimated to have
killed 15-17 million people from starvation.
The social and political costs of industrialization were enormous. Little thought was given to caring for the expanded labor force in the
cities. The number of workers increased by millions between 1932 and 1940. However, total investment in housing actually declined after
1929. The result was that millions of workers and their families lived in miserable conditions. Real wages in industry also declined by 43%
between 1928 and 1940. Strict laws even limited where workers could move. To keep workers content, government propaganda stressed
the need for sacrifice to create the new socialist state.
Stalin’s programs had other costs as well. To achieve his goals, Stalin strengthened his control over the party. Those who resisted were sent
into forced labor camps in Siberia. Stalin’s desire to make all decisions led to purges, or removal, of the Old Bolsheviks. These people had
been involved in the early days of the movement. Between 1936 and 1938, the most prominent Old Bolsheviks were put on trail and
condemned to death. During this time, a reign of terror, Stalin purged army officers, diplomats, union officials, intellectuals, and ordinary
citizens. About 8 million were arrested. Millions were sent to labor camps in Siberia; they never returned. Others were executed.
The Stalin era also overturned permissive social legislation enacted in the early 1920s. To promote equal rights for women, the Communists
had made the divorce process easier. They had also encouraged women to work outside the home. After Stalin came to power, the family
was praised as a small collective. Parents were responsible for teaching the values of hard work, duty, and discipline to their children.
A number of government sin the Western world were not totalitarian but were authoritarian. These states adopted some of the features of
totalitarian states, in particular, their use of police powers. However, these authoritarian governments did not want to create a new kind of
mass society. Instead, they wanted to preserve the existing social order. At first it seemed that political democracy would become well
established in eastern Europe after World War I. Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary all adopted
parliamentary systems. However, authoritarian regimes soon replaced most of these systems.
Collectivization in the U.S.S.R.
Closure Assignment #2
Answer the following questions based on what you have
learned from Chapter 30, Section 2:
1. How would the actions of the Great Purge increase
2. What was the goal of the Five-Year Plans during the
1920s and 1930s in the Soviet Union? (At least 1
3. Summarize Joseph Stalin’s rise to power and how his
control expanded. (At least 2 sentences)
• The Chinese Nationalist Party; The Kuomintang pushed for modernization of
Chinese society and, in 1911, succeeded in overthrowing the last emperor of the
In the early 1900s, China was ripe for revolution. China had faced years of humiliation at the hands of outsiders.
Foreign countries controlled its trade and economic resources. Many Chinese believed that modernization and
nationalism held the country’s keys for survival. They wanted to build up the army and navy, to construct modern
factories, and to reform education. Yet others feared change. They believed that China’s greatness lay in its traditional
In 1912, Sun Yixian became president of the new Republic of China. Sun hoped to establish a modern government
based on the “Three Principles of the People”. He said, “The Chinese people… do not have national spirit. Therefore,
even though we have four hundred million people gathered together in one China, in reality, they are just a heap of
loose sand.” Despite his lasting influence as a revolutionary leader, Sun lacked the authority and military support to
secure national unity. Sun turned over the presidency to a powerful general, Yuan Shikai, who quickly betrayed the
democratic ideals of the revolution. His actions sparked local revolts. After the general died in 1916, civil war broke out.
Real authority fell into the hands of provincial warlords or powerful military leaders. They ruled territories as large as
their armies could conquer.
Revolutionary Marxism had its greatest impact in China. By 1920, central authority had almost ceased to exist in China.
Two political forces began to emerge as competitors for the right to rule China: Sun Yat-sen’s Nationalist Party, which
had been driven from the political arena several years earlier, and the Chinese Communist Party. In 1921 a group of
young radicals, including several faculty and staff members from the Beijing University, founded the Chinese
Communist Party (CCP) in the commercial and industrial city of Shanghai. Comintern agents soon advised the new
party to join with the more experienced Nationalist Party..
• The first great leader of the Kuomintang and the first president of the new
Republic of China in 1912. Sun hoped to establish a modern governmnet based
on (1) nationalism – an end to foreign control, (2) people’s rights – democracy,
and (3) people’s livelihood – economic security for all Chinese. Despite his
influence as a revolutionary leader, Sun lacked authority and military support
and, as a result, was forced to turn over the presidency to a powerful General,
Yuan Shikai, who betrayed democratic ideals.
In 1917, the government in Beijing, hoping for an Allied victory, declared war against Germany. Some leaders
mistakenly believed that for China’s participation the thankful Allies would return control of Chinese territories that
had previously belonged to Germany. However, under the Treaty of Versailles, the Allied leaders gave Japan those
territories. When news of the Treaty of Versailles reached China, outrage swept the country. In 1921, a group met in
Shanghai to organize the Chinese Communist Party. Mao Zedong, an assistant librarian at Beijing University, was among
its founders. Later he would become China’s greatest revolutionary leader. Mao Zedong had already begun to develop
his own brand of communism. Lenin had based his Marxist revolution on his organization in Russia’s cities. Mao
envisioned a different setting. He believed he could bring revolution to a rural country where the peasants could be the
May Fourth Movement / Mao Zedong
• May Fourth Movement – (1919) Public demonstrations in protest of the Treaty of
Versailles, which failed to restore to China possession of German port cities.
Students, workers, shopkeepers, and professionals participated, showing
commitment to the goal of establishing a strong, modern nation.
• Mao Zedong – Chinese communist organizer who, following the Shanghai
Massacre, led communists in hiding. Mao believed that a Chinese revolution
would be led by peasants in the country-side & organized peasants in the Jiangxi
Province, using guerrilla tactics to harass Republican troops.
Sun Yat-sen, leader of the Nationalists, welcomed the cooperation. He need the expertise that the Soviet Union could provide. His antiimperialist words had alienated many Western powers. One English-language newspaper in Shanghai wrote: “All his life, all his influence,
are devoted to ideas that keep China in turmoil, and it is utterly undesirable that he should be allowed to prosecute those aims here.” In
1923, the two parties – Nationalists and Communists – formed an alliance to oppose the warlords and drive the imperialists powers out of
China. For over three years, the two parties overlooked their mutual suspicions and worked together. They formed a revolutionary army to
march north and seize control over China. This Northern Expedition began in the summer of 1926. By the following spring, revolutionary
forces had taken control of all of China south of the Chang Jiang, including the major river ports of Wuhan and Shanghai.
Tensions between the parties eventually rose to the surface. Sun Yat-sen died in 1925, and General Chiang Kai-shek succeeded him as head
of the Nationalist Party. Chiang pretended to support the alliance with the Communists until April 1927, when eh struck against them in
Shanghai, killing thousands. After the Shanghai Massacre, the Nationalist-Communist alliance ceased to exist. In 1928 Chiang Kai-shek
founded a new Chinese republic at Nanjing. During the next three years, he worked to reunify China. Although Chiang saw Japan as a
serious threat, he believed that the Communists were more dangerous. He once remarked that “the Communists are a disease of the
Closure Question #1: Why did Jiang Jieshi believe a
period of political training was necessary? (At least 1
Even while trying to root out Mao’s Communist forces, Jiang Jieshi had been trying to build a
new Chinese nation. He had publicly declared his commitment to Sun Yat-sen’s plans for a
republican government. But first, there would be a transition period. In Sun’s words:
“China… needs a republican government just as a boy needs school. As a schoolboy must
have good teachers and helpful friends, so the Chinese people, being for the first time under
republican rule, must have a farsighted revolutionary government for their training. This calls
for the period of political tutelage, which is a necessary transitional stage from monarchy to
republicanism. Without this, disorder will be unavoidable.”
In keeping with Sun’s program, Jiang announced a period of political tutelage (training) to
prepare the Chinese people for a final stage of constitutional government. Even the
humblest peasant would be given time to understand the country’s problems and the new
government. In the meantime, the Nationalists would use their dictatorial power to carry
out a land-reform program and to modernize industry.
• Chinese nationalist who became the leader of the Nationalist Party following
the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. Kai-shek founded a new Chinese republic with
its capital at Nanjing which ruled China until WWII.
It would take more than plans on paper to create a new China, however. Years of neglect and civil war had severely
weakened the political, economic, and social fabric of the nation. Most of the people who lived in the countryside were
drained by warfare and civil strife. Rural peasants – up to 80% of China’s population – were still very poor and
overwhelmingly illiterate. Meanwhile, a western middle class had begun to form in the cities. Here, observers would have
believed that Chiang Kai-shek had lifted China into the modern world. Young people in the cities wore European clothes;
they went to the movies and listened to the radio. It was here in the cities that the new government of Chiang Kai-shek
found most of its support.
The Westernized middle class had little in common with the peasants in the countryside. They pursued the middle-class
values of individual achievement and the accumulation of wealth. Chiang Kai-shek was aware of the problem of
introducing foreign ideas into a population that was still culturally conservative. Thus, while attempting to build a modern
industrial state, he tried to bring together modern Western innovations with traditional Confucian values of hard work,
obedience and integrity. With his U.S.-educated wife Meiling Soong, Chiang set up a “New Life Movement.” Its goal was
to promote traditional Confucian social ethics, such as integrity, propriety, and righteousness. At the same time, it rejected
what was viewed as the excessive individualism and material greed of Western capitalist values.
Chiang Kai-shek faced a host of other problems as well. The Nanjing government had total control over only a handful
of provinces in the Chang Jiang valley. As we shall see in the next chapter, the Japanese threatened to gain control of
northern China. The Great Depression was also having an ill effect on China’s economy.
Closure Question #2: What did Mao’s Long March
accomplish? (At least 1 sentence)
• Both Mao and Chiang knew that unless Mao’s army could cross the Chiang Jiang
River, it would be wiped out. Mao’s army began a desperate race. Moving on foot
through mountains, marshes, rivers, and deserts, the army traveled almost 6,000
miles, averaging 24 miles a day, to reach the last surviving Communist base in
northwest China. All along, those miles, Mao’s troops had to fight Chiang’s army.
The Long March was physically demanding, zigzagging through mountains and
marshes. It took over a year. Only one-tenth of the troops reached their destination
in northern China.
• Despite the great difficulty of the journey, the Long March was crucial for the
Communists, because it helped build support among the Chinese people. Unlike
the Nationalist soldiers, who often acted rudely and stole from the peasants, the
People’s Liberation Army (PLA) soldiers followed Mao’s instructions to treat the
peasants with respect. Their behavior helped the PLA gain the support of the
masses, which would prove to be key to eventual victory. Mao Zedong’s leadership
during the Long March also helped establish him as the clear leader of the
Communists. In January 1935, the Red Army arrived in Zunyi. Soon, the Chinese
Communist Party held a conference and elected Mao as party leader.
• After 3 years of bloody civil war, Jieshi’s Nationalist Army, made up of 700,000
men, surrounded Zedong’s Red Army, only 100,000 men strong, in the mountains
of Southern China. The Communists were forced to flee, embarking on a 6,000
mile journey from 1934 to 1935. On the march north thousands died from cold,
exposure, starvation, and battle wounds. Zedong and his surviving followers
settled in caves in northwestern China and gained new followers while Jieshi’s
Nationalist Army was forced to respond to Japanese attacks in the east.
In 1931, as Chinese fought Chinese, the Japanese watched the power struggle with rising interest. Japanese forces took
advantage of China’s weakening situation. They invaded Manchuria, an industrialized province in the northeast part of
China. In 1937, the Japanese launched an all-out invasion of China. Massive bombings of villages and cities killed
thousands of Chinese. The destruction of farms caused many more to die of starvation. By 1938, Japan held control of a
large part of China. The Japanese threat forced an uneasy truce between Jiang’s and Mao’s forces. The civil war
gradually ground to a halt as Nationalists and Communists temporarily united to fight the Japanese. The National
Assembly further agreed to promote changes outlined in Sun Yixian’s “Three Principles of the People” – nationalism,
democracy, and people’s livelihood.
Closure Question #3: List Jiang Jieshi’s successes during
the 1930s. (Give at least 3)
• In spite of problems, Jiang did have some success:
1. He undertook a massive road-building project and repaired and extended much of
the country’s railroad system as well. More than 50,000 miles of highways were
built around and thought the coastal areas.
2. New factories, most of which the Chinese owned, were opened.
3. Through a series of agreements, the foreign powers ended many of their leases,
gave up extraterritorial rights, and returned the customs service to Chinese control.
4. Jiang also established a national bank and improved the education system.
• In other areas, Jiang was less successful and progress was limited. A land-reform
program was enacted in 1930, but had little effect. Because Chiang’s support came
from the rural landed gentry, as well as the urban middle class, he did press for
programs that would lead to a redistribution of wealth. For the peasants and poor
townspeople, there was no real improvement under the Nanjing government. The
government was also repressive. Fearing Communist influence, Chiang suppressed
all opposition and censored free speech. In doing so, he alienated many
intellectuals and political moderates.
Closure Assignment #3
Answer the following questions based on what you have
learned from Chapter 30, Section 3:
1. Why did Jiang Jieshi believe a period of political training
was necessary? (At least 1 sentence)
2. What did Mao’s Long March accomplish? (At least 1
3. List Jiang Jieshi’s successes during the 1930s. (Give at
Rowlatt Acts / Amritsar Massacre
• Rowlatt Acts (1919) – Laws which allowed the British government in India to jail
protesters without trial for as long as two years. To Western-educated Indians,
many of who had fought for Great Britain during World War I, denial of a trial by
jury violated their individual rights.
• Amritsar Massacre (1919) – To protest the Rowlatt Acts, 10,000 Hindus and
Muslims gathered at the city of Amritsar to fast, pray, and listen to political
speeches. The British commander of the city believed the protesters were only
defying British law and, without warning, ordered his troops to fire on the crowd.
Officials reports showed that nearly 400 Indians died and 1,200 were wounded.
Until World War I, the vast majority of Indians had little interest in nationalism. The situation changed as over a million
Indians enlisted in the British army. In return for their service, the British government promised reforms that would
eventually lead to self-government. In 1918, Indian troops returned home from the war. They expected Britain to fulfill
its promise. Instead, they were once again treated as second-class citizens. Radical nationalists carried out acts of
violence to show their hatred of British rule. To curb dissent, in 1919 the British passed the Rowlatt Acts.
Closure Question #1: What changes resulted from the Amritsar massacre? (At least 1
Mohandas K. Gandhi
“Great Soul”, Indian people referred to Mohandis Gandhi using this title out of respect for
his leadership of non-violent protests against British rule in the early 1900s.
Gandhi left South Africa in 1914. When he returned to India, he organized mass protests against British laws. A believer in non-violence,
Gandhi used the methods of civil disobedience. In 1919 British troops killed hundreds of unarmed protesters in Amritsar, in northwestern
India. Horrified at the violence, Gandhi briefly retreated from active politics, but was later arrested and imprisoned for his role in protests.
In 1935 Britain passed the Government of India Act. This act expanded the role of Indians in governing. Before, the Legislative Council could
only give advice to the British governor. Now, it became a two-house parliament, and two-thirds of its Indian members were to be elected.
Similar bodies were created at the provincial level. Five million Indians (still a small percentage of the population) were given the right to
The Indian National Congress (INC), founded in 1885, sought reforms in Britain’s government of India. Reforms, however, were no longer
enough. Under its new leader, Motilal Nehru, the INC wanted to push for full independence. Gandhi, now released from prison, returned to
his earlier policy of civil disobedience. He worked hard to inform ordinary Indians of his beliefs and methods. It was wrong, he said, to harm
any living being. Hate could only be overcome by love, and love, rather than force, could win people over to one’s position.
Nonviolence was central to Gandhi’s campaign of noncooperation and civil disobedience. To protest unjust British laws, Gandhi told his
people: “Don’t pay your taxes or send your children to an English-supported school… Make your own cotton cloth by spinning the thread at
home, and don’t buy English-made goods. Provide yourselves with home-made salt, and do not by government-made salt. Britain had
increased the salt tax and prohibited the Indians from manufacturing, or harvesting their own salt. In 1930 Gandhi protested these
measures. Accompanied by supporters, he walked to the sea on what became known as the Salt March. On reaching the coast, Gandhi
picked up a pinch of salt. Thousands of Indians followed his act of civil disobedience. Gandhi and many other members of the INC were
Closure Question #2: How did Gandhi’s methods for achieving his nationalist goals
differ from those of many other revolutionaries? (At least 1 sentence)
• We generally think of revolutions and independence movements as being
violent. Yet Mohandas Gandhi, leader of India’s independence movement,
used a nonviolent approach – civil disobedience – to protest British
control in India.
• Gandhi’s methods included boycotts of British goods and institutions as
well as prolonged fasting (giving up food) to draw attention to issues.
These protests eventually led to independence for India – and inspired
civil rights leaders throughout the world.
• In 1930 Gandhi launched a protest to oppose the British Salt Acts. These
laws made it illegal to prepare salt from seawater, which would deprive
the British government of tax revenue from its monopoly of the sale of
salt. Gandhi set out with 78 followers for the coast to collect seawater to
make salt. The British jailed Gandhi and more than 60,000 of his followers.
Yet the protesters had sent a powerful message to the British. A year later,
the government agreed to negotiate with Gandhi as the representative of
the Indian National Congress.
Civil Disobedience / Salt March
• Civil Disobedience – Refusal to obey laws considered to be unjust.
• Salt March (1930) – To show their opposition to British laws which required
Indians to purchase their salt only from the British government and to pay taxes
on salt purchases, Gandhi and his followers walked 240 miles to the seacoast
where they made their own salt. The march sparked similar protests throughout
India. British police officers used violence to break-up the protests and about
60,000 people ,including Gandhis, were arrested.
In the 1930s, Jawaharlal Nehru entered the movement. The son of Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal studied law in Great
Britain. He was a new kind of Indian politician – upper class and intellectual. The independence movement split into
two paths. The one identified with Gandhi was religious, Indian, and traditional. The other, identified with Nehru, was
secular, Western, and modern. The two approaches created uncertainty about India’s future path. In the meantime,
another problem had arisen in the independence movement. Hostility between Hindus and Muslims had existed for
centuries. Muslims were dissatisfied with the Hindu dominance of the INC and raised the cry “Islam is in danger.” By
the 1930s, the Muslim League was under the leadership of Mohammed Ali Jinnah. The league believed in the creation
of a separate Muslim state of Pakistan (“the land of the pure”) in the northwest.
• “Father Turk”; Turkish Colonel who helped establish the independent nation of
Turkey in 1923, driving out Greek and Ottoman soldiers. Kemal led the
establishment of a non-religious, European-style government, ending Islamic rule
While Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia emerged as modern states, tensions mounted between the Jewish and Muslim inhabitants in
Palestine. President Kemal was now popularly known as Ataturk, or “Father Turk.” Over the next several years he tried to transform Turkey
into a modern state. A democratic system was put in place, but Ataturk did not tolerate opposition and harshly suppressed his critics.
Ataturk’s changes went beyond politics. Many Arabic elements were eliminated from the Turkish language, which was now written in the
Roman alphabet. Popular education was introduced. All Turkish citizens were forced to adopt family (last) names, in the European style.
Ataturk also took steps to modernize Turkey’s economy. Factories were established, and a five-year plan provided for state direction over
the economy. Ataturk also tried to modernize farming, although he had little effect on the nation’s peasants. Perhaps the most significant
aspect of Ataturk’s reform program was his attempt to break the power of the Islamic religion. He wanted to transform Turkey into a
secular state – a state that rejects religious influence on its policies. Ataturk said, “Religion is like a heavy blanket that keeps the people of
The caliphate was formally abolished in 1924. Men were forbidden to wear the fez, the brimless cap worn by Turkish Muslims. When
Ataturk began wearing a Western panama hat, one of his critics remarked, “You cannot make a Turk into a Westerner by giving him a hat.”
Women were forbidden to wear the veil, a traditional Islamic custom. New laws gave women marriage and inheritance rights equal to
men’s. In 1934 women received the right to vote. All citizens were also given the right to convert to other religions. The legacy of Kemal
Ataturk was enormous. In practice, not all of his reforms were widely accepted, especially by devout Muslims. However, most of the
changes that he introduced were kept after his death in 1938. By and large, the Turkish Republic was the product of Ataturk’s determined
Closure Question #3: How did World War I create an atmosphere for political change in
India and Southwest Asia? (At least 1 complete sentence)
Closure Assignment #4
Answer the following questions based on what you have
learned from Chapter 30, Section 4:
1. What changes resulted from the Amritsar massacre? (At
least 1 sentence)
2. How did Gandhi’s methods for achieving his nationalist
goals differ from those of many other revolutionaries? (At
least 1 sentence)
3. How did World War I create an atmosphere for political
change in India and Southwest Asia? (At least 1 complete