Oliver Cromwell “Lord Protector” 1649

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Transcript Oliver Cromwell “Lord Protector” 1649

Quick Review
Why did the English king and Parliament quarrel
in the 1640s? Was the king or Parliament more to
blame? What role did religion play in the
conflict?
Transition question
Consider the following events:
Reigns of James I and Charles I
English Civil War
The Puritan Republic
The Stuart Restoration
Compare the Stuart monarchs of England from 1603 to 1649 with
Oliver Cromwell’s reign as Lord Protector (1653-1658). How was
Cromwell’s reign different or alike? Do you think Cromwell’s
treatment of King Charles I was justified? Was Cromwell’s reign as
Lord Protector an improvement for the people of England?
Charles II and the Restoration
of the Monarchy
• Charles II (1660-1685)
– England returned to the status
quo of 1642
– Lords and Commons (met only
when summoned by the king)
– English church restored.
• Was believed to have secret
catholic sympathies.
• Wanted religious toleration
for Catholics and Puritans.
.
Clarendon Code (1661-1665)
Parliament Reacts to Toleration
• Series of Laws that:
– Excluded Roman Catholics,
Presbyterians, and
Independents from the
religious and political life of
the English nation.
– Required strict adherence to
the Book of Common
Prayer and the Thirty-Nine
Articles.
– Demanded oaths of
allegiance to the Church of
England from all persons
serving in local
governments.
The Clarendon Code
• The Corporation Act of 1661
– Required all officeholders in incorporated municipalities to receive communion in
the Anglican Church.
• The Act of Uniformity of 1662
– All ministers had to use the Anglican Book of Common Prayer.
– Non-conformists had to take an oath that they would not try to alter the
established order of church and state in England.
– Hundreds of Quakers, pacifists group (1649) who refused to pay tithes or
take oaths, were put in prison or killed.
• The Conventicle (Secret Meeting) Act of 1664
– Imposed harsh penalties on those who attended religious services which
did not follow the forms of the Anglican Church
• The Five-Mile Act of 1665
– prohibited ministers from coming within five miles of a parish from which
they had been removed as pastor.
Navigation Acts (1660)
• Required all trade to be
done using English ships.
All trade from English
colonies was restricted to
England or its other
colonies.
• Aimed at Dutch
dominance in the shipping
industry
• Sparked a series of naval
wars between England and
Holland.
Treaty of Dover (1670)
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Charles needed money to fight the
war with Holland.
France and England were at war
with Holland
France and England form a secret
alliance
Charles II and Louis XIV
Charles was supposed to announce
his conversion to Catholicism and
Louis XIV would supply finances
to fund the war.
1672-Declaration of Indulgence(A sign of good faith) Charles
suspended all laws against Roman
Catholics and Protestant nonconformists.
The Test Act (1673)
• Parliament’s Response to Charles’ request for
money. They would not give Charles money until
he rescinded the Declaration of Indulgence. (He
did)
– Superseded the Clarendon Codes
– Excluded non-Anglicans from both military and civil
office by requiring them to swear an oath against the
doctrine of transubstantiation.
– Aimed at James II (Charlie’s brother and devout
Catholic)
– Charles did NOT have a legitimate heir but did have a
many illegitimate children.
“the Popish Plot 1678”
• Titus Oates claimed the
existence of a plot by the
Catholic Church against
England.
• Oates claimed that the Jesuits
(identified with Rome) were
preparing to assassinate the
king and slaughter all English
Protestants to proclaim James
King of England.
• Opposition members (opposed
to James I) of Parliament were
tried and executed.
The Popish Plot
Whigs and Tories
• Popish Plot led to the
formation of Political
Parties:
– Whigs-members of
parliament who were
critical of the king’s
policies and supported
parliamentary supremacy
and led an effort to prevent
James from becoming king.
– Tories-supported the
monarchy and defended
James II as rightful heir to
the throne.
Charles II: The End of His Reign
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1681 - 1685
Does not trust Parliament. Does not
recall Parliament.
Turns to increased custom duties
and Louis XIV for extra income.
Did not need Parliament
Suppressed any opposition to
throne (executed several Whig
leaders.
Influenced the election of Royal
sympathizers to Parliament.
Left James II with a supportive
Royal Parliament.
James II AND RENEWED FEARS OF A
CATHOLIC ENGLAND
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1685-1688
Inherited a Parliament with strong Tories and
weak Whigs giving him a strong position as
monarch.
Devout Roman Catholic determined to return
England to Catholicism
Dissolved Parliament when they opposed him.
1687--Issued the Declaration of Indulgence-suspended all religious tests and permitted free
worship.
Appointed Catholics to high positions in
government.
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Candidates for Parliament who opposed the
Indulgence were replaced with Catholics.
Supported King Louis XIV’s decision to revoke
the Edict of Nantes (made English Protestants
nervous)
James II--Absolute?
• Wanted to subject all
English Institutions to
the power of the
monarchy.
It’s a boy!
• June 10, 1688
• James has a male heir,
James Francis Edward
Stuart.
• James II now had a
Catholic heir.
• Whigs and Tories from
both houses of
Parliament invite
William and Mary to
take the throne of
England.
William and Mary and The “Glorious Revolution”
Just Give Us The Crown and No One Gets Hurt.`
• 1688-William III of Orange Arrives in England with his
army and was received without opposition.
• James fled to France and the protection of Louis XIV.
• 1689-William summoned a Free Parliament
• William and Mary were declared Joint Sovereigns
with the administration given to William.
Conditions
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The Bill of Rights had to be accepted.(1689)
This meant;
– The king could not be a Roman Catholic
– A standing army in time of peace was illegal
– Taxation without Parliamentary consent was illegal
– Excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment were prohibited
– Right to trial by jury was guaranteed
– Free elections to Parliament would be held
– Parliament would be called into session every three years
The Toleration Act (1689) granted the right to public worship to Protestant
nonconformists but did not permit them to hold office.
Outlawed Roman Catholics and anti-Trinitarians.
Act of Settlement (1701)-Provided for the English Crown to go to the Protestant
House of Hanover in Germany once the second daughter of James II or her
children had passed.
Characteristics of Absolutism
• Social
– Ruler dominated upper classes, which in turn
dominated lower classes.
– Ruler dominated cultural life either as a patron of the
arts or by censoring
• Political
– Rule by Divine Right
– Sovereign Authority--Unlimited power; Individuals are
subjects owing loyalty and obedience
– Upper Classes maintained limited local control
(parlements) but were constantly supervised
(intendants-Louis XIII)
Characteristics of Absolutism
• Religious
– One King, One Law, One Faith
– France-Catholic King, Catholic Country
• Economic
– Ruler encourages industry and trade to strengthen the
economy (Sully, Colbert)
– Elaborate ceremonies celebrating authority and power.
• Intellectual (Bossuet, Hobbes, Bodin)
– Divine Right
– Sovereignty
Leviathan, 1651
“A Social Contract”
Rulers
Bourbon Dynasty
• Henry IV- 1589 - 1610
• Marie de Medici *Queen Regent for Louis
XIII- (1610-1617)
• Louis XIII-1610 - 1643 (The Beloved)
• Anne of Austria * Queen Regent for Louis
XIV (1643-1651)
• Louis XIV 1643 - 1715 (The Sun King)
Important Terms and Concepts
• Mercantilism: An economic system that
emphasizes a nation’s control of trade and its
colonies for its own self interest and the
accumulation of bullion.
• Bullion: Gold or silver considered with respect to
quantity rather than value. OR Gold or silver in
the form of bars, ingots, or plates
• Parlements: A series of thirteen provincial
boards-one in Paris and the other twelve in major
provincial cities.
Parlements
• Constituted the independent judiciary of
France.
• Consisted of the aristocracy
• Previously weakened the monarch’s
centralized power.
• Intendants then weakened Parlement’s
power.
ParlementsPaths to Royal
Absolutism
Marie de Medici, Louis XIII,
Richelieu, Louis XIV
Question 1 Background
Louis XIII and Richelieu
• Louis inherits the throne at the age of 9
– Marie de Medici-Queen Mother and regent
• Foreign Policy
– Treaty of Fountainbleau-1611-Mutual defense
pact with Spain for 10 years.
• Contained the Hapsburg Empire
• Arranged for Louis XIII to marry the Spanish
Infanta
Louis XIII and Richelieu
• Domestic Policy
– Promoted Cardinal Richelieu--King’s Chief
Advisor
• Architect of the Absolute system
– Devout Catholic
– Pursued an anti-Hapsburg policy
– Put the interest of the state above the interest of the
individual.
Louis XIII and Richelieu
• Intendant system
– Royal agents sent to govern provinces
• Collected royal taxes
• Enforced royal decrees
• Intended to halt the power of ambitious nobles who
threatened royal authority.
• Noble who resisted were imprisoned or killed.
Louis XIII and Richelieu
• Centralization of Authority
– Stepped up the campaign against separatist parlements
and provincial governors-one law, that of the king
• Imprisoned or executed dissenters.
• Religion-One King, One Law, One Faith
– Huguenots-1629-Royal armies conquered major
Protestant cities
– Peace of Alais (1629)-Denied Protestants the right to
maintain Garrisons, separate political organizations,
and independent law courts
• Used the arts and print to defend his actions
– “raison d'état”-reasons of the state
Louis XIII and Richelieu
• Pursued an anti-Hapsburg policy
– Aided the Protestants during the Thirty Years’ War.
– Catholics in conquered areas be permitted to practice
their religion
– Gained land during and after the war through the Treaty
of Westphalia (HRE)
Louis XIII and Richelieu
• Created resentment of the monarchy from
the French Nobles and wealthy commercial
groups
• Undermined the traditional political
privileges of the nobility--state agents
(intendant system)
Louis XIV and Mazarin
• Mazarin installed as Chief Minister by
Queen Anne-(Regent)
• Continued Richelieu’s policy of
centralization
• Imprisoned anyone who resisted
centralization
• Actions led to the Fronde
“The Fronde”
• 1649 - 1652--rebellion initiated by the
Parlement of Paris and supported by the
Nobility
• Louis XIV-flees France
Questions 2 and 3-One King
Louis XIV Returns
“One King”
• Believed in absolute, unquestioned authority
(never appointed a Chief minister [advisor])
• Used the intendant system of local government
• Never called the Estates-General, who did not
resist, risk of arrest.
• Never abolished parlements or limited their
authority at their local level (exception was the
Parlement of Paris)
• Louis’ personal control was more creative than
Mazarin’s or Richelieu’s
Louis XIV
• Used Propaganda
• Created a political image
• Made sure the French nobles and major
social groups would benefit from his
authority
Questions 4 and 5-Versailles
Versailles
Versailles
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Used to exert in his political control
Permanent residence after 1682
Proclaimed the glory of the Sun King
Consumed at least one-quarter (sometimes
one-half) of the annual revenue
• Life at Versailles was organized around
Louis daily routine
One Law
• Most powerful government during the middle to
latter part of the 17th century.
• Used his powerful military to try to secure
France’s borders. (northern-Spanish Netherlands,
Alsace-Lorraine, Habsburg Empire)
• Louis’ foreign ambition created tension and many
countries eventually formed coalitions against
France.
One Law
• Economy
– Jean Baptiste Colbert-controller of general
finances.
• Strengthen his army in foreign wars
• Centralize his authority
– Economy under state supervision
– Mercantilist
– Transformed France into a major commercial
power
– Reduced the number of tax-exempt nobles.
– Increased the direct tax-the taille (peasantry)
One Law
• Military
– Changed by Marquis of Louvois, Sebastian Vauban
– 250,000 members
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Salaried
Disciplined
Respectable
Promotion by merit
Monitored by the king’s intendants
Enlistment lasted four years-had to be single
Respected the citizens of France
Employed modern methods of warfare (Trench Warfare and
strategies that last until World War I)
Question 8-Louis’s Early Wars
Louis’s Early Wars
• War of Devolution (1667-68)
– Fought over Louis’s claim to lands in Belgium
– Land that was to be inherited through his marriage to
Marie-Theresa (Spanish Infanta)
– Marie was to renounce her claim and accept 500,000
crown dowry to be paid to Louis within 18 months,
never honored.
– Philip IV (King of Spain)-left all his land to Charles II
(son from his second marriage)
– Louis challenged this claim which led to war.
– Used the law of the land--(land devolved to the children
of the first marriage).
Louis’s Early Wars
• War of Devolution
– England, Sweden, United Holland respond with
a coalition, the Triple Alliance
– Agreed to come to terms, Treaty of Aix-laChapelle (1668)
• Louis controlled towns bordering the Spanish
Netherlands. (map page 393)
Louis’s Early Wars
• Invasion of the Netherlands (again)
– 1670-Treaty of Dover-Dissolved Triple Alliance
– 1672-Invaded the Netherlands-Dutch offended Louis,
they organized the Triple Alliance.
• Louis VS William of Orange
– Orange united with HRE, Spain, Lorraine and
Brandenburg
– Ended with the Treaty of Nijmwegen (1678), no clear
victor.
• Louis now compared to Philip II.
Question 9 – One Faith
One Faith
• Suppression of the Jansenists
– Religious policy to conform to Catholicism
– Jesuits-permitted to worship in France, eventually
became very influential.
– Jansenists-influenced by many of the doctrines of the
Protestant faith concerning salvation.
• Accused by Jesuits as being Crypto-Calvinist.
– Louis afraid of the Jansenist appeal to French
Protestants-banned the practice.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
(1685)
• ONE FAITH
– Louis wanted the unification of the Catholic
religion.
• Before (1685)
– Huguenots lost their political, social, and
economic privileges.
• After (1685)
– Religious privileges revoked.
Question 10- Louis’s Later Wars
Louis’s Later Wars
• 1686-League of Augsburg (England, Spain,
Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, and the Palitinate)
formed to stop Louis’s aggression in Germany.
• Led to the Nine Year War (1688-1697)
• Led to the French-British struggle in North
America-King Williams War
• Ended in a Stalemate-The Peace of Ryswick
(1697)-stopped Louis’s expansion into Germany
Louis’s Later Wars
War of Spanish Succession1701-1714
• 1700-Charles II-Spain died-No direct heir to the throne
• Charles left his inheritance to Philip of Anjou (Louis’s
grandson)
• Louis used his relationship with Philip to reclaim lands for
Spain (France) drive the Dutch from Flanders and claimed
Spanish America open to French Ships
• 1701-Grand Alliance formed against France to preserve
the balance of power-(England, Holland, and the HRE)
• France was not prepared for war-bad finances, ill-equipped
army, and poor military leadership
• War was considered a French failure
Louis’s Later Wars
War of Spanish Succession
• Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
– Confirmed Philip V as King of Spain (Bourbon thrones
of Spain and France were never to be united)
– Gave lands to England
– Recognized the House of Hanover (England)
– Spain’s power decreased
– Power shifted to England
Peter the Great of Russia
The Romanov Dynasty, The Princes of Muscovy
Reading Assignment
(pages 405-413)
• Describe Peter the Great’s (1682-1725) reaction to
the following,
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Revolutionary movements
Russian military
Russian nobility
Foreign expansion
Western Absolutism
Personal opposition
Russian Politics
Religion
Peter the Great 1689-1725
“Peter had laid the foundation of a modern
Russia, but not the foundations of a stable
state”.
(Kagan, Ozment, and Turner, p. 409,
2010)
Why do you suppose the authors of your
textbook make this statement? Provide
evidence supporting your response.
Revolutionary Movements and
Russian Politics
• 1698-Suppressed the Streltsy rebellion.
• Publically tortured and executed rebels.
• 1,000 rebels put to death, corpses put on
public display.
Russian Military
• Served the tsar, not itself.
• New policies of conscription-drafted
130,000 in the first 10 years, 300,000 by the
end of his reign.
• Adopted policies of West European Armies.
• Navy-built new ships to expand territory
and gain ports (Baltic, Black Sea)
Foreign Expansion
• Great Northern War (1700-1721)
• Russia and its coalition defeat Sweden for
the territories of Estonia, Livonia, and parts
of Finland.
• Russia possessed ice-free ports.
Western Absolutism
• Secured his power from the boyars and
streltsy.
• Increased military power.
• Created the capital city of St. Petersburg.
– Compelled the boyars to build houses.
• Re-organized the Russian Orthodox Church
Personal Opposition
• Prevented conspiracies against his reign
involving his son Aleksei.
– Aleksei wanted to overthrow his father with the
help of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI
– Aleksei would have had the help of nobility,
government officials, and church leaders.
• Peter had Aleksei executed.
Russian Politics
• Crushed opposition by force.
• Created Colleges-groups of administrators who were to
oversee taxation, foreign affairs, war, and economics.
• Each college was divided among the nobility and loyal
subjects.
• Table of Ranks-intended to draw the nobles into state
service by ignoring their lineage. Equated a person’s social
position and privilege by their rank in the state bureaucracy
or army.
Religion
• Abolished the leadership of the Patriarch,
or bishop.
• Established a government department, Holy
Synod consisting of several bishops.
• It governed the church according to the
secular requirements of the Tsar.
The Ottoman Empire
Expansion to 1683
Compared to Western Absolutism
• Largest Empire of the time (geographically).
• Key factor—religious toleration. Empire was a haven for persecuted
religions from Europe. No conversion was necessary.
– Non-muslim groups organized into societies called millets with some autonomy
and self-government.
– Each had its own leaders, courts, schools, etc.
– Taxes were pai to the state, Muslim populations were exempt from taxation.
• No hereditary nobility or landed property.
• Powerful military made up of Christian slaves-janissaries-Christian
boys taken as a tax from the Balkans annually, converted to Islam and
trained as high level administrators or soldiers in the Sultan’s army.
– Keeping them from their families made them loyal to the Sultan in a multicultural
state.
– This loyalty reduced competition competition for key positions.
• Separate spheres for men and women.
Decline of the Ottoman Empire
• Internal struggles for power among the Muslim elite led to
weakness within government and rivalries.
• European countries began to surpass the Ottomans in
technological, wealth and scientific knowledge.
• Europeans developed greater military and naval power
with better weapons.
• Ottomans never adjusted to the growth of European
powers remaining very traditional rather than progressive.
Directions and Rubric
Essay Test Chapter 13
• One of the following essay questions will be selected in class. Please
prepare to answer each question by developing an essay that;
• Has a clear, well-developed thesis.
• Is well organized and contains smooth transition from beginning to end
and among ideas.
• Supports thesis with specific evidence.
• Clearly addresses all parts of the question.
Questions
• Discuss the causes of the English Revolution of 1642.
• Louis XIV declared his goal was “one king, one law, one faith.”
Analyze the methods the king used to achieve this objective and
discuss the extent to which he was successful.
• Historians have said that in 17th century Europe the English
Aristocracy had lost their privilege but retained their power while the
French Aristocracy had lost their power but retained their privilege.
Assess the validity of this statement.