__________ emerged in east Africa
between 100,000 and 400,000 years
Homo sapiens migrated from
______ to Eurasia, Australia, and
Early humans were _________ whose
survival depended on the availability of
wild plants and animals.
Hunter-gatherer societies lived
during the ______ (Old Stone Age).
During the ________ the first tools,
including simple weapons were
During the ______ humans learned
how to make and use fire.
During the _________ humans
lived in clans and made cave art.
hunters and gatherers
During the _______ humans developed
oral language in their tribes.
During the _______ humans were
nomadic, migrating in search of
food, water, shelter.
During the _________ humans
Animals and plants were
___________ during the Neolithic
More advanced tools were used
during the _______ (New Stone
People made pottery and the
development of weaving skills
occurred during the ________.
___________ study past cultures by
locating and analyzing human remains,
settlements, fossils, and artifacts.
Archaeologists apply scientific tests,
such as ________, to analyze fossils and
_________ is an example of an archaeological
site in England that was begun during the
Neolithic Age and completed during the
______ and ______ are examples
of early cities in the Fertile
Crescent studied by archaeologists.
________ is an example of a Neolithic
settlement currently under excavation
in Anatolia (Asia Minor)
Tigris and Euphrates River surround
______ the cradle of civilization.
The Egyptians’ civilization
depended on the ______ for life.
_______ River valley is where
Chinese civilization started.
A triangular peace of land at the mouth
of a river is called a _________.
The _______ settled between the
Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan
The ________ settled along the
Mediterranean coast and were some of
the best traders in ancient times.
The ________were located on the
upper (southern) Nile River.
The ________ was the world’s first
code of law.
Code of Hammurabi
_______ was a very hash code of
laws made by a Babylonian King.
Code of Hammurabi
The ________ were the moral code
of law for the Hebrews.
__________was practiced by most
Monotheism was practiced by the
______- the first to worship this
A belief in more than one god?
A belief in one god?
________ is the father of Judaism.
_______ led the Hebrews out of
slavery in Egyptian exile and found
the Ten Commandments.
_____ is one of the most holy cities in the
world. Three major religions consider it so.
The ________ contains the written
records and beliefs of the Jews.
_______ state moral and religious
conduct for Jews and Christians
The first written language was
_______ in Sumer.
Hieroglyphics was the written
language in _______.
The first Phonetic Alphabet was the
The________ was known for its
tolerance of conquered peoples and the
fact that it developed an imperial
__________ was the religion of Persia,
where it had a belief in two opposing
forces in the universe.
Physical barriers, such as the Himalayas,
the Hindu Kush, and the Indian Ocean,
made invasion difficult for the ________.
The_____ and ______were the
important rivers in the Indian
Two early Indus River valley civilizations
were _______ and _____, which were
both native Indian civilizations
The _____migration to India was
very important and is how the
caste came to India.
_____ was a large Indian Empire
that continued the political
unification of much of India.
______ was a Mauryan King that
spread of Buddhism through out
The Golden Age of classical Indian
culture was the _______ Empire.
_______ made contributions to India in the areas of
mathematics (concept of zero), medical advances
(setting bones), astronomy (concept of a round
earth), new textiles, literature
_________ is a rebirth based upon
__________ is knowledge that all
thoughts and actions result in
future and a belief in Hinduism.
The sacred writings of Hinduism is
the ________and ________.
______ means the “in lighted one” .
_________ was a Indian religion
which was spread along major trade
Buddha’s name was __________.
Siddhartha Gautama left Hinduism
because his belief that a ______ system
was unneeded in a religion.
Four Noble Truths and the
_____________ are the beliefs in
Eightfold Path to
________’s missionaries and their
writings spread Buddhism from India to
China and other parts of Asia.
__________built the Great Wall as
a line of defense against invasions.
Qin Shi Huangdi
__________ was built as a line of
defense against invasions in China.
The Great Wall
The _______facilitated trade and
contact between China and other
cultures as far away as Rome.
Belief that humans are good, not bad
Respect for elders
Code of politeness (still used in Chinese society today)
Emphasis on education& Ancestor worship
Simple life and inner peace
Harmony with nature
The _____ and ________represented
opposites for Confucianism and Taoism.
Greek cities were located on the
_______ and Peloponnesus
peninsula, Europe, Asia Minor
Athens, Sparta, and ______are
Greek city states.
Agriculture is limited in Greece
because of the small amount of
Because of Greece's ______terrain
it both helped and hindered the
development of city-states.
Colonization was prompted by
___________and the search for arable
Yin & yang
Greek mythology was based on
explanations of natural phenomena,
human qualities, and life events
_______ was the king of the Greek
________ was the Greek goddess of
marriage and was the wife of Zeus.
_______ was the twin brother of
Artemis and the god of light.
______ was the twin sister of
Apollo and was the goddess of the
______ was the goddess of Athens
and is the goddess of wisdom.
______ was the Greek goddess of
In Greece _______(free adult males)
had political rights and the responsibility
of civic participation in government.
In Greece ______, slaves, and
foreigners had no political rights.
The Stages in the evolution of Athenian
government were Monarchy,
aristocracy, tyranny, ___________.
________ was a tyrant that made a
hash code of law in Athens.
________ was a tyrant that ended
Debtors prison in Athens.
Athens had a _________democracy.
______ in Greece had a Oligarchy
as their government.
The Greek city state of ______ had
Rigid social structure
Sparta was a ________and
The ________ wars united Athens
and Sparta against the Persian
________victories over the Persians at
Marathon and Salamis left Greeks in
control of the Aegean Sea.
Athens preserved its independence and
continued innovations in government
and culture after the__________.
________was in the Delian
_____ was a War between Athens
______was part of the
The result of the ____________ was the
slowing of cultural advance and the
weakening of political power in Greece.
The Golden Age of _______mostly
occurred between the Persian and
the Peloponnesian Wars.
_______extended democracy to
most adult males and gave an equal
voice in Athens government.
Pericles had Athens rebuilt after
destruction in the Persian Wars; the
________is an example of this
Wrote the Iliad and Odyssey
This Greek is the worlds first
Who was the first Greek to write
history like a science?
______ was a great Greek made
many great Sculptures.
_______was a great figure in the
history of Medicine.
He is one of the greatest scientist in
Greek history ?
The Father of Geometry was
A + B= C
This philosopher was put to death
for corrupting the youth of Athens?
What philosopher wrote the
________ was the philosopher that
was the tutor of Alexander the
conquered most of Greece.
____________ established an
empire from Greece to Egypt and
the margins of India
He extended Greek cultural
The ____________ is the blend of
Greek and oriental elements
King Philip II
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
_______ is centrally located in the
Mediterranean Basin and distant from
eastern Mediterranean powers
Rome is located on the _________
Rome is protected from the North
by the largest Mountain chain in
Europe called the ______.
Roman mythology is based on the
_______ was the king of the Roman
________ was the Roman goddess
of marriage and was the wife of
There was wars resulted in Roman victory, the
destruction of Carthage, and expanded trade
and wealth for Rome.
_______ was the twin brother of
Diana and the Roman god of light.
______ was the twin sister of
Apollo and was the Roman goddess
of the hunt.
______ was the Roman goddess of
______ was the Roman goddess of
The ______ were the powerful
nobility in Rome and were few in
The _________made up the
majority of the population in Rome
In Rome ______was not based
To be a ______________ of Roman
one had to be a Patrician or
Roman had a representative
democracy called a ________.
There were two __________in the
senate and they could be become
dictators in times of war.
The laws of Rome were called
Rome fought ___________ in the
Rome and Carthage were in
competition for trade which lead to
the first ______________.
_______invaded the Italian
Peninsula in the Second Punic War.
Rome conquered _______(modern day
France) and started the invasion of
British Isle under Julius Caesar.
The spread of _______crushed the
agricultural system Rome.
There was Civil war in Rome by
_______ when he Rubicon River
with his army.
Julius Caesar, Marcus Crassus, and
Julius Caesar seized power and
than was _________by the senate
on the Ides of March.
Augustus Caesar had a Civil war
with ______ and defeat him.
________ was Rome’s first emperor
One of the failures of the Roman
empire was to provide for peaceful
succession of the_________.
_______ was two centuries of
peace and prosperity under
imperial Roman rule.
The Pax Romana
During __________ there was an
expansion / solidification of the Roman
Empire, particularly in the Near East
The Pax Romana
During the Pax Romana there was a
established uniform system of______,
which helped to expand trade
During the Pax Romana there was
guaranteed safe travel and trade
Christianity had its roots in_______.
The founder of Christianity
was__________, who was proclaimed
Jesus of Nazareth
Christianity is a ________religion.
Jesus as both _____and incarnation
Christians believe in ______after
The_________, containing accounts of
the life and teachings of Jesus, as well as
writings of early Christians
Christian _______ were established
by early church councils.
Christianity was carried by the
throughout the Roman Empire.
Many early Christians were ______or
dyeing for their beliefs which inspired
many other Romans.
The Emperor _______converted to
Christianity and made it legal.
Because Emperor _______ became a
Christian Christianity would 40 years later
became the official state religion of Rome.
The Church of Rome became a
source of ______authority rather
than the Emperor.
Loyalty to the ______became more
important than loyalty to the
The ________of Rome became the
main unifying force of Western
The _____ was the domed temp to
the Roman gods.
The ______ was a giant stadium used
for gladiator fights and other games
in the city of Rome.
The ______was a giant Roman
The Romans used a ________to
carry fresh water to there cities.
The Roman _____was a major
design that was used in the making
of aqueducts and the Colosseum.
_______was a Roman scientist
whose textbooks help many future
The Romans spoke the
______’s Aeneid was wrote to
inspire patriotic feels among his
Rome losses its iron Military and the Army
membership started to include non-Romans,
resulting in decline of__________.
Move of the capital by Constantine from
Rome to Byzantium, renaming
Survival of the Western Roman
Empire until ________a.d when
Rome fell to the Germanic Tribes.
________ was the year when
Rome ceased to have a Emperor.
The Eastern Roman Empire became
known as the _______Empire.
The ______ civilization is
represented by the city of Chichén
The _________ civilization was
located in the Mexican and Central
American rain forests.
The early American people called
_________ lived in groups of city-states
ruled by kings
The Mayans based there economy
based on _____and trade.
Mayans had a polytheistic religion
in which they used _______ as
places of worship and sacrifice.
The ____________ were located in
a arid valley in central Mexico.
Tenochtitlan was a _____________
city in the Americas.
The _______ were ruled by an
emperor and lived in Central
The Aztec economy based on
agriculture and _________from
The Aztecs had a ________religion in
which they used Pyramids in there
The Inca were located in the
___________Mountains of South
The ________ are represented by
Machu Picchu, the city in the
The ________ economy based on
The _________ Empire was the largest
in the Americas and because of its size
they built a large Road system to help
The Pope anointed
__________Emperor in 800 A.D.
The __________served religious
and social needs of the people
during the Middle Ages..
cultural achievements during the
Missionaries carried Christianity and
Latin alphabet to the ______tribes.
In Feudal society during the Middle
Ages if you were given a peace land it
was called a ________.
A __________ had feudal
obligations to there lord.
___________lived on Manors and
had no real rights except the
protection the manor provided.
The _______system during the
Middle Ages had a Rigid class
_______during the Middle Ages
The ___________emerged as a force in
Western Europe in the early Middles
During the Age of ______the power of
the Church was established in political
During the Age of Charlemagne
Under the leadership of the great
Frankish King _________ new Churches,
roads, and schools were built to unite the
The Germanic tribes of the Angles
and Saxons migrated from
continental Europe to_________.
The Magyars migrated from
Central Asia to__________.
The _______migrated from
Scandinavia to Russia.
Manors with __________provided
protection from invaders, reinforcing
the feudal system.
During the middle ages invasions
disrupted trade, towns declined, and
the _______system was strengthened.
________the Conqueror, leader of
the Norman Conquest, united most
of England in 1066 A.D..
Common law had its beginnings in
England during the reign of______ .
King _____signed the Magna Carta
in 1215, limiting the king’s power.
The________’ War between
England and France helped define
England as a nation.
_________ government is ran by
the Parliament (House of Commons
& House of Lords).
Hugh Capet established the French throne
in_______, and his dynasty gradually
expanded their control over most of France.
_____was a unifying factor in France
during the Hundred Year’s War.
Ferdinand and Isabella of
________unified the country and
expelled Jews and Moors.
The _______Empire in the Western
Hemisphere expanded under
__________threw off the rule of the
Mongols, centralized power in Moscow,
and expanded the Russian nation.
The Power of Russia was
centralized in the hands of the
The Russian _______Church
influenced unification of Russia
after the Mongols.
The __________were carried out by Christian
political and religious leaders to take control
of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Joan of Arc
Ivan the Great
Pope________’s speech made a speech
(counsel of Clermont) that started the
The city of ________ was capture
by Christians after the first
________was recaptured by the
Muslims under Saladin.
The Crusaders Sacked the city of
_________in the fourth Crusaded.
The Crusades stimulated
________throughout the Mediterranean
area and the Middle East
The ___________ invaded Russia,
China, and Muslim states in Southwest
Asia, destroying cities and countryside
_________fell to the Ottoman
Turks in 1453, ending the
The Black Death was also known
The ________made a decline in the
population and made a Scarcity of
labor opening up the economy.
The _______caused a decline of
Church influence because they
could not spot it
In the Middle Ages ______scholars
Were among the very few who
could read and write
The ______left a legacy of
bitterness among Christians, Jews,
In the fourteenth century, the
____decimated the population of much
of Asia and then the population of much
Location of the city of _______was a distance from
Germanic invasions in the western empire and Easily
fortified site on a peninsula bordered by natural
_________was the seat of the
Byzantine Empire until Ottoman
Byzantine Emperor ______made a
codification of Roman law called Justinian's
Code which had a impact on European legal
codes through out the Middle Ages.
Byzantine Emperor ______ made
reconquest of the former Roman
An ______ is a religious images.
A _______is a picture made out of
small tiles and are in public /
The _______is a Byzantine domed
church in Constantinople.
In Byzantine culture the ____language
was spoke in contrast with Latin in the
In _____culture Greek Orthodox
Christianity is practiced.
Much of the Greek and Roman
knowledge was preserved in
The division between Western and Eastern Churches
was over the authority of the ____which was
eventually accepted in the West and the authority of
the Patriarch accepted in the East.
The adoption of ____Christianity
by Russia and much of Eastern
The adoption of Greek alphabet for
the Slavic languages by St. Cyril
lead to the _________alphabet.
The origins of Islam _____is the
Mecca and Medina on the
____Peninsula and are early Muslim
Muhammad was from the city of
__________, now the most holy city in
all of Islam.
______is a Arabic word for God.
The ________is the word of God
for the religion of Islam and is
there holy book.
The _______of Islam are the major
beliefs such as daily prayer and
taking a hajj to Mecca.
Muhammad and his followers
spread the religion of_________.
The ______language spread with
Islam and facilitated trade across
After the death of Ali the Muslims split
into two fractions called ________ and
The Muslim conquered the cities of
Jerusalem and ______ in the Fertile
The Islamic capital was moved to
__________one most advanced cities
The Muslim defeat at the Battle of
_____ by the Franks stopped the
advancement of Islam into Europe.
The fall of Baghdad to the ______was a
turning point in Islamic history and the
start of the decline of the Islamic
The _________was a masque in built over
the stone on which Muhammad went into
heaven from and is one of the most beautiful
building in the world.
Dome of the Rock
The Dome of the Rock is a
beautiful masque in the city of
The ______numerals adapted from
India, including number zero.
________is a trade route that across Asia
to the Mediterranean basin.
______was a major trade idem from
Mountainous islands of Japan make
a _____four main islands.
_________is the ethnic religion
unique to Japan.
Shinto places importance of natural features,
forces of nature, ancestors, and State religion
with worship of the_______
The _______is located relative to the
Ethiopian Highlands /Nile River and is a
_______was located between the
Zambezi and Limpopo rivers and the
Indian Ocean coast.
The city of “Great_______” as capital of
a prosperous empire of Zimbabwe.
Location of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
empires relative to _______River and
The West African kingdoms had an
importance in gold and _____to
The West African city of
_______as a center of trade and
______, Venice, and Genoa had access
to trade routes connecting Europe with
Middle Eastern markets
Florence, Venice, and Genoa were
_____governed as republics.
________wrote a book about
government called The Prince.
_______maintains that the end justifies the
means and advises that one should not only do
good if possible, but do evil when necessary.
Medieval art and literature focused
on the ______and salvation
________art and literature focused
on individuals and worldly matters,
along with Christianity.
Leonardo da Vinci painted
_______painted the ceiling of the
Sistine Chapel in Rome.
Michelangelo made the statue of
_______ which was 12 feet tall.
______was a Sonnet writer, and
was the father of humanism.
Mona Lisa/ The Last
______is the celebration of the individual and
stimulated the study of classical Greek and
Roman literature and culture
The ____Renaissance was made out of
the growing wealth in Northern Europe
supported Renaissance ideas.
The Northern Renaissance thinkers
merged ______ideas with
__________ movable type printing
press and the production and sale of
books helped disseminate ideas of the
_____ invented the movable type
printing press one of the most
important inventions in history.
One Northern Renaissance writer
was ______ who wrote The Praise
of Folly in 1511A.D.
One Northern Renaissance writer was
_____who wrote the Utopia in 1516
Sir Thomas More