League of Nations created

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Transcript League of Nations created

Warm-Up
What were some things that the US did to
raise money for the war effort during WWI?
The “war to end all wars” ends
How World War I Comes to an End?
• 1917: Russia signs the Brest-Litovsk Peace Treaty with
Germany and are now out of the war. Russia gave up
large territories of land to Germany - Finland, Poland,
Ukraine, and the Baltic States.
• Austria-Hungary surrenders to the Allies in November
of 1917.
• Germany becomes demoralized by 1918
• Anti-war protests
• production down to 53% of what it was in 1913 &
hurts the military
• Kaiser Wilhelm is forced to leave the throne. A new
government (Weimar Republic) is formed on
November 9th and starts to move towards proposing a
ceasefire.
• Germany signs a ceasefire agreement with the allies:
11/11/18 – Armistice Day.
War Deaths by
Country
Results of the War
• After 4 years of fighting front lines remain stationary.
• Very high casualty rates.
– British
• 885,138 soldiers killed, 1,663,435 soldiers wounded
– French
• 1,397,800 soldiers killed, 4,266,000 soldiers wounded
– Italy
• 651,010 soldiers killed, 953,886 soldiers wounded
– United States
• 116,708 soldiers killed, 205,690 soldiers wounded
– Germany
• 2,050897 soldiers killed, 4,247,143 soldiers wounded
– Overall Soldier Casualties
• 8 million killed, 21 million wounded, 3.6 million missing in action (presumed dead); numbers vary
GRAND TOTAL: most estimates
end around 37 MILLION PEOPLE
(soldier and civilian) killed,
wounded, or missing
• Population of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina today: Between 16 and 18 million.
Background
• Fighting ends on November
11, 1918 with signing of an
armistice (A temporary
suspension of hostilities by
agreement between
opponents, a truce).
• Allies gather at Versailles in
January to begin peace
negotiations.
– Central Powers not invited
• Negotiations took 6 months.
Who was there?
The Big Four
 BIG FOUR
 David Lloyd George of
Britain
 Vittorio Orlando of Italy
 Georges Clemenceau of
France
 Woodrow Wilson of the
United States
Conflicting Interests
• David Lloyd George
– Supports reparations from
Germany
– Supports naval blockade of
German ports
– Supports secret treaties
– Wants to maintain the
British Empire
– Wants to make sure
Germany becomes a major
trade partner with Britain
Georges Clemenceau
• Sought revenge against
Germany
– Wanted to permanently cripple
the military and economy
– Wanted to reduce size of German
military
– Ban pre-war politicians from
seeking office
– Sought to blockade ports in order
to control trade
– Wanted control of factories and
resources in Ruhr Valley.
– Wanted the Germans to pay for
all damages during the war
Woodrow Wilson
• Sought to end secret
treaties
• Wanted to create a “League
of Nations.”
• Wanted all nations to
reduce sizes of military
• “self-determination”
– People of same nationality
should be allowed to govern
themselves.
– Sought to eliminate the
problem of nationalism
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
A plan drawn up by W.Wilson that included 14 specific strategies for
ending the war and making peace.
• Was very lenient on conquered countries.
• Wanted to establish a League of Nations to oversee and
enforce the terms of surrender.
1. It would be an international organization with the purpose of preserving
peace throughout the world.
2. Every nation would have an equal vote.
3. Every nation in the world would be a member, and each nation would
have an equal vote.
4. Any controversy within the League would be turned over to the Central
Council: France, Britain, Italy, Japan, the U.S., and five small nations.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Paris Peace Conference
(Versailles, 1919)
“Peace without Victory”
G Britain/France want heavy
reparations for Germany
1
No secret treaties
No
2
Freedom of the seas
No
3
Free trade
No
4
Reduction of military arms
No
5
End colonization/imperialism
No
14
League of Nations
Established (Wilson would
not compromise on this)
Brief video
6 months later…
Treaty of Versailles eventually agreed upon by
allies
Very harsh terms against Germany
 Forced to accept sole responsibility for the entire war.
 Forced to pay reparations to allies
 Estimated at around $33 billion in modern currency
 Also paid for with coal, steel, and agricultural products to
avoid hyperinflation
 German Emperor Wilhelm II accused of war crimes
along with many other officials
Treaty of Versailles
• Wilson would negotiate the treaty in Paris without much input from the
new majority Republican Congress.
• France and Britain would not approve most of Wilson’s 14 Points. They
felt that they were too lenient.
• The League of Nations was approved to enforce the terms of the
surrender.
• It was signed in Paris, France on June 28, 1919 officially ending WWI.
• The U.S. Congress did not approve of the treaty or the League of
Nations, so they refused to sign it. Why? Because they felt that it did not
benefit the U.S.
1. A group of thirty-nine Republican senators led by Henry Cabot Lodge
opposed the League of Nations, citing several flaws in its structure.
- Reservationists (Lodge) - willing to pass the treaty if changes are made.
- Irreconcilables - no treaty, no way!
2. The Senators believed that the U.S. should remain “isolationist” after the war.
3. In March of 1920, the Senate defeated the vote for approval of the Treaty
of Versailles and the League of Nations.
Reasons Why?
- Upset with Wilson for not including them in making the treaty.
- Fear of involvement on war without Congressional declaration of war.
- Fear of foreign control of military decision-making.
- Questioned using “War to prevent War.”
- The refusal of Wilson to compromise on Article X (ten) - it made
members promise to protect each other’s territorial integrity against
aggressors. Congressmen did not want to be pulled into foreign conflicts.
Results of the Treaty of Versailles
A. Germany had to pay back $33 Billion in war reparations.
B. Germany had to break up all Alliances with other countries.
C. Germany had to admit to a “Guilt Clause.”
D. Created a League of Nations.
E. Italy gained very little, refused to sign a treaty.
F. Germany establishes a Republican form of government.
The Ottoman Empire under
League of Nations mandates
• Many new states created,
supposedly based on
nationality.
• Placed under the protection
of European nations until
they were ready for
independence
– Syria under French control
– Iraq and Palestine under
British control
• New nation of Turkey
created.
German Territorial Restrictions
• Loses 13% of it’s territory.
• Results in the loss of
almost 20% of coalfields
– Many placed under the
direct control of France
• Loses half of its iron and
steel industry
• Loses all overseas colonies
in Africa and Asia
• Annexation of other
countries prohibited.
German Military Restrictions
• Restricted to 100000 men
• Manufacturing, importing,
and exporting weapons
prohibited.
• Tanks, artillery, poison gas,
military aircraft, and
submarines prohibited.
• The creation of an air force
prohibited
• Navy limited to 15000
sailors, 6 battleships, and no
submarines
Consequences for the rest of
Europe
• Germans are shocked that they lost
-- German propaganda made Germans prior to surrender feel like
victory was near
• Germans resent provisions of treaty.
– Leads to inflation and debt in Germany, eventually contributes to Great
Depression.
• Many new nations created, or old nations freed due to Wilson’s “selfdetermination” provisions in the treaty.
– Austro-Hungarian Empire broken up
• League of Nations created
– Responsible for the administration of many territories through a system of
mandates
• Territories governed by nations belonging to League of Nations
– For instance, France and Britain
• Mandates to be given independence when local government ready for independence
(will not be enforced)
British reactions to treaty
 Britain gained some German colonies and the German navy was
destroyed but:
Lloyd George thought the treaty was too harsh,
saying: "We shall have to fight another war
again in 25 years time.“
The British diplomat Harold Nicolson called it:
"neither just nor wise" and the people who
made it: "stupid".
The economist John Maynard Keynes
prophesied that reparations would ruin the
economy of Europe.
French reactions to treaty
France got Alsace-Lorraine, German colonies,
harsh reparations and a tiny German army but:
Many French people wanted an independent,
not a demilitarized, Rhineland.
Most French people did not think the League
of Nations would protect them against
Germany.
American reaction to Versailles
Treaty
 Woodrow Wilson got the League of Nations, and new nation-states
were set up in Eastern Europe but:
Wilson thought the treaty was far too harsh.
Self-determination proved impossible to
implement -Example: Yugoslavia did not
survive as a united country, and
Czechoslovakia was annexed in stages by the
Nazis in 1938 and 1939.
Many Americans did not want to get involved in
Europe, and in 1920 the American Senate
refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles, or join
the League of Nations.
America’s Response to the Treaty of Versailles
“Irreconcilables”
“Reservationists”
Small group of senators
who believed the US
should not get involved
in world politics
Large group of senators
who opposed treaty
& wanted changes
(Henry Cabot Lodge)
Wilson & Senate cannot reach a compromise
Treaty of Versailles fails in the Senate…
US does not join the League of Nations (effect?)
Map Changes In Europe
9 New Nations Created:
Nations formed out of Russian Lands
1. Finland
2. Estonia 3. Latvia 4. Lithuania 5. Poland
Nations formed from Austria-Hungary
1. Czechoslovakia 2. Yugoslavia 3. Austria-Hungary split
From Germany
1. Lost all conquered territories
2. Gave Alsace-Lorraine back to France.
Recap video… if time permits
Questions
• What were the major provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
with regard to German Territory?
• What were the major provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
with regard to the German military?
• How would the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles affect
Germany’s ability to pay reparations, and meet its treaty
obligations?