Transformation of Europe

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Transcript Transformation of Europe

Chapter 24
The Transformation of Europe
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A new style of art
emerges from the
flat two dimensional
style to the warmer,
more human three
dimensional figure.
Art was influenced by Roman and Greek
civilization.
The greatest art of
the time was
founded by the
Catholic Church
and is religious art!
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Da Vinci was interested in
discovery he dabbled in
science, mathematics, and his
passion: art!
Leonardo Da
Vinci
Self-portrait
He designed many
inventions like the
helicopter and
weapons for war like
the crossbow and tank!
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In full MICHELANGELO DI
LODOVICO BUONARROTI SIMONI
(b. March 6, 1475, Caprese, Republic
of Florence [Italy]--d. Feb. 18, 1564,
Rome), Italian Renaissance sculptor,
painter, architect, and poet who
exerted an unparalleled influence on
the development of Western art
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Whenever I found out anything remarkable, I have
thought it my duty to put down my discovery on
paper, so that all ingenious people might be
informed thereof.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Advancement in Politics, Art, Science, Mathematics…
Enlightenment!
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Northern Renaissance
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In Northern Europe the ideas and traditions of the
Middle Ages died more slowly than in Italy.
In fact they were nearly 100 years behind the
Italians!
Renaissance in the North focused at first
specifically to religion and discovering the pure
Christian life void of dogma and doctrines.
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Leaders of the Northern Renaissance:
Humanist = a philosophy asserting human dignity and man's
capacity for fulfillment through reason and scientific method and
often rejecting religion
Desiderius Erasmus – believed the Church was
corrupted and wrote Praise of Folly a book ridiculing
the wealth and abuses of the church.
Both authors paved
the way for the
Reformation!
Sir Thomas More, a friend of
Erasmus who wrote Utopia
a book concerning a nation
at peace.
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He who first shortened the labor of copyists by device of movable
types was disbanding hired armies, and cashiering most kings and
senates, and creating a whole new democratic world: he had
invented the art of printing.
(Thomas Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, 1833)
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The Rise of England!
The Elizabethan Era
Daughter of Henry the XIII
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Elizabeth Tudor: Queen of England
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Became queen on November 17, 1558
She is the daughter of Henry XIII and Ann Boleyn
She ruled England for 45 years.
Elizabeth never married.
She establishes the Anglican Church
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Continued
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The Elizabethan era was one of peace.
Peace allowed merchants, bankers, farmers, artisans to
prosper.
The Nation prospered as land from the Catholic Church
was divided up and used for farming.
Elizabeth encouraged voyages and trade on the sea to
increase her wealth.
The Elizabethan era is also called the Age of
Shakespeare!
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The Protestant Reformation
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Martin Luther (1483-1546) attacks Roman
Catholic church practices, 1517
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Indulgences: preferential pardons for charitable donors
Writes Ninety-Five Theses, rapidly reproduced
with new printing technology
Excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1521
1520s-1530s dissent spread throughout Germany
and Switzerland
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Martin Luther
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Martin Luther dealt the symbolic blow that began the Reformation
when he nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of the Wittenberg
Church. That document contained an attack on papal abuses and the
sale of indulgences by church officials.
(Referring to Indulgences/ Common way of beginning a debate)
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But Luther himself saw the Reformation as something far more
important than a revolt against ecclesiastical abuses. He believed it was
a fight for the gospel. Luther even stated that he would have happily
yielded every point of dispute to the Pope, if only the Pope had
affirmed the gospel.
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And at the heart of the gospel, in Luther's estimation, was the doctrine
of justification by faith--the teaching that Christ's own righteousness is
imputed to those who believe, and on that ground alone, they are
accepted by God.
Luther’s principles and ideas are the basis of the Lutheran faith
and the beginning of the Protestant Church!
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The Demand for Reform
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Luther’s expanded critique
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Closure of monasteries
Translations of Bible into vernacular
End of priestly authority, especially the Pope
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German princes interested
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Return to biblical text for authority
Opportunities for assertion of local control
Support for reform spreads throughout Germany
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Reform outside Germany
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Switzerland, Low Countries follow Germany
England: King Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547) has
conflict with Pope over requested divorce
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England forms its own church by 1560
France: John Calvin (1509-1564) codifies
Protestant teachings while in exile in Geneva
Scotland, Netherlands, Hungary also experience
reform movements
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The Catholic Reformation
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Roman Catholic church reacts
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Refining doctrine, missionary activities to Protestants,
attempt to renew spiritual activity
Council of Trent (1545-1563) periodic meetings
to discuss reform (see next slide)
Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded by St. Ignatius
Loyola (1491-1556)
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Rigorous religious and secular education
Effective missionaries
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Council of Trent
The council issued condemnations on
what it defined as Protestant heresies
and defined Church teachings in the
areas of Scripture and Tradition,
Original Sin, Justification,
Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy
Mass and the veneration of saints. It
issued numerous reform decrees. By
specifying Catholic doctrine on
salvation, the sacraments, and the
Biblical canon, the Council was
answering Protestant disputes.
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Witch Hunts
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Most prominent in regions of tension between
Catholics and Protestants
Late 15th century development in belief in Devil
and human assistants
16th-17th centuries approximately 110,000 people
put on trial, some 60,000 put to death
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Vast majority females, usually single, widowed
Held accountable for crop failures, miscarriages, etc.
New England: 234 witches tried, 36 hung
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Religious Wars
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Protestants and Roman Catholics fight in France
(1562-1598)
1588 Philip II of Spain attacks England to force
return to Catholicism
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English destroy Spanish ships by sending flaming
unmanned ships into the fleet
Netherlands rebel against Spain, gain
independence by 1610
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The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1645)
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Holy Roman emperor attempts to force
Bohemians to return to Roman Catholic Church
All of Europe becomes involved in conflict
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Principal battleground: Germany
Political, economic issues involved
Approximately one-third of German population
destroyed
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The Consolidation of Sovereign States
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Emperor Charles V (r. 1519-1556) attempts to
revive Holy Roman Empire as strong center of
Europe
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Through marriage, political alliances
Ultimately fails
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Protestant Reformation provides cover for local princes to
assert greater independence
Foreign opposition from France, Ottoman Empire
Unlike China, India, Ottoman Empire, Europe does not
develop as single empire, rather individual states
Charles V abdicates to monastery in Spain
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Sixteenth-century Europe
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The New Monarchs
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Italy well-developed as economic power through
trade, manufacturing, finance
Yet England, France, and Spain surge ahead in
16th century, innovative new tax revenues
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England: Henry VIII
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Fines and fees for royal services; confiscated monastic
holdings
France: Louis XI, Francis I
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New taxes on sales, salt trade
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The Spanish Inquisition
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Founded by Fernando and Isabel in
1478
Original task: search for secret
Christian practitioners of Judaism or
Islam, later search for Protestants
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Spread to Spanish holdings outside
Iberian peninsula in western hemisphere
Imprisonment, executions
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Intimidated nobles who might have
considered Protestantism
Archbishop of Toledo imprisoned 15591576
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Constitutional States
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England and Netherlands develop institutions of popular
representation
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England: constitutional monarchy
Netherlands: republic
English Civil War, 1642-1649
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Begins with opposition to royal taxes
Religious elements: Anglican church favors complex ritual,
complex church hierarchy, opposed by Calvinist Puritans
King Charles I and parliamentary armies clash
King loses, is beheaded in 1649
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The Glorious Revolution (1688-1689)
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Puritans take over, becomes a dictatorship
Monarchy restored in 1660, fighting resumes
Resolution with bloodless coup called Glorious
Revolution
King James II deposed, daughter Mary and
husband William of Orange take throne
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Shared governance between crown and parliament
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The Dutch Republic
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King Philip II of Spain attempts to suppress
Calvinists in Netherlands, 1566
Large-scale rebellion follows, by 1581
Netherlands declares independence
Based on a representative parliamentary system
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Absolute Monarchies
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Theory of Divine Right of Kings
French absolutism designed by Cardinal Richelieu
(under King Louis XIII, 1624-1642)
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Destroyed castles of nobles, crushed aristocratic
conspiracies
Built bureaucracy to bolster royal power base
Ruthlessly attacked Calvinists
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Rise of France
(Louis XIV)
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Louis XIV (The “Sun King,” 1643-1715)
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L’état, c’est moi: “The State – that’s me.”
Magnificent palace at Versailles, 1670s, becomes
his court
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Largest building in Europe
1,400 fountains
25,000 fully grown trees transplanted
Power centered in court, important nobles
pressured to maintain presence
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The Palace of Versailles
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The Power of the King!
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Louis XIV was the ultimate Absolute Ruler.
His court was profound but no other held
significant power.
Courtiers were expected to live at Versailles so
they could not overthrow the king.
Time of education, arts, and advance in war!
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Wars of Louis XIV
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Louis XIV generation was one that believed in frame
wealth and success as a man could only be found on the
battle field.
Married a Spanish princess in order to maintain with the
strong Spanish. (Time of the Spanish Armada)
War of Devolution – for Spanish Netherlands – (Fr. And
Sp.)
France participates in many wars and achieves great
wealth almost dominating all of Europe.
First time the French rule Alsace-Lorraine!
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Absolutism in Russia: The Romanov
Dynasty (1613-1917)
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Peter I (“the Great,” r. 1682-1725)
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Worked to modernize Russia on western European model
Developed modern Russian army, reformed Russian government
bureaucracy, demanded changes in fashion: beards forbidden
Built new capital at St. Petersburg
Catherine II (“the Great”, r. 1762-1796)
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Huge military expansion
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Partitions of Poland, 1772-1797
Social reforms at first, but end with Pugachev peasant rebellion
(1773-1774)
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The European States System
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No imperial authority to mediate regional disputes
Peace of Westphalia (1648) after Thirty Years’ War
European states to be recognized as sovereign and equal
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Religious, other domestic affairs protected
Warfare continues: opposition to French expansion, Seven
Years’ War
Balance of Power tenuous
Innovations in military technology proceed rapidly
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Europe after the Peace of Westphalia,
1648.
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Population Growth and Urbanization
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Rapidly growing population due to Columbian
Exchange
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Improved nutrition
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Role of the potato (considered an aphrodisiac in 16th and 17th
centuries)
Replaces bread as staple of diet
Better nutrition reduces susceptibility to plague
Epidemic disease becomes insignificant for overall
population decline by mid-17th century
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Population Growth in Europe
180
160
140
120
100
Millions
80
60
40
20
0
1500
1700
1800
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Urbanization
500000
450000
400000
350000
300000
Madrid
Paris
London
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
1550
1600
1650
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Early Capitalism
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Private parties offer goods and services on a free market
Own means of production
Private initiative, not government control
Supply and demand determines prices
Banks, stock exchanges develop in early modern period
Joint-Stock Companies (English East India Company,
VOC)
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Relationship with empire-building
Medieval guilds discarded in favor of “putting-out”
system
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Impact of Capitalism on the Social Order
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Rural life
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Improved access to manufactured goods
Increasing opportunities in urban centers begins
depletion of the rural population
Inefficient institution of serfdom abandoned in
western Europe, retained in Russia until 19th
century
Nuclear families replace extended families
Gender changes as women enter income-earning
work force
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Capitalism and Morality
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Adam Smith (1723-1790) argued
that capitalism would ultimately
improve society as a whole
But major social change increases
poverty in some sectors
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Rise in crime
Witch-hunting a possible consequence
of capitalist tensions and gender roles
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The Copernican Universe
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Re-conception of the Universe
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Reliance on 2nd-century Greek scholar Claudius Ptolemy of
Alexandria
Motionless earth inside nine concentric spheres
Christians understand heaven as last sphere
Difficulty reconciling model with observed planetary
movement
1543 Nicholas Copernicus of Poland breaks theory
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Notion of moving Earth challenges Christian doctrine
See wiki – Nicolas Copernicus
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The Scientific Revolution
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Johannes Kepler (Germany, 1571-1630) and
Galileo Galilei (Italy, 1564-1642) reinforce
Copernican model
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See Wiki for Video
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) revolutionizes study of
physics
Rigorous challenge to church doctrines
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What do you think?
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How do these new ideas and concepts threaten the
Church?
Why is the Church so protective of their
knowledge and interpretation of scripture?
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The Enlightenment
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Trend away from Aristotelian philosophy and Church
doctrine in favor of rational thought and scientific
analysis
John Locke (England, 1632-1704), Baron de Montesquieu
(France, 1689-1755) attempt to discover natural laws of
politics
Center of Enlightenment: France, philosophes
Voltaire (1694-1778), caustic attacks on Roman Catholic
church: écrasez l’infame, “erase the infamy”
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Deism increasingly popular
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deist - a person who believes that God created the universe and then
abandoned it
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The Theory of Progress
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Assumption that Enlightenment thought would
ultimately lead to human harmony, material
wealth
Decline in authority of traditional organized
religion
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Music of the Time!
Medieval – Gregorian Chants
Elizabethan – Greensleves
Romance – Mozart
See Wiki for sounds and instruments of the times!
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