18.BismarcksEra

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Transcript 18.BismarcksEra

Three Emperor’s League (1873)

Committed William I (Germany), Alexander II
(Russia), and Franz Joseph (Austria Hungary) to
consult one another before attacking any nation so
that the maintenance of peace in Europe might be
secured, and if necessary be enforced against
attack from any quarter.
Made Germany 1 of 3 (out of 5) major powers.
 Isolated France
 Flaw: Did not resolve conflicts between Austria &
Russia

I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Kaiser Wilhelm I, Alexander II, & Franz Joseph
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Goals of the Franco-Prussian War Indemnity
on the French
 Cripple
the French economy and keep the
French in line by means of an occupying
army until the war debt was paid.
 The
debt was paid by September 1873, so
Germany was forced to withdraw from
France.
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So you’re telling me that George Bush didn’t think up the
concept of a Pre-Emptive Strike? Shut UP!!

After the German military withdrew, the French sought to
restore their monarchy, increase their military power,
recover its lost provinces,* and restore its glory.

The French passed legislation to increase the size of its
army

As a result, the German General Staff began to seriously
discuss a pre-emptive strike against the French.
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Results of Pre-Emption Talks

The French sought diplomatic support from
Britain and Russia

Berlin backed down
Bismarck learned that Germany could not use
the threat of war as a tactic because its power
was too great for the other states to permit it to
grow further.
 He also realized that the 3 Emperor’s League
was too weak.

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The Third Rome
 Russia
envisioned itself the leader and
protector of Orthodox Christianity after the
fall of Constantinople.
 Since
1453 Russia had fought 8 wars vs.
Turkey and had gained a great deal of
territory. Russia had also earned the
devotion of the Slavic Christians in the
Balkans.
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Ultimately the League Failed due to the
Eastern Crisis of 1875 - 1878

Many Slavic nations wanted their freedom from
Austria-Hungary

Their claims for freedom were supported by
Russia; so the British were nervous about the
Ottoman Empire breaking up and the increase in
Russian influence in the Balkans (the Straits).

In 1877 Russia and Rumania declared war on
Turkey; defeated them and almost took
Constantinople. But warnings from Austria and
Britain persuaded Russia to halt and make
peace with the Turks.
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Eastern Crisis Resolved by the
Treaty of San Stefano
 Turkey was basically driven from Europe
as Serbia, Montenegro, and Rumania
each gained independence and additional
territory.
 Russia
gained Dobrudja (and later traded
it to Rumania for Bessarabia – which had
been lost in the Crimean War - and a
second round draft pick) and lands in the
Caucasus east of the Black Sea.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Eastern Crisis Resolved by the
Treaty of San Stefano
 Most troubling of all was the creation of a
very large Bulgaria running from the Black
Sea almost to the Adriatic and from the
Danube to the Aegean.
 European
powers feared that this new
state, secured by Russian arms and
occupied by Russian troops, would
become a Russian satellite along with the
other newly independent Balkan states.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Why All the Fuss?

The Austrians were also upset that they did not
receive Bosnia and Herzogovenia, as had been
promised at Reichstadt.

The British felt the agreement threatened their
control of the eastern Mediterranean, so they
rejected the treaty, as did Austria.

Minister Disraeli sent a fleet to the Dardanelles
to force the Russians to an international peace
conference to reconsider the treaty.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Why All the Fuss?

Fearing war w/ Britain & Austria, Tsar Alexander
agreed.

Russia wanted Germany to hold back Austria as
payback for Russian neutrality in the AustroPrussian & Franco-Prussian wars, but Bismarck
refused for fear that war between Russia and
Austria would destroy Austria, and thereby
eliminate the balance of power.

Bismarck offered instead to serve as a mediator,
an “honest broker” at a general conference to be
held in Berlin.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
The Congress of Berlin (1878)

The Russians were forced to accept major
revisions to the Treaty of San Stefano

The British got Cyprus from Turkey and the right
to bring their Navy through the Straits into the
Black Sea.

Disraeli gloriously proclaimed to have brought
“peace with honor.”**

Austria earned the right to administer Bosnia
and Herzogovenia, and the understanding that it
could annex them at will.
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The Congress of Berlin (1878)

Bulgaria was divided into 3 sections; the
northern part became Bulgaria and paid an
annual tribute to the Turkish sultan.

Russians were allowed to keep their conquests
in the Caucasus and Bessarabia.

Russians claimed the honor of bringing
independence to Serbia, Montenegro, and
Rumania, as well as forcing the Turks to treat
Christians more humanely.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Long Term Impact of the Congress of Berlin
 Great
tensions grew out of the Congress;
the Russians were outraged and deeply
resentful of Germany
 Bismarck
recognized that he couldn’t
revive the League of 3 Emperors, so he
sought to develop a new system of
alliances to attempt to maintain the peace.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
The Dual Alliance (October 1879)
 An
alliance between Germany and Austria
that lasted until WWI
 Bismarck
claimed to fear Russian hostility
towards Germany, but he was really afraid
of a Franco-Russian alliance.
 Treaty
called for mutual assistance in the
event that Germany or Austria was
attacked by Russia & neutrality if attacked
by another power.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Significance of the Dual Alliance

It was the first alliance formed for the express
purpose of preserving peace.

It was renewed consistently until 1918 when
both the Austrian and German empires were
destroyed.
It was criticized after WWI as having driven
the Russians and French together.
 However, this in inaccurate since the Russians
sought an accommodation w/ the Dual Alliance
to avoid being isolated – due to their fear of a
British attack through the Straits.

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Renewal of the 3 Emperor’s
League (1881 – 84)

Russia approached Germany about a coalition
with them alone, but Bismarck insisted upon a
renewal of the 3 Emperor’s League.

Signed in June 1881, the new pact was intended
to last for 3 years.

Secret terms stated that each state remain
neutral if one of the others were at war w/ a 4th
power.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Renewal of the 3 Emperor’s
League (1881 – 84)

Austria was given the right to annex Bosnia and
Herzogovenia when they thought it was
appropriate.

The Treaty safeguarded Russia against a naval
attack in the Black Sea and by agreeing to
prevent Turkey from recovering its power in the
Balkans.

Weakness: continued rivalry between Austria
and Russia in the Balkans.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Advantages of Renewal of the 3 Emperor’s
League (1881 – 84)
 United
the 3 conservative monarchies
(Russia, Germany, and Austria
 Preserved
the general peace between
Russia & Austria w/o requiring German
mediation.
 Prevented
an alliance between France
and Russia.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
The Triple Alliance (1882)
 French seizure of Tunis in 1881 made Italians
fear that they would be excluded entirely from
North African colonies.

So Italy sought an alliance with Germany in
1882.

In May 1882 Italy joined with Germany and
Austria to form the Triple Alliance.

It was to be a 3 year secret defensive treaty that
promised aid if Italy or Germany were attacked
by France – OR – if Austria or Germany were
attacked by two powers.
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Rumania Joins the Triple Alliance (1883)

Signed agreements of mutual assistance
with Austria and Germany providing that if
either Rumania or Austria were attacked, the
other two states would come to its
assistance.

It was a 5 year defensive treaty which was
renewed until the outbreak of WWI in 1914.

It was aimed at Russia although Russia was
never specifically mentioned by name.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Results of Rumania Joining the
Triple Alliance (1883)

France was isolated because its decision to
colonize Tunisia had alienated Italy.

France’s decision to try to control Egypt
strained French relations w/ Britain for 20
years.

Germany was on good diplomatic terms
w/ every other great European power
(Austria, Russia, Rumania, and Great
Britain).
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Balkan Crisis (1885)

Russia expected to exert its influence over the
newly independent Bulgaria, particularly since
Alexander of Battenburg, the Tsarina’s nephew, had
been chosen to lead Bulgaria.

After a revolution in Rumelia, Alexander united with
Bulgaria in 1885 and thereby restored 2/3 of the Big
Bulgaria that had been dismantled by the Congress
of Berlin.

Alexander defeated a Serbian army after it attacked
for compensation.

Russia supported a conspiracy to replace Alexander
w/ a monarch subservient to Russia; Instead,
Bulgarians chose Ferdinance Saxe-Coburg, a
German prince & Austrian ally.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Balkan Crisis as a Test for Bismarck

The crisis threatened to destroy the 3 Emperors’
League and pit Russia, Austria, and Bulgaria in a
war (1886).

Bismarck was in a diplomatic pinch. He could not
allow an Austrian defeat, but if he sided with Austria,
he might drive Russia into an alliance with France.

Bismarck went to the Reichstag and demanded an
increase in the size of the army

He then renewed the Triple Alliance, which
increased French concerns about Italian
involvement in a German war against France.
The French lost interest in a Russian alliance or in
reclaiming the lost provinces of Alsace-Lorraine.

I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Bismarck Mends Fences
Russia
Austria
 Told
Russia that
the Western
Balkans were
Austria’s
Bismarck
 Supported
Russian
claims in Bulgaria
 Told Austria
 Made
it clear to
Austria that
Germany would
not fight Russia
to achieve
Austria’s goals
in the Balkans
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that
Bulgaria was a
Russian sphere of
influence
The Mediterranean Agreement (1887)

Germany, Austria, and Russia agreed to
maintain the status quo in the Mediterranean,
Adriatic, and Black Seas.

Italy promised Britain support in Egypt in
exchange for British support for Italian aims in
Libya.

Result: Britain was free to protect Austria
against Russian ambitions because Britain
was made an associate of the Triple Alliance.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Reinsurance Treaty (June 1887)

Intended to repair relations with Russia after the
Mediterranean Agreement

It was a 3 year secret agreement whereby Germany and
Russia promised to remain neutral in any war fought by
the other, except if Germany attacked France or Russia
attacked Austria.

Germany recognized Russia’s influence in Bulgaria.

Both sides agreed not to permit territorial
changes in the Balkans without their prior
agreement.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Reinsurance Treaty (June 1887)
 Germany
afforded Russia “benevolent
neutrality” in the event that Russia was
forced to take control of the Straits and
Constantinople to defend its entrance to the
Black Sea.
Results:
 Treaty
freed Germany from the threat of a
Franco-Russian alliance and the immediate
danger of a war between Russia and
Austria.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Different Interpretations of the
Reinsurance Treaty (June 1887)

Some historians argue that the agreement was inconsistent
with the Dual Alliance and that it deceived Austria.

But Bismarck had repeatedly warned the Austrians that he
would not fight for Austria’s goals there since the Russians
had a sphere of influence in the Balkans.

The real hypocrisy was that the Mediterranean Agreement
had thwarted Russian goals in the east and only months
later Bismarck’s Reinsurance Treaty actually encouraged
Russia to pursue those same goals.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Second Mediterranean Agreement (1887)

Russia became dissatisfied with Bulgaria’s new
ruler and threatened war in the Balkans.

To prevent war, Bismarck encouraged a Second
Mediterranean Agreement Between Austria,
Britain, and Italy.

This Second Mediterranean Agreement
reiterated the status quo in the Med, Adriatic,
and Black seas; and it specifically mentioned
Bulgaria and the Straits.

As a result of warning, Russia abandoned its
plans for Bulgaria.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Discussion Question

The Congress of Berlin demonstrated that a new
Balance of Power, centered on Germany, had
come into existence. None of the Statesmen at
Berlin expected the settlement to last long, and
they would have been astonished to learn that
the Congress would be followed by 36 years of
European peace.

Discuss Bismarck’s role in establishing and
maintaining this new Balance of Power
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Discussion Question – Bismarck’s Insistence
on Maintaining Peace in Europe

According to Kagan, on several occasions
Bismarck reminded Austria that the Dual Alliance
was a defensive alliance only. Therefore, he
refused to support the Austrians in their Balkan
ambitions or in quarrels with the Russians.
Similarly, Bismarck often reminded Austria and
Italy that the Triple Alliance was defensive in
nature, and he often stood in the way of his
allies’ ambitions.
 Do you agree with Kagan’s assessment?

I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Great Example of
Different Interpretations

“What Bismarck had really done was to establish a
sort of balance of power, a system under which
Russia would be held in check by the Mediterranean
coalition, and the peace of Europe was preserved.”

Kagan on Bismarck’s complicated diplomatic
efforts to balance Russian and Austrian interests
in the Balkans via a Reinsurance Treaty and
then by the Second Mediterranean Agreement.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Other Great Examples of
Different Interpretations
 Page
108, paragraphs 1 & 2; on the
nature, purpose, and results of the Dual
Alliance.
– 111; on Bismarck’s policy of
colonial expansion.
 Page110
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Interesting Personalities

Officer Friedrick von Holstein – urged the
Austrians to take a tough line with Russia over
Bulgaria.

General Alfred von Waldersee – General Staff
member who supported von Holstein and
argued for a pre-emptive war against Russia.

Waldersee tried to convince General Helmut
von Moltke to go behind Bismarck’s back and
use his influence w/ the Emperor to support that
policy.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Verbatim
 “I
cannot avoid the impression that it is the
aim of certain military circles in Vienna to
distort our alliance . . . We must take care that
the privilege of giving political advice to our
monarchs does not in fact slip out of our hands
and pass over to the General Staffs.”

Bismarck managing the frustration felt by
members of the German General Staff,
particularly Holstein and Moltke, as a result of
his seemingly contradictory foreign policy
towards Russia as it related to Bulgaria.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Verbatim
 “The
Tunisian pear is ripe and it is time for
you to pick it.”
 Bismarck
encouraging French colonization
efforts in Africa, particularly as a means of
diverting their attention from the provinces
of the Alsace-Lorraine, which they lost to
Germany during the Franco-Prussian War
of 1870 – 71.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Verbatim
 “When
Austria has worn that flannel next to
her skin for 3 years she will no longer be able
to discard it without running the risk of
catching cold.”
 Bismarck
commenting on Austria’s
insistence that the renewal of the Three
Emperors’ League stand for no more than
a 3 year period.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal
Verbatim
 “We
have no intention of allowing ourselves to
be bound by the alliance to the tail of the
Hungarian comet, but to establish a regular
order of calculable dimensions.”
 Bismarck
commenting on his diplomatic
efforts to prevent a war between Russia
and Austria over disputed Balkan territory
in 1886.
I.B. History of the Americas II :: Session 2 :: The Renaissance :: Davis & Bakkal