1750-1914 - Lyons-Global

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Transcript 1750-1914 - Lyons-Global

Unit 4 Regents Review
1750 – 1914 Overview
(Practice Questions up
thrugh June 2013)
Agrarian
Revolution
1600s
Enclosure
Mvmt. – by 1700s
more popular in
England
1701 – Jethro Tull’s
Seed Drill (followed by
tools for reaping and
chemical fertilizers)
1720s Good
Weather in
England
1730 – Townshend
suggest clover for
crop rotation (no
longer fallow)
Landless Farmers –
need new job and
new home (move to
cities)
Food
Surplus
Results of Agrarian Revolution
Food Surplus
More People
Need More Stuff
Excess Capital
Invest in Inventions
Rise of Bourgeoisie
Capitalist
Trade
New Markets
Needed
(Imperialism)
August 2012
In the early 18th century, the Agricultural
Revolution in Great Britain resulted in
urbanization because
(1) enslaved persons replaced free laborers on farms
(2) factory work strengthened extended families
(3) displaced rural workers migrated to find jobs
(4) the middle class decreased in size
First vs. Second Industrial
Revolutions
Industrial Revolution – (1750-1850) new
agricultural methods, textiles, railroads, iron, and
coal.
 Second Industrial Revolution (1870-1914) –
steel, chemicals, electricity, telephone,
automobile and petroleum (Whitney –
standardized parts)
 First
Industrial Revolution - Cause

Shift from Cottage/Domestic
Industry (people make at
home) to Factory System.

Cause – Rising Population
due to Agrarian Revolution.

Started with Textiles (Flying
Shuttle, Spinning Jenny)
England
Industrializ
ed
First
Good Harbors
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Natural Supply of Coal
and Iron
Loose gov’t regulations
(laissez-faire – Wealth of
Nations – Adam Smith
1776) with political
stability
Lots of capital to invest
due to colonies in
Americas
August 2011
• Irregular coastline
• Abundant mineral resources
• Large labor force
• Investment capital
Which country had these characteristics and used
them to industrialize in the 1700s?
(1) Germany
(3) Great Britain
(2) Italy
(4) Japan
January 2012
A major reason the Industrial Revolution
developed in Great Britain in the 1700s was
because of Great Britain’s
(1) geographic features
(2) immigration policies
(3) use of collectivization
(4) access to imported oil
Jan 2014
Which geographic feature most aided England
during the Industrial Revolution?
(1) desert climate
(2) natural harbors
(3) mountainous terrain
(4) monsoon winds
Results of Industrial Revolution

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Urbanization

Use of Women &
Children as Labor
Pollution
New Energy – water,
coal, and electricity

New Transportation –
canal, trains, cars, planes
Imperialism
New Social Class
– middle
(bourgeoisie) and
lower – factory
worker
(proletariat)
Wealth now based
on factory
ownership
(capitalist)
Power
Water Power Limited
Turn to Coal
& Steam
James Watt
Steam Engine 1769
1814 Steam Powered
Train to get more coal
Urbanization –
not have to be along
rivers any more
January 2011
Which pair of natural resources were used to
change transportation and manufacturing in
Great Britain during the Industrial
Revolution?
(1) gold and salt
(2) diamonds and petroleum
(3) copper and tin
(4) coal and iron ore
Feminism
(suffrage)
New Labor
Forces
(children &
women
Factories
Industrial Pollution
Factory
Act
Health
Boards
Pasteur
discovers
germs
Labor
Unions
1848
Revolutions
Health
Codes
Charles
Dickens/
Karl Marx
Transportation
Suez canal opened in 1869; Erie in
1825)
Stephenson, Rocket, 1830
Fulton, steamboat, 1807
Daimler, internal combustion
engine – 1885 (Ford – assembly
line 1905 – Model T)
Wright, airplane, 1903
India
Terms to Know:
British East India Co.
1700s
Sepoy Mutiny 1857
Gandhi – Amritsar
“Home Rule” (1948)
Pakistan/India
(Kashmir)
Mercantalism
Benefits –
educations, industry,
railroad
Karl Marx

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Disliked what he saw in factories
Wrote Communist Manifesto 1848 –
proletariat (working class) needs to rise
up against bourgeoisie (factory owner)
Overthrow of capitalist system
Will inspire Russian
(Bolshevik)/Communist Revolution
Dickens & Darwin
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Dickens wrote Bleak House and Oliver Twist
about the horrors of the industrial revolution –
child labor, crime, etc
Darwin wrote about how Europeans were
justified in conquering other countries because of
the “survival of the fittest” mentality
Malthus wrote about population control would be
natural based on the fact that the world could only
feed so much – rest will starve – natural way of
things
Quotes for next question –Aug 10
Speaker A: If the rate of population growth
continues to exceed the growth in the food supply, there will
not be enough food for all of the people.
Speaker B: There are people who are wealthy and
people who are poor. This is just how
things are.
Speaker C: History is the story of class struggle.
Eventually, the working class will rise up and revolt against
the wealthy.
Speaker D: The government should do what is best
for most of its people.
August 2010 – with previous
Which speaker best represents the views of
Karl Marx?
To which situation are these
speakers most likely
(1) A (3) C
reacting?
(2) B (4) D
(1) growth of Zionism
(2) rise of industrialization
(3) division of Africa
(4) formation of military alliances
August 2013
During the 1800s, the writings of Marx,
Engels, and Dickens focused attention on the
problems faced by
(1) factory owners
(3) farm laborers
(2) investment bankers (4) industrial workers
August 2012
A key idea in the Communist Manifesto by Karl
Marx and Friedrich Engels is that workers should
support the
(1) overthrow of the capitalist system
(2) establishment of labor unions
(3) legislative regulation of wages and working
conditions
(4) technological changes in production methods
January 2012
What is a major belief associated with Marxism?
(1) The proletariat would rise up and overthrow the
bourgeoisie.
(2) Religion should be more important than political
forces.
(3) Private ownership of property should be expanded.
(4) Peasants would gain control of overseas markets.
June 2013
The belief that workers of the world would
unite to overthrow their oppressors is central
to
(1) Social Darwinism
(2) Marxism
(3) conservatism
(4) laissez-faire capitalism
January 2013
The workers in industrial countries must
create a revolution, overthrow the existing
governments using force if necessary, and
then create a new classless society.
This statement expresses the views of
(1) Mikhail Gorbachev
(2) Jomo Kenyatta
(3) Karl Marx
4) Kemal Atatürk
June 2012
According to Thomas Malthus, the rate of increase for human
populations in relation to the rate of increase for food
production was a problem. Malthus believed that
(1) industrial development would severely limit population
growth
(2) famine and war were natural checks on population growth
(3) countries with larger populations would conquer countries
with smaller populations
(4) food production would increase at a faster rate than
populations would
Irish Potato Famine
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1848 Potato Famine
Irish had become use to eating potatoes that they had gotten
from Columbian Exchange (Latin America)
Blight (disease) struck potato
Famine led to the mass migration of Irish to United States
January 2014
Mass starvation in Ireland in the 1840s led
directly to the
(1) formation of communes
(2) granting of independence
(3) migration of people overseas
(4) usage of petrochemical fertilizers
January 2010
Many critics believe that the policy of the
British government during the Irish Famine
(1) contributed to food shortages
(2) ignored military concerns
(3) discouraged emigration
(4) led directly to civil war
January 2013
The mass emigration of the Irish in the mid19th century was primarily a result of
(1) mandatory military service
(2) famine
(3) civil war
(4) farm mechanization
June 2011
One reason for the mass migration of many
Irish to North America in the 19th century
was
(1) a series of crop failures
(2) enforcement of a military draft
(3) civil war in Ireland
(4) an outbreak of malaria
June 2013
One way in which the Industrial Revolution in
Great Britain in the 18th century and the potato
blight in Ireland in the 19th century are similar is
that they both led directly to
(1) significant human migrations
(2) more equitable distribution of wealth
(3) growth in the number of subsistence farmers
(4) rapid increases in food production
Changes in Social and Gender
Structure

Emancipation of Serfs
(Alexander II) and
Slaves (Lincoln) (1860s)

Increase in Women’s
Rights and desire for
suffrage (right to vote) in
1848 – Seneca Falls, NY

Increased birth control in
European world.
Social Structure
Post-Industrial Europe
Industrial
Tycoons &
Bankers
Doctors, lawyers
Artisans, Clerks
Laborers –
Factories & Farms
June 2012
During the Industrial Revolution, which
development resulted from the other three?
(1) Factory conditions affected people’s
health.
(2) Labor unions were formed.
(3) Unskilled laborers received low wages.
(4) Machinery replaced workers.
August 2010
What was a result of the Industrial Revolution
in Europe?
(1) the growth of the middle class
(2) an increase in nomadic herding
(3) a decline in urban population
(4) a decrease in international trade
French Revolution –
1879-1805 - Causes
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
inequality of Estates
General (3rd estate had to
pay taxes), bread famine,
expenses of Louis XVI
and Antoinette – Palace of
Versailles,
Enlightenment –
Montesquieu, Voltaire,
Rousseau
American and British
(Glorious) Revolutions
were examples
January 2010
Under the Old Regime in France, the burden
of taxation fell mostly on the
(1) monarchy
(3) nobles
(2) Clergy
(4) commoners
January 2012
Which issue was a cause of the French Revolution?
(1) ineffective rule of Napoleon Bonaparte
(2) nationalization of the Church
(3) outrage over the use of the guillotine by the
Committee of Public Safety
(4) demand of the Third Estate for more political
power
January 2014
One way in which the caste system in
traditional India and the Estates system of prerevolutionary France are similar is that
(1) occupations were attained by merit
(2) social mobility was very limited
(3) status was determined by education
(4) impact on the daily lives of people was
minimal
French Revolution Events
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Storming of Bastille
Declaration of Rights of Man (Constitution)
made at Tennis Court Oath
Reign of Terror – Robespierre (leader of
Committee of Public Safety) used guillotine
to kill nobles – including Louis XVI and wife
Marie Antoinette
January 2011
“Angry Mob Destroys Bastille”
“Robespierre’s Execution Ends Reign of
Terror”
“Napoleon Seizes Power”
Which country’s revolution is referred to in
these headlines?
(1) Spain
(3) France
(2) Austria
(4) Russia
June 2012
Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins are
best known for
(1) instituting the Reign of Terror
(2) protecting freedom of religion
(3) supporting the reign of King Louis XVI
(4) sending French troops to fight in the
American Revolution
August 2011
Which event is most closely associated with
the French Revolution?
(1) Council of Trent
(2) Thirty Years’ War
(3) Reign of Terror
(4) Paris Peace Conference
January 2011
One way in which King Louis XVI of France
and Czar Nicholas II of Russia are similar is
that both
(1) were executed by revolutionaries
(2) were known as great military leaders
(3) advocated religious reform
(4) supported the emancipation of serfs
June 2011
“The French Revolution is most important for having
changed subjects to citizens.”
This statement emphasizes the shift from
(1) religious traditions to secular values
(2) divine right rule to people’s participation in
government
(3) rural lifestyles to urban lifestyles
(4) private property ownership to government
ownership
French Revolution - Result


Napoleon Bonaparte – created
Napoleonic Code of Law and fixed prices
on food
Created “Grand Embassy” – took out much
of Europe except Russia who used
“scorched earth policy” and cold climate
to defeat Napoleon, ended at Waterloo.
Russia was also too large to defeat
August 2010
The invasions of Russia by France in 1812 and by
Germany in World War II were unsuccessful in
part because of the
(1) Russian alliances with China
(2) harsh climatic conditions in Russia
(3) inexperience of French and German military leaders
(4) failure of France and Germany to develop modern
weapons
June 2011
Which geographic condition contributed to
the defeat of Napoleon’s troops during the
invasion of Russia?
(1) drought
(3) severe flooding
(2) typhoons
(4) harsh winter
Jan 2014
One way in which Robespierre and Louis XVI of
France are similar is that both
(1) were removed from power during the French
Revolution
(2) adopted ideas of the Congress of Vienna
(3) implemented policies of religious tolerance
(4) decreased government control of the
economy
January 2010
One way in which Robespierre and Napoleon are
similar is that they both
(1) played an important role at the Congress of
Vienna
(2) increased their power during the French
Revolution
(3) were executed for treason by French
monarchs
(4) led armies against the Haitians
August 2010
. . Things are so high, poor people cry, Such times
was ne’er before, For everything is raised in price
To carry on the War. . . .
— John Wilson, A New Song on the Dear Times
In this song published in the 1850s, the songwriter
is complaining about
(1) unemployment
(3) depression
(2) quotas
(4) inflation
August 2012
What was one factor that caused Napoleon’s
invasion of Russia and Hitler’s invasion of
Russia to be unsuccessful?
(1) poorly trained military forces
(2) a lack of alliances
(3) harsh winter climate
(4) mountainous terrain
January 2013
Which factor aided Russian troops in
defeating Napoleon’s armies and Soviet
forces in defeating Hitler’s armies?
(1) severe winters
(2) mountain passes
(3) superior air forces
(4) United Nations peacekeepers
August 2010
Which of these events related to the French
Revolution occurred first?
(1) Napoleon became emperor of France.
(2) The Declaration of the Rights of Man was
issued.
(3) Louis XVI called the Estates General into
session.
(4) The Committee of Public Safety led the
Reign of Terror.

Latin American
Cause
1. Growing sense of national
identity – same as US
2. Local resentment of
Spanish/Portuguese economic
policies – same as US
3. Frustration of American born
Creole upper and middle class
4. Spark/catalyst was Napoleon’s
conquest of Spain


Haiti – Toussaint L’Ouverture
(1803) – slave uprising
Columbia – Simon Bolivar created
“Grand Columbia”
Mexico – 1810/1910
(Hidalgo – priest stirred
mestizos; Morelos, landed
elite led by caudillos
abusive under Porfirio Diaz,
Emiliano Zapata demands
land redistribution –
constitution in 1917
Social Structure of the Spanish
Colonies
Most
Power
Peninsulares
People born
in Spain
Viceroys- Spanish
Governors of
colonies
Creoles
People of European descent
Born in the colonies
Mestizos
Mulattoes
People of Native
People of mixed
American and
African and
European
European descent
Fewer
People
Generally Educated,
but lacked power
Descent
Peons - Native Americans & African Descent
Least
Power
Most
People
January 2010
The establishment of a parliamentary democracy in India and the
establishment of Portuguese as the official language of Brazil
indicates that European colonizers
(1) influenced the culture of regions under their control
(2) respected the governments of the indigenous peoples
(3) promoted Protestant religions over native religions
(4) studied local traditions before implementing policies
January 2011
Porfirio Diaz, Francisco “Pancho” Villa, and
Emiliano Zapata are best known for their
struggles in the
(1) Haitian independence movement
(2) Mexican Revolution
(3) Nicaraguan War
(4) Cuban Revolution
January 2012
• Toussaint L’Ouverture
• Bernardo O’Higgins
• José de San Martín
These individuals had their greatest impact on the
(1) unification of Italy
(2) independence movements in Latin America
(3) Zionist movement
(4) Catholic Counter Reformation
August 2011
A. Toussaint L’Ouverture declares Haiti independent.
B. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen is written in
France.
C. The thirteen colonies gain independence from Great Britain.
D. Simón Bolívar frees Colombia from Spanish rule.
What is the correct chronological order for these events?
(1) A → B → D → C (3) A → D → C → B
(2) C → B → A → D (4) D → C → B → A
January 2014
One way in which Toussaint L’Ouverture,
Simón Bolívar, and José de San Martín are
similar is that they all were
(1) supporters of mercantile policies
(2) leaders of independence movements
(3) democratically elected leaders
(4) industrial labor reformers
June 2011
Which title best completes this graphic organizer?
(1) Reasons for Latin American Independence
Movements
(2) Impact of the Scientific Revolution
(3) Causes of the Industrial Revolution
(4) Results of Nationalism in Europe
June 2012
What was one effect of the Latin American revolutions of the
19th century?
(1) Democracy became the dominant political system in Latin
America.
(2) European colonialism replaced the independent
governments of Latin America.
(3) Many Latin American countries achieved independence.
(4) Countries in Latin America deported most people with
European ancestry
August 2012
Which title best completes this
partial outline?
(1) Causes for Bismarck’s Rise
to Power
(2) Factors of the Haitian
Revolution
(3) Results of the Munich Pact
(4) Situations Contributing to the
Zionist Movement
January 2013
One way in which Toussaint L’Ouverture, Kwame Nkrumah,
and Ho Chi Minh are similar is that each leader
(1) opposed the role of the Roman Catholic Church in politics
(2) established the first democratic government in his country
(3) fought to free his country from European control
(4) embraced the principles of civil disobedience
June 2013
One way in which Miguel Hidalgo, Ho Chi
Minh, and Jomo Kenyatta are similar is that
they all were
(1) leaders of independence movements
(2) communist dictators
(3) enlightened despots
(4) advocates of liberation theology
August 2013
With which event are Porfirio Díaz,
Francisco “Pancho” Villa, and Emiliano
Zapata associated?
(1) Conquest of the Incas
(2) Argentinian Dirty War
(3) Mexican Revolution
(4) Haitian coup d’état
June 2013
Why is Catholicism a major religion practiced in Latin America?
(1) Spain conquered and colonized much of Latin America.
(2) Disputes over international boundaries
within Latin America were settled by the pope.
(3) The traditional beliefs of Africans were
incorporated into the cultures of Latin America.
(4) The Church provided Latin America with a
strong central government.
June 2013
Which geographic feature presented an
obstacle to Simón Bolívar’s forces?
(1) Sahara Desert (3) Great Rift Valley
(2) Andes Mountains (4) Strait of Malacca
Congress of Vienna - 1814



Metternich
Maintain
balance of
power
(buffer state)
Concert of
Europe
Restrain
liberalism
(Quadruple
Alliance)
June 2011
One goal of the Congress of Vienna was to
(1) establish a new balance of power in
Europe
(2) protect Europe from Ottoman advances
(3) end abuses within the Catholic Church
(4) redraw the boundaries of Africa
German Nationalism

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
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
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
Zollverein
Frankfort Assembly (1848)
Otto von Bismarck (Iron
Chancellor) - 1860s-70s
Militarism
Favored monarchy
Realpolitik – Denmark,
Austrian, Franco-Prussian
War (1870 – faked EMS
telegram); Triple Alliance
Kulturkampf
January 2011
The slogan “Blood and Iron” and a united
Germany are most closely associated with
(1) Prince Metternich (3) Camillo Cavour
(2) Simón Bolívar (4) Otto von Bismarck
August 2010
The unification of Germany under Otto von
Bismarck demonstrates the
(1) influence of Marxist ideology
(2) impact of nationalism
(3) force of civil disobedience
(4) power of democratic ideals
January 2013
• Appointment of Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor
• Austro-Prussian War, 1866
• Franco-Prussian War, 1870–1871
These events led directly to
(1) the unification of Germany
(2) foreign rule in Italy
(3) the rebellion of the Sepoys
(4) an alliance between Serbs and Russians
Italian Unification



Mazzini – Young Italy
(carbonari)
Cavour – North Italy
(favored Victor
Emmanuel II)
w/plebiscites
Garibaldi – Red Shirts
June 2012
The unification of Italy and the unification of
Germany show that
(1) socialism was an effective way of organizing the
economy
(2) nationalism could be used to consolidate political
interests
(3) colonialism could be used to spread European
civilization
(4) interdependence was a significant obstacle to waging
war
Austrian Empire
Multinational state of 11 ethnically distinct
peoples – Germans, Czechs, Hungarians
(Magyars), Slovaks, Romanians, Serbians,
and Italians.
Hungary and
Bohemia want
own legislature
and national
army
Demand for a
liberal
constitution
Ottoman Empire



Greek Revolution
1820s
Crimean War 1854
Independence of
Balkan Region
“Powder Keg of
Europe” (spreading
influence of AustriaHungary will create
WWI) Pan-Slavism
Which area of Europe
was known as the
“Powder Keg” of
Europe prior to the
outbreak
of World War I?
(1) A (3) C
(2) B (4) D
January 2013
Before 1914, nationalism in the Balkan Peninsula
contributed to
(1) resistance by ethnic groups to Austrian rule
(2) campaigns by foreign diplomats against the
use of trench warfare
(3) the inability of countries to make reparation
payments
(4) the rejection of the Versailles Treaty by combatants
Source for
Raw
Materials
Industrial
Revolution
Markets for
Finished
Goods
European
Nationalism
Missionary
Activity
European
Motives
For Colonization
Military
& Naval
Bases
Social
Darwinism
Places to
Dump
Unwanted/
Excess Popul.
European
Racism
“White
Man’s
Burden”
Humanitarian
Reasons
Soc. & Eco.
Opportunities
African Imperialism - Causes





“Humanitarian” – Queen Victoria sponsored
Livingstone’s missionary work, Kipling’s
White Man’s Burden (social-Darwinian bias)
Need for Raw Materials – gold, rubber
(Congo), cotton (Egypt), palm oil
Nationalism – Scramble for Africa (no longer
expansion in Europe due to Congress of
Vienna)
Military Bases
New Technology – quinine, cartography,
maxim machine gun, steam ships, telegraph
Take up the White Man's burden-Send forth the best ye breed-Go, bind your sons to exile
To serve your captive's need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild-Your new-caught sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child. …
Take up the White Man's burden,
And reap his old reward-The blame of those ye better
The hate of those ye guard-The cry of those ye humor
(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:-"Why brought ye us from bondage,
Our loved Egyptian night?"
January 2010
• Spain mines silver in the Americas.
• The Dutch establish a colony in Southeast Asia.
• The English East India Company controls tea
plantations in India.
Which policy is most closely associated with these
events?
(1) pacifism
(3) nonalignment
(2) Mercantilism
(4) containment
June 2013
What was a major reason European nations
competed for control of Africa during the second
half of the 1800s?
(1) Africa had a wealth of natural resources.
(2) Slave labor was needed in the Americas.
(3) African nations offered religious and political
freedom.
(4) Europeans needed land for their excess
population.
January 2014
One major reason European countries engaged in
imperialism in the late 19th century was to
(1) gain a better understanding of unknown
territories
(2) ease tensions with their rivals
(3) develop treatments for diseases
(4) obtain markets for their manufactured goods
Imperial Conflicts
Scramble for Africa




Cecil Rhodes – de Beer’s
Mining Company / Cape to
Cairo Railroad.
Zulu wars – England wins
due to better technology
Boer War – 1899-1902
between England and Dutch
farmers (established
apartheid to appease Dutch
farmers)
King Leopold’s abuse of
natives in Congo
Berlin Conference - 1885



Called for
by Otto von
Bismarck
Threat of
King
Leopold’s
Congo
No Natives
January 2012
The Berlin Conference in 1884 was
significant because it
(1) promoted Belgium as a world power
(2) established rules for the European division
of Africa
(3) called for a war against England
(4) ensured ethnic harmony in the Middle East
August 2011
Which situation was a result of the 1884 Berlin
Conference?
(1) Africa was divided without regard to ethnic groups.
(2) Monarchies were restored throughout Europe.
(3) The slave trade with South America was eliminated.
(4) The League of Nations was formed.
August 2013
Which area of the world was most directly
affected by the decisions made at the Berlin
Conference?
(1) Africa
(2) China
(3) India
(4) South America
August 2010
One reason the Suez Canal has been of strategic
importance to countries other than Egypt was
that the canal
(1) allowed for faster movement between the North Atlantic
Ocean and the Indian Ocean
(2) enabled Europeans to explore the Western Hemisphere
(3) made it easier for Russia to gain control of Afghanistan
(4) provided the Austro-Hungarian Empire with
access to its colonies in South Asia
August 2010
Much of which area of the world came under
European colonial control in the 19th century?
(1) Japan
(3) Africa
(2) Southwest Asia (4) Latin America
June 2013
The 19th-century ideas of Social Darwinism
and the “White Man’s Burden” were often
used to justify
(1) isolationism
(2) appeasement
(3) imperialism
(4) disarmament
June 2011
Which statement best reflects an effect of
imperialism in Africa?
(1) Land was distributed equally between social classes.
(2) Territorial divisions were primarily established using
tribal boundaries.
(3) Natural resources were exploited for the
benefit of European powers.
(4) Timbuktu became the center of great
learning.
January 2010
Which of these developments in Africa was a cause of
the other three?
(1) Rival tribal groups fought wars.
(2) The Berlin Conference of 1884 influenced colonial
boundaries.
(3) Traditional territories and culture groups were
permanently fragmented.
(4) African economies became dependent on the
sale of cash crops and raw materials.
January 2010
Which cultures fought with the Zulus in the
19th century over the control of land in South
Africa?
(1) German and French
(2) Indian and Belgian
(3) British and Boer
(4) Ethiopian and Italian
British East
India Company
•Took advantage of religious conflicts of
Hindus and Muslims.
•Founded in 1600 to sell Indian products
such as cotton, silk, sugar and jute
•1756 – Robert Clive raised an army of native
soldiers (sepoys) to support gov’ts favorable to
British East India Company.
•“Commercial Colonialism” –
controlled foreign trade and
used native army to keep local
rulers in power.
Sepoy Mutiny - 1857

Rumor Started: The
rifle cartridges that
were distributed to the
Sepoys (bitten to
remove a cover before
being inserted into a
gun) had been greased
with beef and pork fat.

Muslim Sepoys who
were not supposed to
consume pork, and the
Hindu Sepoys who
were not supposed to
eat beef.
January 2011
One similarity between the Sepoy Rebellion
in India and the Boxer Rebellion in China is
that both were
(1) religious reform movements
(2) reactions to the opium trade
(3) attempts to end foreign interference
(4) successful revolts against absolute
monarchs
August 2010
A similarity between the Sepoy Rebellion in
India and the Boxer Rebellion in China is that
both were
(1) attempts to remove foreign influence
(2) movements to establish communist
governments
(3) efforts to restore trade monopolies
(4) struggles to westernize cultures
August 2011
A major goal of both the Sepoy Mutiny and
theBoxer Rebellion was to
(1) remove foreign influences
(2) restore parliamentary government
(3) improve access to civil service
examinations
(4) outlaw caste systems
Raj—term for British rule over
India, lasts from 1757
to 1947
Direct Colony –
•Modern system of progressive
secondary education (to train
Indian civil servants),
•Improved health care
•economic reforms (irrigation,
railroads, tea and jute
plantations),
•creation of unified and powerful
state.
•End suttees
Negative Impacts of colonization on
India






British hold much of political and economic power
Cash crops result in loss of self-sufficiency,
famine
Indian life disrupted by missionaries and racist
attitudes
British textile industry puts out of work native
industry
Zamindar system of tax collection is corrupt
Fails to bring benefits of modern science and
technology
Reforms – INC by Nehru and Gandhi – 1885; Muslim
League 1905
Spheres of Influence in China




1700s – unfavorable
balance of trade, one
city Canton open, 1793
Lord Macartney
attempted open
Imported Opium,
Manchus forbid it
1839 – Opium War –
British won due to
better technology
1842 Treat of Nanjing
(unequal) – open ports,
extraterritoriality, Hong
Kong to England,
reparations



Warlords negotiate
spheres of influence
American – Open Door
Policy
Resistance – Taiping
and Boxer Rebellion
Chinese Revolution - 1912

Causes: discontent of peasants with Qing’s losses in
Opium War and Sino-Japanese (1895) with Taiping
and later Boxer Rebellions (1900); spread of reform
ideas among Western-educated Chinese

Self-Strengthening Movement
Dowager Empress Cixi - Opposed all reform – proWestern treason
Sun Yat-sen – father of modern China

Three Principles of the People
1. Constitutional democracy
2. No Foreigners
3. State control over essential industries



Results - Chiang Kai-shek leads nationalist republic
(Kuomintang) in civil war against communist Mao
June 2012
What is the
primary focus of
this map?
(1) population
density
(2) resource
distribution
(3) Imperialism
(4) urbanization
. . . Our celestial empire [China] rules over ten thousand kingdoms!
Most surely do we possess a measure of godlike majesty which ye
cannot fathom! Still we cannot bear to slay or exterminate without
previous warning, and it is for this reason that we now clearly make
known to you the fixed laws of our land. If the foreign merchants
of your said honorable nation desire to continue their commercial
intercourse, they then must tremblingly obey our recorded statutes,
they must cut off for ever the source from which the opium flows,
and on no account make an experiment of our laws in their own
persons! Let then your highness [Queen Victoria] punish those
of your subjects who may be criminal, do not endeavor to screen or
conceal them, and thus you will secure peace and quietness to your
possessions, thus will you more than ever display a proper sense of
respect and obedience. “— Chinese High Commissioner Lin
Zexu’s letter to Queen Victoria
With previous passage
Which event is most directly related to the
19thcentury situation described in this
passage?
(1) signing of the Treaty of Nanjing
(2) Russo-Japanese War
(3) annexation of Korea
(4) Sepoy Rebellion
August 2012
* Treaty of Nanjing gives control of Hong Kong to
Great Britain.
• French government sets up a protectorate in Cambodia.
• Italian forces occupy Ethiopia.
Which policy is most closely associated with these
statements?
(1) détente
(3) nonalignment
(2) appeasement
(4) imperialism
August 2012
Since the beginning of China as a nation, we Chinese have
governed our own country despite occasional interruptions. When
China was occasionally occupied by a foreign race, our ancestors
could always in the end drive these foreigners out, restore the
fatherland, and preserve China for future generations of Chinese.
Today when we raise the righteous standard of revolt in order to
expel an alien race [the Manchus] that has been occupying China,
we are doing no more than our ancestors have done or expected us
to do. Justice is so much on our side\ that all Chinese, once
familiarizing themselves with our stand, will have no doubt about
the righteousness of our cause.… — “A Public Declaration,”
1906
Continued Question
Which conclusion can be drawn from this passage?
(1) China can no longer remain isolated from its
neighbors.
(2) The Chinese people are happy with the rule of the
Manchu.
(3) The Chinese people wanted to end foreign
occupation.
(4) China has prospered under the rule of foreign
powers.
January 2013
The idea expressed in this
cartoon is most closely
associated with the
(1) alliances formed in
Europe
(2) division of Africa
discussed at the Berlin
Conference
(3) spheres of influence established
in China by foreigners
(4) border changes made at the
Congress of Vienna
January 2011
One similarity between the Sepoy Rebellion
in India and the Boxer Rebellion in China is
that both were
(1) religious reform movements
(2) reactions to the opium trade
(3) attempts to end foreign interference
(4) successful revolts against absolute
monarchs
January 2014
• Opium War (1839–1842)
• Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864)
• Boxer Rebellion (1898–1901)
This series of events is most closely associated with the
(1) spread of communism to China and Korea
(2) growing concerns about the influence of the West in China
(3) alliance formed between Vietnam and China
(4) increasing expansion of civil and political rights in China
June 2013
One way in which the Treaty of Nanking and the
Treaty of Versailles are similar is that in both treaties
the provisions called for
(1) monarchs to be returned to their rightful
places
(2) reparations to be paid by defeated countries
(3) existing borders to be maintained
(4) peacekeeping organizations to be established
June 2013
The term extraterritoriality, sphere of
influence and mandates are most closely
associated with
1. Collective security
2. Militarism
3. Imperialism
4. Self-Sufficiency
Japan’s Reaction




Commodore Matthew Perry – 1853
Treaty of Kanagawa
Meiji Restoration - (1868-1912);
Westernizes AND Modernizes
Colonizes – Sino-Japanese &
Russo-Japanese War (1905)
because Japan LACKS NATURAL
RESOURCES
January 2014
One way in which Emperor Meiji of Japan
and Kemal Atatürk of Turkey are similar is
that they both
(1) crushed secessionist movements
(2) worked to modernize their nations
(3) conquered eastern neighboring territories
(4) protested against economic sanctions
August 2013
• Sino-Japanese War 1894–1895
• Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905
• Annexation of Korea 1910
These events in the history of Japan reflect its
(1) resistance to trade
(2) abundance of natural resources
(3) vulnerability to attack by neighbors
(4) emergence as an imperialistic country
June 2013
Which action did Japan take during the Meiji
Restoration?
(1) established a social system to benefit the samurai
(2) sent experts to learn from modern Western nations
(3) allowed communist ideas to dominate its government
(4) started an ambitious program to expel foreign
manufacturers
August 2012
Which change is associated with Meiji Japan?
(1) expansion of feudal political and social
values
(2) modernization of the economy and
government
(3) adoption of isolationist policies
(4) abandoning plans for an overseas empire
January 2012
Japan began an aggressive policy of
imperialism in the late 19th and early 20th
centuries because Japan
(1) needed raw materials for its factories
(2) hoped to spread Shinto
(3) sought Western technology
(4) wanted revenge for the Opium Wars
August 2011
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan
rapidly industrialized. During which period
did this change take place?
(1) Heian Court
(3) Yuan dynasty
(2) Song dynasty
(4) Meiji Restoration
January 2011
What is one reason for Japan’s involvement in
the first Sino-Japanese War and the
annexation of Korea?
(1) pursuit of imperialistic goals
(2) reaction to foreign invasions
(3) institution of five-year plans
(4) need for a warm-water port
August 2010
Japan’s policy of expansion in the early 20th
century was motivated by
(1) a lack of natural resources
(2) a plan to end unequal treaties
(3) the need to increase cultural diffusion
(4) the desire to spread communism
June 2010
During which period of
Japanese history did the
changes shown in this wood
block print
occur?
(1) Heian court
(2) Tokugawa shogunate
(3) Meiji Restoration
(4) United States occupation
January 2010
During the late 19th century, Japan’s lack of
natural resources was one reason for
implementing a policy of
(1) collectivization
(2) free trade
(3) socialism
(4) imperialism
January 2010
In Japan, the Meiji Restoration and the
post–World War II “economic miracle” can
be described as periods of
(1) political decentralization
(2) revolutionary democratization
(3) reactionary social change
(4) innovative industrial development