Revolution in France 1848

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Transcript Revolution in France 1848

Romanticism: Cultural movement of the early 19th
White horse,
Romanticism; basics
 Revolt against classicism and the enlightenment
 Classicism: too many rules, structure
 Enlightenment: Too much emphasis on the
rational approach to truth
 Primarily concerned with expressing new forms
of feeling and thought
 Influence of Rousseau and the French
Brought into question all traditional beliefs and
institutions. The youth of the early 19th century felt it
had to build something new or perish. This urge was
the essence of the romantic temperament.
Romantic basics, cont.
Characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance
Unrestrained imagination and spontaneity
Tremendous emotional intensity
Suicides, duels to the death
Bohemian lifestyle-long, unwashed hair, no visible
means of support
 Driven by a sense of the unlimited universe and by a
yearning for the unattained, the unknown, the
 Nature was portrayed as awesome and uncontrollednot pristine as classics saw it.
Romantics, basics, cont.
 Idealized
the middle ages
 Idealized untouched and exotic lands.
Untouched example-the Lake District in
Exotic lands example-Morocco
 Romanticism
can be seen in the literature,
art and music of the early 19th century
Romantic Literature- English poets
 William Wordsworth
Ode: Intimations of immortality from the
recollections of early childhood
 George
Gordon, Lord Byron 1788-1824
Don Juan
 John
Ode on a Grecian Urn
William Wordsworth 1770-1850
 WW
sought inspiration from the Lake District
of England
 Defied classical rules
 Abandoned flowery poetic conventions for the
language of ordinary speech
 Wrote of love of nature in very democratic
form which could be appreciated by everyone.
 Poetry was the “spontaneous overflow of
powerful feeling recollected in tranquility”
Daffodils, Wordsworth
I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o’er vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host of golden daffodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze
And then my heart with pleasure fills,
And dances with the daffodils.
Ode: Intimations of immortality from recollections of
early childhood-WW
“There was a time when meadow,
grove, and stream,The Earth, and
every common sight,To me did
seem Apparell’d in celestial light,
The glory and freshness of a
Percy Bysshe Shelley 1792-1822
Shelley expressed the desire of many English romantics
for art itself to become more “natural”
Ode to a skylark
Hail to thee, blythe spirit!
Bird thou never wertThat from heaven or near it
Pourest thy full heart
In profuse strains of premeditated art.
George Gordon, Lord Byron 1788-1824
 In
Don Juan, Byron exhibited another side of
the romantic temperament: the restless and
aimless hero
 Through Byron the romantic’s continued the
loss of faith in old ideas, the boredom with
conventional civilization into a flirtation with life
and death.
 The concept of the Byronic hero.
 “On this day I complete my 36th year”
 “Prometheus unbound”
 “she walks in beauty”
irregularly rhyming
Composition Date:
July 1816
The Prometheus Bound of Aeschylus, in which
Prometheus, chained to the Caucasian mountains and fed
on by a vulture, suffers for his gift of fire to man and his
defiance of Zeus, was one of Byron's favourite books.
Titan. The Titans belonged to the faction of Saturn, whom
his son Zeus replaced as chief of the gods. Defeated but
unsubmissive, the Titans (and Prometheus in particular)
were popular in the nineteenth century as symbols of
revolution or resistance to tyranny
Thy Godlike crime was to be kind,
To render with thy precepts less
The sum of human wretchedness,
38 And strengthen Man with his own mind;
39 But baffled as thou wert from high,
40 Still in thy patient energy,
41 In the endurance, and repulse
Of thine impenetrable Spirit,
43 Which Earth and Heaven could not convulse,
A mighty lesson we inherit:
45 Thou art a symbol and a sign
To Mortals of their fate and force;
47 Like thee, Man is in part divine,
A troubled stream from a pure source;
49 And Man in portions can foresee
50 His own funereal destiny;
51 His wretchedness, and his resistance,
52 And his sad unallied existence:
53 To which his Spirit may oppose
54 Itself--and equal to all woes,
And a firm will, and a deep sense,
56 Which even in torture can descry
Its own concenter'd recompense,
58 Triumphant where it dares defy,
59 And making Death a Victory.
She walks in beauty, like the night
Of cloudless climes and starry skies;
And all that's best of dark and bright
Meet in her aspect and her eyes:
Thus mellow'd to that tender light
Which heaven to gaudy day denies.
Composition Date:
June 1814
7 One shade the more, one ray the less,
Had half impair'd the nameless grace
9 Which waves in every raven tress,
Or softly lightens o'er her face;
11 Where thoughts serenely sweet express
How pure, how dear their dwelling-place.
13 And on that cheek, and o'er that brow,
So soft, so calm, yet eloquent,
15 The smiles that win, the tints that glow,
But tell of days in goodness spent,
17 A mind at peace with all below,
A heart whose love is innocent!
"She" is Byron's cousin,
Mrs. Wilmot, whom he
met at a party in a
mourning dress of
spangled black
John Keats 1795-1821
 Represented
romantic belief that truth could
best be discovered through intuition and that
aesthetic truth was the highest kind of truth
 Keats believed in spirit as the source of poetic
inspiration and identified it with the
spontaneous creative power of language
 Ode on a Grecian Urn
Beauty is truth, and truth beauty,-that is all ye know
on earth, and all ye need to know
William Blake 1757-1827
 The
chimney sweeper
A critique of industrial England
When my mother died I was very young
And my father sold me while yet my tongue
Could scarcely cry “weep, weep, weep”
So your Chimneys I sweep, and in soot I sleep
Victor Hugo- French 1802-1885
 The
Hunchback of Notre Dame
 Exemplified romantic fascination with
fantastic characters, strange settings and
human emotions
Romantic literature potpourri
 The
love of the grotesque
 Victor Hugo-Hunchback of Notre Dame
 Mary Shelley- Frankenstein
Romantic Art- French
 Delacroix
Massacre at Chios
Liberty leading the people
Death of Sardanapalus
 Delacroix
was fascinated with remote and
exotic subjects; lion hunts, Sultans harem
 Gericault
Raft of the Medusa
“Liberty leading
the People”
Delacroix, Death at
Sardanapalas 1828
Death of Assyrian
The Raft of the Medusa 1819
 In
1816, a French naval vessal (La Meduse)
sank en route to West Africa. The captain
and senior officers took the life boats and
left a makeshift raft for the 150
passengers and crew. During 13 days
adrift in the Atlantic, all but 15 people
 Man vs. Nature
“Raft of the
“Massacre at
Francisco Goya Third of May 1808
Romantic Art-English
 Joseph
M.W. Turner 1775-1851
Depicted natures power and terror
 John
Constable 1776-1837
Painted Wordsworthian landscapes
John Constable
“White Horse”
John Constable,
Joseph M.W. Turner “Rain, Steam,
Romantic Music
Medium in which romanticism was most fully realized
 Classical music had held to structures
 Mozart
 Romantics used range of forms-broke rules
 Berlioz-The creator of Romantic music
 Frederick Chopin- 1810-1849 “Revolutionary etude”
 Franz Liszt- 1811-1880 Great Pianist
 Beethoven- Bridge between classical and romantic
Romantic music
 Music
built around themes
 Played up nature
 Interest in death
 Interest in the supernatural
Revolution in France 1848
 “the
July monarchy in France was a platform of
boards built over a volcano. Under it burned
the repressed fires of republicanism put down
in 1830, which since 1830 had become steadily
more socialistic”
 Radicals wanted universal suffrage and a
republic, but liberals asked only for broader
voting rights within the existing constitutional
 Louis Phillipe and his Prime Minister refused any
change. Stupid move. What should they have
February revolution in France 1848
 Banquet
in Paris planned for Feb. 22
 On February 21 the gov’t forbade such
meetings-that night barricades went up
throughout the city
 Gov’t called the national guard-refused
to move-King now promised electoral
reform-too late.
 Demonstration at Guizot’s house-20
 February 24 Louis Phillipe abdicates
 That leaves us with the liberal reformers
and the radical republicans-now it gets
Creation of provisional government
 Const. Reformers
hoped to carry on with the
son of Louis Phillipe
 Republicans stormed the Chamber of Deputies
and proclaimed a republic-no whiff of grapeshot
this time.
 Provisional government:
7 political republicans-Lamartine
3 social republicans- Louis Blanc
 Blanc was interested in creating social workshops
 Instead he got national workshops
 By June there were 200,000 idle men in a city of 1 million
Election of Constituent Assembly
 Elected
in April 1848 by Universal Male
suffrage across all of France
 Immediately replaced provisional gov’t
with temporary executive board of its
 This new exec board contained NO
“June Days” of 1848
 One
side: nationally elected
constituent assembly
 Other side: National workshops
 NW unsuccessfully attacked the
 CA declared martial law giving all
power to General Cavaignac (the
 The bloody June days followed June
 Class war raged in Paris-CA won
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
 After
the June Days the CA sought to
create a republican constitution and elect
a new President
 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte won in a
Defeated Lamartine, Blanc, Cavignac
Revolution in Austria 1848
 Began
in Hungary
 Louis Kossuth-Demanded national autonomy
from Austrian Empire, full civil liberties and
universal male suffrage
 Austrian gov’t hesitated
 Viennese students and workers took to
streets-added own demands
 Aust. Emp. Ferdinand I gave in-promised reforms
and a liberal constitution
 Metternich fled to London
Weaknesses in Austrian revolutionary coalition
 Peasants, who
made up most of the
army, were satisfied by the Gov’ts
aboliton of serfdom
 Hungarian revolutionaries wanted to
unify the diverse groups in Hungaryopposed by minority groups-croats,
serbs, rumanians-soon were locked in
armed combat with the new Hungarian
 Middle class wanted liberal reform
 Urban poor rose in arms-wanted
socialist workshops, universal voting
 MC and UP soon were opposing
Reassertion of Conservative forces
 Ferdinand
I abdicates in his place his
nephew Francis Joseph
 Windishgratz-smashed Czechoslovakia
 Austria defeats revolutionaries in Italy
 Army (peasants) attacked student
workers in Vienna
 Hungary brought back after Russia went
in with 130,000 troops
 The attempts to liberalize and break up
the Austrian empire were unsuccessful.
Revolution in Prussia 1848
 Prussia’s
middle class wanted a liberal
constitutional monarchy that would
unite Germany into a united and liberal
German nation.
 Prussian middle class pushed demands
after the French rev of 1848
 Demands not granted
 Workers in Berlin exploded
 Frederick William IV gave in to demands
 FWIV promised Prussia liberal const. +
merge into German state
 Workers wanted more
“Liberty leading
the People”
Prussian workers demands
 March
26 workers issued a series of
radical demands: universal voting rights,
minimum wage, 10 hour day
 The Prussian middle class could not go
along with it
 While the tensions in Prussia escalated ,
an elected body met in Berlin to write a
constitution for a Prussian State
Frankfurt Assembly
 Self
appointed from various German
States successfully called for a national
constituent assembly to begin writing a
Const. For a unified German State
 Denmark distraction: Schleswig/Holstein
 March 1849, Frankfurt assembly finally
offered throne to FWIV
 By early 1849 reaction had been
successful in Prussia
 FWIV refused the Frankfurt assemblies
“crown from the gutter”
Romanticism: Cultural movement of the early 18th
White horse,