Chapter 7-present - apush

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Transcript Chapter 7-present - apush

The Road To Revolution 17631775
Quick definitions (mercantilism)
· noun:
an economic
in 18th
C) to increase
the colonies
wealth around
by government
and Britain
the issues of
regulation of all of the nation's
mercantilism and its implementation. The
commercial interests
British Empire attempted to more strictly
enforce laws
at maintaining a
system of mercantilism
while colonists
objected to
this change
from the
to earlier
wellbeing; beneficial to health
Theme: The American Revolution occurred
because the American colonists, who had
long been developing a strong sense of
autonomy and self-government, furiously
resisted British attempts to impose tighter
imperial controls and higher taxes after the
end of the French and Indian War in 1763.
The sustained conflict over political authority and
taxation, enhanced by American agitators and
British bungling, gradually moved Americans
from asserting rights within the British Empire to
openly warring with the mother country.
Theme: At the outset of the Revolutionary
War, Britain appeared to be a mighty empire,
but it was weaker than it seemed at first
glance. Poor leadership in London along
with second-rate generals in the colonies
reduced the impact of the larger British
population and its naval supremacy.
Americans, on the other hand, had many
advantages such as George
Washington's leadership and fighting a
defensive war. However, the colonists
also faced disorganization, jealousy,
and economic difficulties.
The Deep Roots of Revolution
• In a general sense, the American Revolution began when the
first colonists set foot on America and may have sparked
with the victory at the Battle of Quebec because that victory
helped precipitate the British government’s change in policy
from “salutary neglect” to compelling the colonists to
shoulder some of the financial costs of the empire.
• The war may have lasted for eight years, but a sense of
independence had already begun to develop from the start
because London was over 3,000 miles away.
Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances
• The British embraced a theory that justified their control of the colonies called
– A country’s economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold or
silver in its treasury.
– To amass gold and silver, a country had to export more than it imported (it had
to obtain a favorable balance of trade).
– Countries with colonies were at an advantage, because the colonies could
supply the mother country with raw materials, wealth, supplies, a market for
selling manufactured goods etc…
– For America, that meant giving Britain all the ships, ships’ stores, sailors, and
trade that they needed and wanted.
– Also, they had to grow tobacco and sugar for England that Brits would
otherwise have to buy from other countries.
• England’s policy of mercantilism severely handcuffed
American trade.
• The Navigation Laws were the most infamous of the laws to
enforce mercantilism.
– The first of these was enacted in 1650, and was aimed at rival
Dutch shippers who were elbowing their way into the American
– The Navigation Laws restricted commerce from the colonies to
England (and back) to only English ships, and none other.
– Other laws stated that European goods consigned to America had
to land first in England, where custom duties could be collected.
– Also, some products, “enumerated goods,” could only be shipped
to England.
• Settlers were even restricted in what they could manufacture at
home; they couldn’t make woolen cloth and beaver hats to export
(though, they could make them for themselves).
• Americans had no currency, but they were constantly buying
things from Britain, so that gold and silver was constantly draining
out of America, forcing some to even trade and barter. Eventually,
the colonists were forced to print paper money, which
• Colonial laws could be voided by the Privy Council, though this
privilege was used sparingly (469 times out of 8,563 laws). Still,
colonists were infuriated by its use.
The Merits of Mercantilism
• The Navigation Laws were hated, but until
1763, they were not really enforced much,
resulting in widespread smuggling. This lack
of enforcement is called “salutary neglect.”
• In fact, John Hancock amassed a fortune
through smuggling.
• Tobacco planters, though they couldn’t ship it
to anywhere except Britain, still had a
monopoly within the British market.
• Americans had unusual opportunities for selfgovernment.
• Americans also had the mightiest army in the
world in Britain, and didn’t have to pay for it.
• After independence, the U.S. had to pay for a
tiny army and navy.
• Basically, the Americans had it made: even
repressive laws weren’t enforced much, and
the average American benefited much more
than the average Englishman.
The Menace of Mercantilism
After Britain began to enforce mercantilism in 1763, the fuse for
the American Revolution was lit.
Disadvantages of mercantilism included:
Americans couldn’t buy, sell, ship, or manufacture under their most favorable
The South, which produced crops that weren’t grown in England, was
preferred over the North.
Virginia, which grew just tobacco, was at the mercy of the British buyers, who
often paid very poorly and were responsible for putting many planters into debt.
Many colonists felt that Britain was just milking her colonies for
all they were worth and in effect, keeping them in a state of
permanent economic adolescence.
Theodore Roosevelt later said, “Revolution broke out because England failed
to recognize an emerging nation when it saw one.”
The Stamp Tax Uproar
After the Seven Years’ War (French & Indian War), Britain had huge debt, and though it fairly
had no intention of making the Americans pay off all of it for Britain, it did feel that
Americans should pay off one-third of the cost, since Redcoats had been used for the
protection of the Americans.
Prime Minister George Grenville, an honest and able financier but not noted for tact,
ordered that the Navigation Laws be enforced, arousing resentment of settlers.
He also secured the “Sugar Act” of 1764, the first British law intended to raise revenue in
the colonies which increased duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies; after
numerous protests from spoiled Americans, the duties were reduced.
The Quartering Act of 1765 required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British
The Stamp Tax Uproar
• In 1765, he also imposed a stamp tax to raise
money for the new military force.
• The Stamp Act of 1765 generated the most
protest in the colonies. It mandated the use of
stamped paper or the affixing of stamps,
certifying payment of tax.
• These stamps were required on bills of sale for
about 50 trade items as well as on certain types of
commercial and legal documents.
• Both the Stamp Act and the Sugar Act provided
for offenders to be tried in the admiralty courts,
where defenders were guilty until proven
• Grenville felt that these taxes were fair, as he was
simply asking the colonists to pay their share of
the deal; plus, Englishmen paid a much heavier
stamp tax.
British Stamp Act
Forced to Repeal the Stamp Act
In 1765, representatives from 9 of
the 13 colonies met in New York
City to discuss the Stamp Tax and
devised a formal appeal for
Parliament to repeal the act.
The Stamp Act Congress was
largely ignored in Britain, but
was a step toward intercolonial unity (similar to the
Albany Congress of French &
Indian War days).
Some colonists agreed to boycott
supplies, instead, making their
own homemade woolen cloth and
refusing to buy British goods.
The Stamp Tax Uproar
• Americans felt that they were unfairly taxed for an
unnecessary army (hadn’t the French army and Pontiac’s
warriors been defeated?), and they lashed out violently,
especially against the stamp tax.
• Americans formed the battle cry, “No taxation without
representation!” because Parliament passed the tax,
not the colonial legislatures themselves, and since the
colonies had no legislative representation in
Parliament, they felt it unjust to be taxed by them.
• Despite the money factor, Americans were angered,
mostly, to the principle of the matter at hand.
• Grenville replied that these statements were absurd,
and pushed the idea of “virtual representation,” in
which every Parliament member represented all British
subjects (so Americans were represented).
• Americans rejected “virtual representation” as hogwash.
Violence ensued as well. Sons and
Daughters of Liberty took the law into
their own hands, tarring and feathering
violators among people who had agreed to
boycott the goods.
– They also stormed the houses of
important officials and took their
– Stunned, demands appeared in
Parliament for repeal of the stamp tax,
though many wanted to know why 7.5
million Brits had to pay heavy taxes to
protect the colonies, but 2 million
colonials refused to pay only one-third
of the cost of their own defense.
– In 1766, Parliament repealed the
Stamp Act but passed the Declaratory
Act, proclaiming that Parliament had
the right “to bind” the colonies “in all
cases whatsoever.”
– The line in the sand was now drawn on
both sides…….
The Townshend Tea Tax and the
Boston “Massacre”
Charles “Champaign Charley”
Townshend (a man who could
deliver brilliant speeches in
Parliament even while drunk)
persuaded Parliament to pass the
Townshend Acts in 1767, which
put light taxes on lead, paper,
paint, and tea.
To further colonial unrest, in 1767,
New York’s legislature was
suspended for failure to comply
with the Quartering Act.
In protest, the colonies refused
to pay the tax or simply
smuggled it in, so as a result of
colonial opposition, the Brits
sent troops to America to
enforce the law……
The Boston Massacre
• On the evening of March 5,
1770, a crowd of about 60
townspeople in Boston were
harassing some ten Redcoats.
– One was hit in the head,
another by a club.
– Without orders, though
heavily provoked, the troops
opened fire, wounding or
killing eleven “innocent”
citizens, including Crispus
Attucks, a black former-slave
and the “leader” of the mob
in the Boston Massacre.
Attucks became a symbol of
freedom (from slave, to
freeman, to martyr who
stood up to Britain for
– Only two Redcoats were
The Seditious Committees of
• King George III was 32 years old, a
good person, but a poor ruler who
surrounded himself with sycophants
(“yes men”) like Lord North (this dude
• Because of the level of opposition by the
colonists, the Townshend Taxes were
repealed, except for the tea tax which
was retained in order to keep alive the
principle that Parliament had the
power for taxation.
• Still, the colonies’ refusal to accept even
this tax led British officials to send more
troops to Boston (the heart of the
rebellious agitation) to restore law and
• The colonies, in order
to spread propaganda
and keep opposition to
the British alive, set up
Committees of
Correspondence which
was a network of letterwriters and forerunner of
the Continental
Congress; the first
committee was started by
Sam Adams, and they
were instrumental in
keeping the revolutionary
spirit rolling.
Tea Brewing in Boston
Why did the Boston Tea Party Take Place?
• In 1773, the powerful British East India Company, overburdened with
17 million pounds of unsold tea, was facing bankruptcy.
• The British decided to grant the company a monopoly on selling tea to
the Americans, who were suspicious and felt that it was a shabby
attempt to trick them with the bait of cheaper tea and paying tax.
• On December 16, 1773, the Sons of Liberty, led by Sam Adams,
disguised themselves as Indians, opened 342 chests and dumped the
tea into Boston Harbor, thus, the “Boston Tea Party.”
- This was NOT the only such protest to occur.
– Up and down the seaboard there were many colonial protests, and
ultimately NO tea was taken out of their respective harbors.
– People in Annapolis did the same and burned the ships to water
– Reaction was varied throughout the colonies, from approval to
– Edmund Burke declared, “To tax and to please, no more than to
love and be wise, is not given to men.”
Parliament Passes the “Intolerable Acts”
In 1774, by huge majorities, Parliament passed a series of “Repressive Acts” to
punish the colonies, namely Massachusetts. These were called the Intolerable
Acts by Americans.
The Boston Port Act closed the harbor in Boston.
Self-government was limited by forbidding town hall meetings without
The charter to Massachusetts was revoked.
The Quebec Act
-Guaranteed Catholicism to the French-Canadians, permitted them to
retain their old customs, and extended the old boundaries of Quebec all
the way to the Ohio River.
-Americans saw their territory threatened and aroused anti-Catholics
were shocked at the enlargement that would make a Catholic area as
large as the original 13 colonies. Plus, Americans were banned from this
region through the Proclamation Line of 1763.
• The First Continental Congress
– In Philadelphia, from September 5th to October 26th, 1774, the First
Continental Congress met to discuss problems and address colonial
– While not wanting independence yet, it did come up with a list of grievances,
which were ignored in Parliament.
– 12 of the 13 colonies met, only Georgia didn’t have a representative there.
– They also devised a Declaration of Rights.
– And for the first time called for a COMPLETE boycott of British goods.
They agreed to meet again in May 1775 if nothing was resolved.
And sadly, fighting and bloodshed would become inevitable as, once again,
the king and Parliament simply ignored the Congress’ pleas.
The “Shot Heard ‘Round the World”
– In April 1775, the British
commander in Boston sent a
detachment of troops to nearby
Lexington and Concord to seize
supplies and to capture Sons of
Liberty ringleaders, Sam Adams
and John Hancock.
– Minutemen Paul Revere and
Charles Dawes lit out on their
famous “midnight ride” to alert
their fellow patriots, “The British
are coming! The British are
– The Minutemen, after having
eight of their own killed at
Lexington, fought back at
Concord, pushing the redcoats all
the way back to Boston, shooting
them undercover, from rocks and
trees - Indian style.
The Shot Heard ‘Round the World
Paul Revere is……Jack Black!
Imperial Strength and Weakness
• With war broken open, Britain had the
heavy advantage: (1) 7.5 million people
to America’s 2 million, (2) superior
naval power, (3) overwhelming
national wealth.
• Some 30,000 Hessians (German
mercenaries) were also hired by George
III, in addition to a professional army of
about 50,000 men, plus about 50,000
American loyalists and many Native
• However, Britain still had the need to
keep many soldiers in Europe in case
of trouble (ex. Ireland).
• France was just waiting to stab Britain in
the back; plus, there was no William Pitt.
– Many Brits had no desire to
kill their American cousins,
as shown by William Pitt’s
withdrawal of his son from
the army.
– English Whigs at first
supported America, as
opposed to Lord North’s
Tory Whigs, and they felt
that if George III won, then
his rule of England might
become tyrannical.
– Britain’s officers were
second-rate, and its
soldiers were often
brutally treated.
– Provisions were often
scarce, plus Britain was
fighting a war some 3,000
miles away from home-an
extremely long supply line.
– America was also expansive,
and there was no single
capital to capture and
therefore cripple the country.
American Pluses and Minuses
Americans had great leaders like George
Washington (giant general), and Ben Franklin
(smooth diplomat).
They also had French aid (indirect and
secretly), as the French provided the
Americans with guns, supplies, gunpowder,
Marquis de Lafayette, at age 19, was made a
major general in the colonial army and was a
great asset.
The colonials were fighting in a defensive
manner, and they were self-sustaining.
They were better marksmen. A competent
American rifleman could hit a man’s head at
200 yards.
The Americans enjoyed the moral advantage in
fighting for a just cause, and the historical odds
weren’t unfavorable either.
Americans were terribly lacking
in unity, though. Poor
• Jealousy was prevalent, as
colonies resented the
Continental Congress’
attempt at exercising power.
Sectional jealousy boiled
up over the appointment of
military leaders; some New
Englanders almost preferred
British officers to Americans
from other colonies.
• A weak central authority
running the war effort.
• Americans had little money.
Inflation also hit families of
soldiers hard, and made
many people poor.
Virtually NO navy.
A Thin Line of Heroes
The American army was desperately in need of clothing, wool, wagons to ship
food, and other supplies.
Many soldiers had also only received rudimentary training.
German Baron von Steuben, who spoke no English, whipped the soldiers into
Many people also sold items to the British,
because they paid in gold.
Many people, quite frankly, didn’t care
about the revolution and therefore, raising
large numbers of troops was difficult, if not
Only because a select few threw
themselves into the cause with passion, did
the Americans win.
African Americans also fought and died in
service, though in the beginning, many
colonies barred them from service.
By war’s end, more than 5,000 blacks had
enlisted in the American armed forces,
however, many more African-Americans
also served on the British side.
– In November 1775, Lord
Dunmore, royal governor of
Virginia, issued a proclamation
declaring freedom for any
enslaved black in Virginia who
joined the British Army.
– By war’s end, at least 1,400
blacks were evacuated to Nova
Scotia, Jamaica, and England
by Great Britain.
– The brutal truth is that only a
small handful of the colonists
selflessly devoted themselves
to the cause.
– Very seldom in history have so
few done so much for so many.
The American War of Independence was
a military conflict fought from 1775 to
1783, but the American Revolution was
a deeper transformation of thought
and loyalty that began when the first
settlers arrived in America and finally
led to the colonies’ political
separation from Britain.
One source of long-term conflict was the
tension between the considerable freedom
and self-government the colonists enjoyed in
the American wilderness and their
participation in the British Empire’s mercantile
system. While British mercantilism actually
provided economic benefits to the colonies
along with certain liabilities,
its limits on freedom and
patronizing goal of keeping
America in a state of perpetual
economic adolescence stirred
growing resentment.
The short-term movement toward the War of
Independence began with British attempts to
impose higher taxes and tighter imperial
controls after the French and Indian War..
To the British these were reasonable
measures, under which the colonists
would simply bear a fair share of the
costs of the empire. To the colonists,
however, the measures constituted
attacks on fundamental rights
Through well-orchestrated agitation and
boycotts, the colonists forced repeal of the
Stamp Act of 1765 as well as the Townshend
Acts that replaced it, except for the symbolic
tax on tea. A temporary lull in conflict
1770 and 1773 ended with the
Boston Tea Party, conducted by a
network of Boston agitators
reacting to the Massachusetts
governor’s attempt to enforce the
In response to the Tea Party, the British
imposed the harsh Intolerable Acts,
coincidentally passing the Quebec Act at the
same time. These twin actions aroused
ferocious American resistance throughout the
and led directly to the calling of the
First Continental Congress and the
clash of arms at Lexington and
As the two sides prepared for war, the
British enjoyed the advantages of a
larger population, a professionally
trained militia, and much greater
economic strength.
The greatest American asset was
the deep commitment of those
Patriots who were ready to
sacrifice for their rights.
Kennedy, The American Pageant
Chapter 7
• The “radical Whig” idea, highly popular
with colonial Americans, especially
warned against
– 1. the evils of an hereditary titled nobility.
– 2. trade and manufacturing as the sources
of moral and social corruption.
– 3. the corruption of society caused by
patronage and bribery of the king’s
– 4. the potential of slavery to undermine
principles of liberty and equality.
• The “radical Whig” idea, highly
popular with colonial Americans,
especially warned against
– 3. the corruption of society caused by
patronage and bribery of the king’s
– See page 123.
• Under the theory of mercantilism, the
British colonies were essentially
expected to
– 1. buy only British goods and sell all their
own goods only to Britain and nowhere
– 2. furnish raw materials to the mother
country and buy British manufactured
– 3. provide troops for their own defense and
pay taxes to support the common welfare
of the Empire.
– 4. grant British investors fifty percent of the
ownership of any colonial commercial or
manufacturing enterprise.
• Under the theory of mercantilism, the
British colonies were essentially
expected to
– 2. furnish raw materials to the mother
country and buy British manufactured
See page 123.
• The Sugar Act, the Quartering Act, and
the Stamp Act were all fundamentally
designed to
– 1. teach the Americans that they were
subjects and not equal citizens of the
British Empire.
– 2. force colonial Americans to pay for the
costs of the Seven Years’ War and the
continuing cost of their defense.
– 3. assert the principle that Parliament had
the right to tax as well as legislate for the
– 4. generate revenues for subsidies to
British merchants trading with all parts of
the Empire.
• The Sugar Act, the Quartering Act, and
the Stamp Act were all fundamentally
designed to
– 2. force colonial Americans to pay for the
costs of the Seven Years’ War and the
continuing cost of their defense.
See pages 125–126.
• The most effective colonial protest that
forced repeal of the Stamp Act was
– 1. the Stamp Act Congress.
– 2. the creation of the Committees of
– 3. the violent colonial assaults on British
– 4. the complete colonial boycott of British
• The most effective colonial protest that
forced repeal of the Stamp Act was
– 4. the complete colonial boycott of British
See pages 127–128.
• The single most crucial event leading up
to the American Revolution was
– 1. the convening of the Stamp Act
Congress in 1765.
– 2. the Boston Tea Party of 1774.
– 3. the Boston Massacre of 1770.
– 4. the establishment of an official
Committee of Correspondence by the
Virginia legislature in 1773.
• The single most crucial event leading up
to the American Revolution was
– 2. the Boston Tea Party of 1774.
See page 132.
• Americans especially resented the
granting of a monopoly on tea sales to
the British East India Company because
– 1. Americans believed deeply in the
principles of free economic competition.
– 2. its ability to sell tea at a lower cost would
tempt Americans to violate their antitaxation principles.
– 3. the corrupt Massachusetts Governor
Thomas Hutchinson had secretly organized
the entire affair.
– 4. selling the subsidized tea would ruin the
possibility of developing an American tea
• Americans especially resented the
granting of a monopoly on tea sales to
the British East India Company because
– 2. its ability to sell tea at a lower cost would
tempt Americans to violate their antitaxation principles.
See page 131.
• Which of the following was not part of
the “Intolerable Acts” passed to punish
Massachusetts for the Boston Tea
– 1. closing the Port of Boston until the tea
was paid for
– 2. suspending chartered rights like town
meetings and jury trials
– 3. abolishing the Massachusetts colonial
– 4. granting British authorities the right to
lodge British soldiers in private homes
• Which of the following was not part of
the “Intolerable Acts” passed to punish
Massachusetts for the Boston Tea
– 3. abolishing the Massachusetts colonial
– See page 133.
• In the First Continental Congress of
1774, John Adams took the lead in
– 1. against a proposal for American home
rule under British authority.
– 2. for an immediate declaration of
independence as soon as an army could
be raised.
– 3. in favor of gaining American
representation in the British Parliament.
– 4. in favor of establishing the Continental
Congress as a permanent body to defend
American rights and liberties.
• In the First Continental Congress of
1774, John Adams took the lead in
– 1. against a proposal for American home
rule under British authority.
See page 134.
• The British troops who marched to
Lexington and Concord in April 1775
were aiming to
– 1. punish those towns for their part in the
Boston Tea Party.
– 2. seize colonial militia gunpowder and
capture Samuel Adams and John
– 3. attack and defeat the assembled
Massachusetts militia.
– 4. force all Massachusetts citizens to lodge
British soldiers in their homes.
• The British troops who marched to
Lexington and Concord in April 1775
were aiming to
– 2. seize colonial militia gunpowder and
capture Samuel Adams and John
See page 134.
• The primary advantage that the British
enjoyed at the outset of the American
Revolution was
– 1. a strong and effective political
– 2. a British nation united behind the
principle of forcing the Americans to
support the Empire with their taxes.
– 3. a military strategy designed to prevent
the Americans from holding the
– 4. a large, professionally trained army and
• The primary advantage that the British
enjoyed at the outset of the American
Revolution was
– 4. a large, professionally trained army and
See page 135.
7. Under mercantilist doctrine, the American colonies were expected
to do all of the following except
A) supply Britain with raw materials not available there.
B) become economically self-sufficient as soon as possible.
C) furnish ships, seamen, and trade to bolster the strength of the
Royal Navy.
D) provide a market for British manufactured goods.
E) refrain from exporting woolen cloth.
. The first Navigation Laws were designed to
A) help colonists get the best possible price for their trade goods.
B) eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade.
C) foster a colonial economy that would offer healthy competition
with Britain's.
D) encourage agricultural experimentation in the colonies.
E) support the mapping of the Atlantic trade routes.
. Under the mercantilist system, the British government reserved
the right to do all of the following regarding the American
colonies except
A) prevent the colonies from developing militias.
B) restrict the passage of lax bankruptcy laws.
C) nullify any colonial legislation deemed bad for the mercantilist
D) restrain the colonies from printing paper currency.
E) enumerate products that must be shipped to Britain.
. Despite the benefits of the mercantile system, the American
colonists disliked it because
A) it forced the South into a one-crop economy.
B) it favored the northern over the southern colonies.
C) it forced economic initiative on the colonists.
D) it kept them in a state of perpetual economic adolescence.
E) all of the above.
. A new relationship between Britain and its American colonies was
initiated in 1763 when ____________________ assumed charge of
colonial policy.
A) Charles Townshend
B) George Grenville
C) Lord North
D) William Pitt
E) King George III
. Match each act below with the correct description.
A. Sugar Act
1. first British law
intended to raise
revenues in the colonies
B. Stamp Act
2. asserted Parliament's
absolute power over the
C. Declaratory Act 3. required colonists to
lodge British troops in
their homes
4. generated the most
protest in the colonies.
A-3, B-2, C-l
A-1, B-4, C-3
A-1, B-4, C-2
A-4, B-1, C-2
A-2, B-1, C-4
. The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to
A) raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial
B) punish the American colonists.
C) reduce the number of printed documents in America.
D) enable tax collectors to become wealthy.
E) raise taxes to a higher level than in Britain.
. Passage of the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act
A) led many colonists to believe that the British were expanding colonial
B) convinced many colonists that the British were trying to take away
their historic liberty.
C) resulted in fewer laws being passed by Parliament regarding the
D) exemplified to many colonists the difference between legislation and
E) required action by each colonial legislature.
. Colonists objected to the Stamp Act because
A) it was a very expensive tax.
B) they believed it could not be repealed.
C) Parliament passed the tax, not the colonists.
D) they opposed all taxes.
E) they wanted their independence.