GHSGT_Review_-_World_History

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GHSGT Review
World History
SSWH9 Change and Continuity in
the Renaissance and Reformation
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Renaissance – European movement, which
reached its height in the 1400-1500’s,
emphasizing the study of classical (Greece &
Rome) culture, humanism, education, and
change.
SSWH9 Change and Continuity in
the Renaissance and Reformation
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Development of city-states (Florence)
Why?
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Economic: Agricultural surpluses contributing to the rise of
towns; Mediterranean trade with Middle East
Social: Black Death resulting in agricultural surpluses and
greater status for skilled workers
Political: Dominance of politics by wealthy merchant families
(Medici)
Niccolo Machiavelli – The Prince
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Renaissance political scientist
From Florence
“The ends justify the means.”
Accomplish political goals by any means necessary
SSWH9 Change and Continuity in
the Renaissance and Reformation
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Leonardo da Vinci
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Michelangelo Buonarroti
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Italian painter, sculptor, scientist, architect…
The Last Supper, The Mona Lisa
Italian painter, sculptor, scientist, architect…
David, Moses, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Pieta, designed
dome of St. Peter’s Basilica (Church) in Vatican City (Rome)
Both were “Renaissance Men” – men before their time
with many talents and skills; educated; encouraged
questioning of accepted traditions and customs
SSWH9 Change and Continuity in
the Renaissance and Reformation
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Related movement during the Renaissance Humanism
Characteristics:
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Importance of the individual
Questioning tradition and custom – especially of the
Roman Catholic Church, which built a foundation for
the Reformation
Secularism – focus on “worldly” things
A well-rounded person: educated, athletic, talents in
music and art
Focus on emotion
SSWH9 Change and Continuity in
the Renaissance and Reformation
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Famous Humanists:
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Fransisco Petrarch, Italian poet and scholar,
perfected the sonnet; known as the “Father of
Humanism”
Dante Alighieri, Italian poet, writer of The Divine
Comedy (Inferno, Purgatory, Paradise), which
questioned church leadership, written in the
vernacular and not Latin
Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch (Netherlands), noted
Christian humanist, who called for reform of the
Roman Catholic Church
SSWH9 Change and Continuity in
the Renaissance and Reformation
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Protestant Reformation – after 1517, a
religious movement initially to reform the
Christian Roman Catholic Church, which
eventually resulted in the formation of new
Christian Protestant (from “to protest”)
churches
SSWH9 Change and Continuity in
the Renaissance and Reformation
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Leaders of the Protestant Reformation
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Martin Luther, German
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Ideas stated in the Ninety-Five Theses
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Salvation through faith alone and scripture alone
– Protested sale of indulgences (document sold by Roman
Catholic Church offering forgiveness for past or future sins of
oneself or a loved one)
– Translated Bible into German for wide readership
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Formation of Lutheran Church and later, other Protestant
denominations
SSWH9 Change and Continuity in
the Renaissance and Reformation

Leaders of the Protestant Reformation
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John Calvin, French
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Ideas stated in Institutes of the Christian Religion
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Predestination (people predetermined to be saved or not)
Spread Protestant Reformation to France
The Puritans and Presbyterians are Calvinists
SSWH9 Change and Continuity in
the Renaissance and Reformation
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Roman Catholic Reaction to Protestant
Reformation – Catholic Reformation (Counter
Reformation)
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Realization that reform was needed in the Roman
Catholic Church. Where?
Council of Trent, Italy. Results:
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Ending sale of indulgences
Faith and works needed for salvation
Church’s interpretation of the Bible was final and correct
Formation of the Jesuits, a religious order, which enforced
the directives of the Council of Trent
SSWH9 Change and Continuity in
the Renaissance and Reformation
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Protestant Reformation in England
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Leader: King Henry VIII
Initially a political struggle rather than a religious
one
Resulted in the formation of the Anglican Church,
the Church of England, known in the United States
as the Episcopal Church
Successor to Henry VIII, Elizabeth I, daughter; firmly
established the Protestant Church of England
SSWH9 Change and Continuity in
the Renaissance and Reformation
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Invention of printing press in Europe
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Johan Gutenberg, German
c. 1450
First book to be printed was the Bible
“Information revolution”
Facilitated the spread of Protestantism and later, the
Enlightenment
SSWH10 Impact of the Age of
European Discovery and Expansion
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Definition: Diffusion of European culture around the
world (c.1400-1700)
Why? Gold, God, & Glory
Explorers and Conquistadores
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Vasco da Gama, Portugal, established trade route from
Portugal, around the tip of Africa, to India, 1498
Christopher Columbus, Spain, sailed west to reach East
Indies, but “discovered” the Americas, 1492
Ferdinand Magellan, Spain, his expedition was first to
circumnavigate the world, 1519-1522
Samuel de Champlain, France, explored St. Lawrence River,
founded Quebec, 1608
Hernan Cortes, Spain, conquered the Aztec Empire, c.1519
Francisco Pizarro, Spain, Conquered the Inca Empire, 1522
SSWH10 Impact of the Age of
European Discovery and Expansion
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Columbian Exchange: exchange of plants,
animals, people, and disease among Europe,
Africa, and the Americas
SSWH10 Impact of the Age of
European Discovery and Expansion
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Role of technology in exploration
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Improvements in shipbuilding: rudders moved to
stern (back) of ship; use of lateen (triangular) sails
Improvements in navigation: the astrolabe (used to
measure distance of stars from the horizon);
compass
Improvements in military technology: cannons
mounted on ships
Most improvements were originally developed in
China and the Middle East
SSWH13 The Intellectual, Political, Social,
and Economic Factors, which changed the
world view of Europeans
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Scientific Revolution: major change in
European thought, beginning in the 1500’s, in
which the study of the natural world began to
be characterized by careful observation and
the questioning of accepted beliefs
SSWH13 The Intellectual, Political, Social,
and Economic Factors, which changed the
world view of Europeans
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Scientific Contributions and Contributors:
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Nicholas Copernicus, Polish, heliocentrism (suncentered universe)
Galileo Galilee, Italian, more proof to heliocentrism,
discovered sunspots and moons of Jupiter
Johan Kepler, German, more proof to heliocentrism,
planets moved in elliptical orbits around the sun
Isaac Newton, British, laws of motion and gravity
SSWH13 The Intellectual, Political, Social,
and Economic Factors, which changed the
world view of Europeans
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Enlightenment: European movement in the
1700’s in which thinkers applied the principles
of reason and the scientific method to all
aspects of society
SSWH13 The Intellectual, Political, Social,
and Economic Factors, which changed the
world view of Europeans
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Enlightenment Thinkers:
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John Locke, British, developed idea of natural rights, including
life, liberty, and property; a government, which did not protect
natural rights, could be abolished (consent of the governed)
Jean Jacques Rousseau, French, developed ideas of popular
sovereignty and equality
Voltaire, French, criticized Roman Catholic Church, social
inequality, and absolute government; proponent of freedom of
speech, press, and religion
Charles Louis Montesquieu, French, separation of powers and
checks and balances in government
SSWH14 Age of Revolutions and
Rebellions
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The Enlightenment inspired the English,
American, French, Haitian Revolutions, and
Latin American independence movements
(1688-1825)
SSWH14 Age of Revolutions and
Rebellions
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Causes of the English Revolution
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Power struggle between Parliament and Monarchy
Religious struggle among Protestant Puritans,
Protestant Church of England, and Roman
Catholics
Effects of the English Revolution
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The English Bill of Rights, 1688
Great Britain becomes a limited constitutional
monarchy
Power of government resides in the elected
representatives of the people in Parliament
SSWH14 Age of Revolutions and
Rebellions
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Causes of the American Revolution (17751783):
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Taxation without representation
Desire for the protection of natural rights
Effects of the American Revolution
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Formation of the United States of America
Inspired the French Revolution
SSWH14 Age of Revolutions and
Rebellions
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Causes of the French Revolution:
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Social inequality (Three Estates)
Enlightenment ideas
Example of the American Revolution
Economic Crises
Weak leadership of the monarchy
SSWH14 Age of Revolutions and
Rebellions
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Effects of the French Revolution (1789):
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Destruction of the monarchy
Spread of Enlightenment ideas
Reign of Terror
War with other European nations
Rise of Napoleon
Conservative reaction
Rise of nationalism
Diffusion of democratic ideals to ensure equality and justice
Independence movements in Latin America
SSWH14 Age of Revolutions and
Rebellions
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Causes of the Haitian Revolution (1791-1803)
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Desire for social equality and an end to slavery
Effects of the Haitian Revolution:
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Independence of Haiti, 2nd nation to gain
independence in the Americas
Success of slave rebellion results in fear of future
uprisings
SSWH14 Age of Revolutions and
Rebellions
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Causes of Latin American Independence Movements:
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Enlightenment ideas
Nationalism
American, French, and Haitian Revolutions
Cultural differences between native Europeans in Latin
America and mestizos (persons of mixed European and Native
American descent)
Effects of Latin American Independence Movements:
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Mexican Independence (1821)
Independence of other Latin American nations (1821-1825)
SSWH14 Age of Revolutions and
Rebellions
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Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte:
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Defeat of Napoleon:
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French general from Corsica, who advanced through the ranks
and became emperor of France
Continued the social reforms of the French Revolution, but
limited political reform (return to autocracy, rule by one person)
Defeated by alliance of European nations, exiled, returned for
100 days, finally defeated at Waterloo
Consequences of Napoleon’s Rule:
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Established the Napoleonic Code, a uniform set of laws, which
eliminated many social injustices; enforced order over freedom
Conservative Reaction in Europe
Rise of nationalism in Europe
New territorial boundaries in Europe
SSWH16 Long Term Causes and
Global Impact of WWI
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Causes of World War I
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Militarism
Alliances
Imperialism
Nationalism
SSWH16 Long Term Causes and
Global Impact of WWI
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Militarism
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Expansion of military
European-wide arms race
Glorification of war
Unity of political and military leadership
SSWH16 Long Term Causes and
Global Impact of WWI
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Alliances
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Created to maintain balance of power
Central Powers: German Empire, Austro-Hungarian
Empire, Ottoman Empire
Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Russia, later
United States and Italy
SSWH16 Long Term Causes and
Global Impact of WWI
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Imperialism
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Policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate
smaller nations economically, politically, and socially
Competition among European nations in Africa and
Asia led to conflict of interests in search of
resources especially between Germany and Great
Britain
Drive to create and maintain overseas empires
SSWH16 Long Term Causes and
Global Impact of WWI
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Nationalism
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Belief that people should be mainly loyal to their
nation – people who share a common culture,
language, religion, and history – rather than to a
king or empire
Pan Slavism
Serbian Nationalism – resulted in the assassination
of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Arab Nationalism (Ottoman Empire)
SSWH16 Long Term Causes and
Global Impact of WWI
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Conditions on the war front
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Trench warfare
War of attrition
Use of new war technology – machine guns,
chemical warfare, air bombardment
SSWH16 Long Term Causes and
Global Impact of WWI
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Treaty of Versailles
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Treaty with Germany to end the war
Provisions of the Treaty:
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German war guilt
German reparations
Reduction of German military
Loss of German territory
Creation of the League of Nations
Germany not allowed to join League of Nations
SSWH16 Long Term Causes and
Global Impact of WWI
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The mandate system:
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The Ottoman Empire was divided into mandates
administered by Great Britain and France
A continuation of European imperialism
SSWH16 Long Term Causes and
Global Impact of WWI
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Effects of the War
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Economic depression, especially in Germany
Sense of despair
Collapse of Romanov (Russia), Hapsburg (AustriaHungary), and Hohenzollern (Germany) Empires
Devastation of Europe
New nations created (Czechoslovakia, Finland,
Yugoslavia, Hungary, etc)
SSWH17 Major Political and Economic
Factors that Shaped World Societies
Between WWI and WWII
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Causes of the Russian Revolution:
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Weak leadership of the czar
Poor conditions of peasantry and working class
Lack of political reform
Fueled by ideas of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin
Devastation caused by World War I
SSWH17 Major Political and Economic
Factors that Shaped World Societies
Between WWI and WWII
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Effects of the Russian Revolution
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Withdrawal of Russia from WWI
Rise of the Bolsheviks (Communists) in Russia
Civil war in Russia between the Reds (Bolsheviks) and the
Whites (monarchists)
Creation of the U.S.S.R. – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Rise of Lenin as leader of the Bolshevik Party
Rise of Totalitarianism
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Stalin and Five Year Plans
SSWH17 Major Political and Economic
Factors that Shaped World Societies
Between WWI and WWII
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Totalitarianism: total government control over
every aspect of public and private life
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Examples of:
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Fascism (Germany, Italy, and Japan)
Communism (USSR)
SSWH17 Major Political and Economic
Factors that Shaped World Societies
Between WWI and WWII
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Fascism: totalitarian system that promotes extreme
form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and
dictatorial one-party rule
Fascism in Germany:
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Adolf Hitler
Desire to dominate Europe through racial policies in order to
create a “master race”
Desire to create a world empire “to last a thousand years”
through a policy of lebensraum (“living space”)
Repression of individual rights, especially those of Jews,
gypsies, blacks, and those of “alternative lifestyles”, which
resulted in the Holocaust
Dominance of the Nazi Party
SSWH17 Major Political and Economic
Factors that Shaped World Societies
Between WWI and WWII
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Fascism in Italy
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Benito Mussolini
“Revival of the Classical Roman Empire”
Repression of individual rights
Dominance of the Fascist Party
Fascism in Japan
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Emperor Hirohito
“Asia for Asiatics” – policy to remove all Europeans
from Asia
SSWH17 Major Political and Economic
Factors that Shaped World Societies
Between WWI and WWII
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Communism: totalitarian economic system in
which government owns and controls all
means of production
Communism in the USSR
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Josef Stalin
Five Year Plans and Purges
Dominance of the Communist Party
SSWH17 Major Political and Economic
Factors that Shaped World Societies
Between WWI and WWII
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Causes of World War II
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Militarism
Imperialism
Nationalism
Totalitarianism
Social Chaos
Resentment resulting from Treaty of Versailles
SSWH17 Major Political and Economic
Factors that Shaped World Societies
Between WWI and WWII
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Acts of Aggression Leading to War
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China-Manchuria by Japan, 1931
Eastern China by Japan, 1930s
Ethiopia by Italy, 1935
Rhineland by Germany, 1936
Austria by Germany, 1938
Western Czechoslovakia, the Sudetenland, and the rest of the
country by Germany, 1938-1939
Albania by Italy, 1939
Poland by Germany, 1939
SSWH18 The Global Political, Economic,
and Social Impact of World War II
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Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan
Allied Powers: France, Great Britain, USSR,
and USA
SSWH18 The Global Political, Economic,
and Social Impact of World War II
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Major Conflicts and Outcomes of WWII in Europe and
Africa
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Invasion and rapid fall of France, 1940
Battle of Britain, 1940
War with the USSR, resulting in Germany fighting a two-front
war, 1941
Battle of al-Alemain – Germany defeated in North Africa, 1942
Allied invasion of Italy, 1943
Battle of Stalingrad, 1943
Allied invasion of Normandy, France, also known as D-Day
1944
Unconditional surrender of Germany, April 1945
SSWH18 The Global Political, Economic,
and Social Impact of World War II
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Major Conflicts and Outcomes of WWII in Asia and the
Pacific
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Attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, a territory of the USA, resulting
in US involvement in the war, Dec. 7, 1941
Battle of Midway, allied victory, 1942
Battle of Guadalcanal, allied victory, 1943
Battle of the Philippines, allied victory, 1944
Allied use of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki,
1945
Unconditional surrender of Japan, September 1945
SSWH18 The Global Political, Economic,
and Social Impact of World War II
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Effects of World War II
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Allied Conferences near the end of the war and
post-war:
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Teheran – discussed opening a second front in Western
Europe, 1943
Yalta – discussed post-war plans for Europe, including
dividing Germany into zones, compensating USSR for lost
territory, implementing free elections in Eastern Europe,
and the creation of the United Nations, 1945
Potsdam – discussed how to administer post-war Europe
and how to counter effects of the war, 1945
Leaders involved – Winston Churchill, Great Britain; Josef
Stalin, USSR; Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman, USA
SSWH18 The Global Political, Economic,
and Social Impact of World War II
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Effects of WWII (Continued)
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Creation of the United Nations
Marshall Plan for rebuilding Europe
Reconstruction of Japan under General Douglas
MacArthur’s administration, which included the
policies of demilitarization and democratization
SSWH19 The Global Social, Economic, and
Political Impact of the Cold War and
Decolonization from 1945-1989
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Revolutionary Movement in India
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Mohandas K. Gandhi
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Leader of India’s independence movement from Great Britain
Believed in passive resistance
Inspired other non-violent protest movements, including Martin
Luther King, Jr.
Revolutionary Movement in China
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Mao Zedong
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Leader of Communist Party in China
Defeated Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Chinese Nationalists
Created the People’s Republic of China after the Chinese Civil
War in 1949
SSWH19 The Global Social, Economic, and
Political Impact of the Cold War and
Decolonization from 1945-1989
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Formation of Israel
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Created out of a mandate in Palestine administered
by Great Britain in 1948
Supporters of the movement were called Zionists
Nation-state for the Jewish people
Creation resulted in conflict with Arab neighbors of
Egypt, Jordan, Syria, as well as displaced
Palestinians
SSWH19 The Global Social, Economic, and
Political Impact of the Cold War and
Decolonization from 1945-1989
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Cold War: a state of diplomatic hostility
between the United States and the USSR,
1946-1989
Results of the Cold War:
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Arms race: development of mass stores of nuclear
weapons and advancement in nuclear technology,
including the development of the Hydrogen Bomb
(1954) and ICBMs.
Various conflicts around the world (Korea, Vietnam,
Berlin, Cuba, etc)
Space Race
SSWH20 Change and Continuity in
the World since the 1960’s
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Ethnic Conflict
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Ethnic Group: A group of people who share a common
language, culture, religion, history, and/or territory
Cambodia – the Khmer Rouge, a Communist movement led by
Pol Pot, overthrew the government of Cambodia. During his
rule from 1975-1979, Pol Pot targeted the following groups for
torture and execution:
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Ethnic Chinese, Laotians, and Vietnamese
The crippled or lame
Buddhist monks
People with ties to western nations or western education
Approximately 2 million people died during this genocide (the
purposeful annihilation of a group or groups of people)
SSWH20 Change and Continuity in
the World since the 1960’s
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Ethnic Conflict (Continued)
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Former Yugoslavia – Thousands of Bosnian
Muslims were slaughtered by Christian Bosnian
Serbs from 1991-1995. In 1998, thousands of ethnic
Albanians were also murdered by the Serbs.
Rwanda – Ethnic Hutus massacred 500,0001,000,000 ethnic Tutsis in 1994.
SSWH20 Change and Continuity in
the World since the 1960’s
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New Nationalisms:
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Pan-Africanism: movement seeking unity within
Africa
Pan-Arabism: movement seeking unity among Arab
people and nations of the Middle East
SSWH20 Change and Continuity in
the World since the 1960’s
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Global Terrorism: the use of force or threats to frighten
people or governments to change their policies
Examples of Terrorism:
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Oklahoma City Federal Building Bombing, April 19, 1995
U.S.S. Cole attack, October 12, 2000
World Trade Center, New York City, September 11, 2001
Effects of Terrorism
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Impacts daily life, including travel, world energy supplies,
financial markets, and possibly civil liberties
SSWH21 Globalization in the
Contemporary World
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The development of television, satellites, and
computers (Internet) has resulted in greater
cultural diffusion and diversity.
SSWH21 Globalization in the
Contemporary World
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International Organizations exemplify greater
globalization in politics (United Nations, North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO), G8), economics (World
Trade Organization (WTO), Organization of Petroleum
Exporting Countries (OPEC), North American Free
Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and multinational
corporations (McDonald’s, Nike)), culture (Amnesty
International), and environment (Greenpeace).