Imperialism PPT

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Transcript Imperialism PPT

– The control of a stronger or more powerful
nation/country over a weaker region or country.
– The stronger country controls the political, social
and economic life of the weaker region or nation.
Types of Imperialist Control
– Direct and total control
by the mother country.
– Britain held control of
the American Colonies.
Types of Imperialist Control
– Native ruler remains in
place but foreign advisors
controlling the
Types of Imperialist Control
Sphere of Influence
– The foreign nation has
exclusive rights to
develop, usually economic
goods, in the nation.
Imperialism the spawn of the Industrial
– The factory system needed natural resources
– Europe had coal and iron ore but items like cotton
and rubber needed to be imported
Wealthy industrial nations began colonizing regions
with little regard to compensating the natives
Resources sent back to Europe were made into finished
Finished products were then shipped back to the
colonized nation and sold at a higher price
– Oh yah, the colonized nation had to buy the finished goods
from the colonial power because the colonial power would
not let the colonized nation trade with any other nations
The colonial nation became rich while the colonized nation became
Sounds like exploitation-like the factory owners who exploited the
factory workers during the Industrial Revolution
Soon every European nation began to colonize
every part of the world
France-Africa, Vietnam
Britain-China, India, Africa
Germany-Africa, parts of China
Results of Imperialism
– Colonies became exposed to European ideas
– Resources vital to many of these colonies were
stripped from them and raw material became
depleted in some areas
– Pollution became a global problem and was no
longer limited to just industrialized nations
– Europe and the United States became the centers for
manufactured goods
Industrial Revolution/Imperialism
Wealthy industrialized
nations had better
Accurate rifles
Machine Guns
This allowed
Industrialized nations to
overrun poorly armed
native warriors
Causes of Imperialism
Military Motives
– Bases for military and
naval ships.
Nations competed to gain
control of an area before a
rival could gain control.
– A nation with many
colonies had power and
A global empire.
Causes of Imperialism
Military Motives
– Captain Alfred Mahan
– Argued that nations that
controlled the seas
prevailed or could rule
the world.
– Book, The Influence of Sea
Power Upon History
Industrial Revolution/Imperialism
Motives for colonizing
– The need for raw
materials to keep the
industrial Revolution
Iron ore
Western leaders often struck deals with local
businessmen or politicians for raw materials
Often times these deals hurt the local economy
and the people
Money was exchanged between the western
leaders and the businessmen and politicians and
the local workers just became poor
These countries became known as “Banana
Old Imperialism
From 1500 to 1800.
European nations develop colonies in Americas,
India, Southeast Asia, Africa and China.
European power in these areas was limited.
European nations viewed colonies as more of a
liability because of the cost to run the colony.
New Imperialism
From 1870 to 1914.
European nations had developed strong centralized
– Strong sense of nationalism
Most European nations, America and Japan had become
industrialized and became aggressive in looking for natural
– Need to fuel the factories with raw materials
European nations focused on weakened empires in Asia, India,
and Africa.
– Most were easy targets for the well developed militaries of European
New Imperialism
Results of Imperialism
– Prime Minister of Britain Benjamin Disraeli said
imperialism was a call to greatness where a nation
was to fulfill its destiny.
– There was widespread public support for
imperialism in industrialized nations.
– Why?
Social Darwinism
The White Man’s Burden
Causes of Imperialism
Social Darwinism
– Social Darwinism encouraged imperialism
Most Europeans were very ethnocentric and viewed mostly non
European cultures as barbarians or uncivilized.
Survival of the fittest competition between nations.
Social Darwinist argued it was natural for a stronger nation to ruler
weaker nations because the dominant nation or races rose to the top
because of the idea of survival of the fittest
European nations saw themselves as superior and more fit to run
other nations
Britain was the most industrialized, and thus the most powerful and
the most fit-Britain was superior to all other nations
Causes of Imperialism
The White Man’s Burden
– While Europeans felt they were superior to other
nations they also felt they had a moral obligation to
these weaker nations
– Europeans felt that they had to teach these nations
how to be civilized-Even though most were already
– In reality Europeans wanted to teach the world how
to be European
Causes of Imperialism
White Man’s Burden
– Rudyard Kipling summoned up
the moral obligation in his
poem The White Man’s Burden
– As Europeans
imperialized the world to
advance their own
economic, military, and
political needs, Kipling
called these things
Causes of Imperialism
Kipling said that it was the duty of European
nations to
Conquer these half-devil-half child nations
Convert them to Christianity
Make them as civilized as the rest of Europe
Europeans knew what was best for the world-Being
The Scramble for Africa
The Scramble for Africa
The focus of most of
Europe’s imperialist
activities in the 19th
century was Africa.
The demand for raw
materials, markets, and
the prestige of having
colonies drove
imperialist Europe to
The Scramble for Africa
Prior to the Industrial
Revolution European interest
in Africa was very limited
Up until the 1880’s only the
coastlines of Africa had been
colonized, exploited or even
Gold, ivory and slaves had
been taken from these
Europeans saw Africa and
her ports as just stopping off
points for merchant ships
headed for India or China
Scramble for Africa
Between 1807 and 1820 the slave trade ended in Africa.
No new slaves were exported from Africa at this time
Some former slaves returned to Africa-The country of
Liberia was set up by former American slaves
While slavery ended in Africa, within 50 year
Europeans will colonize most of Africa and subject the
Africans in their own homeland
External Reasons for Imperialism
After the 1880’s Europeans had technological
superiority due to the Industrial Revolution
– Europeans fought with machine guns/Africans had spears
and bows.
– Better maps
– Easier travel with the steam ship and railroads. Made travel
on water or land faster and allowed for close contract with
– Medical treatment of malaria with the drug quinine.
Internal Reasons for Imperialism
African nations lacked unity
No common language
Lack of common culture
Wars between different groups
Lack of technology
Between 1517 and 1882 the Ottoman’s ruled Egypt
The Ottoman Empire was seen as weak and local rulers
called beys controlled regions of Egypt
In the early 1800’s Napoleon attempted to gain control
of Egypt-however in 1805 Muhammed Ali defeated
both the French and the Ottomans and gained control
of Egypt
During Ali’s rule Egypt began to Industrialize
– Egypt expanded its agricultural production
– Egypt began to increase its production of cotton
and began selling the cotton to the British Empire
In 1869 the Egyptians worked with the French
to create the Suez Canal
The canal linked the Mediterranean Sea to the
Indian Ocean which eliminated the need to
travel around Africa for trade
The canal drained the finances of Egypt and
Egypt’s economy began to suffer
The canal was extremely
important to the British
who could now sail
quicker to India
The Egyptian
Government in an effort
to raise money began to
sell stocks in the canal
The British Government
bought a majority of the
stock and by 1882
controlled Suez Canal
Because the British now controlled the canal
they politically moved into Egypt and made
Egypt a protectorate
The French were pushed out of Egypt and
focused on areas of North Africa
The Scramble for Africa
King Leopold of
– In the 1870’s Leopold
establishes a trade in the
Congo River basin.
– Leopold forced Africans
to work on rubber
– Harsh taxation and forced
labor leads the world to
call for humanitarian
changes in the Congo.
The Berlin Conference
Rules for the
Colonization of Africa
– In 1884 European powers
trying to colonize Africa
were coming into conflict.
– To avoid further conflict
14 European powers set
up rules for colonizing
– No members of the
African community were
The Berlin Conference
In 1884 Otto von
Bismarck hosted the
Berlin Conference
– Bismarck wanted to settle
disputes to colonial land
differences in the African
– By the end of the
conference rules had been
set up for colonizing
The Berlin Conference
The agreement between the European powers
– European powers could acquire colonies in the
following methods.
Through occupation.
Notifying other European states of the occupation and
Showing that the European power could control the area.
The Berlin Conference
Results of the Conference
– In 1850 most of Africa had been free.
– By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia were free of
European control.
Result of Colonization
Europeans did not find a new market for goods
in Africa
– Africans had little currency to buy goods.
Instead Europeans found that Africa had a great
deal of wealth and raw materials to supply the
European nations
Result of Colonization
Raw Materials
– Europeans developed
cash-crop plantations
Palm oil
– These plantations
displaced food crops
Africans needed to feed
their families.
– Draw a cash crop
– Africa contain rich
mineral resources
The Belgian Congo
– Tin
– Copper
South Africa
– Gold
– Diamonds
The British In Africa
Britain was the most
active and successful in
colonization of Africa.
South Africa
East Africa
British Problems in Africa
South Africa
– Prior to British colonization of South Africa Dutch
farmers called Boers settled in South Africa.
– In the early 1800’s Britain acquired South Africa
from the Dutch.
– The Boers or Afrikaners, Dutch farmers, moved
north into South Africa to an area known as
– While in South Africa the Boers found gold in the
region and the British tried to move in an take the
territory from the Dutch
British Problems in Africa
The Boers clashed with the
British in the Boer War
The war pitted European
nation against European
The war was known as a total
war and both guerrilla
warfare and commando
tactics were used.
Problems in South Africa
The British won the Boer
War and took over all of
South Africa
The British ended up
with the gold and
diamond mines and used
the natives to mine the
British Problems in Africa
The Zulus were strong
African nation who
clashed with the British.
Superior British
technology and weapons
defeated the Zulu.
This was a common
result for those who
resisted European
Problems in South Africa
South Africa became an
extensive colony of Britain
The British set a British form
of government
By 1910 South Africa had its
own constitution and became
a commonwealth of the
British Empire (The Union
of South Africa)
South Africa was given its
own self rule
Problems in South Africa
The new constitution only
allowed white males to vote
Native Africans had very few
In 1912 educated Black
Africans organized and
formed the African National
Congress (ANC) in a effort
to gain rights for blacks
The ANC would lead a
strong nationalistic
movement for freedoms for
blacks in the 70’s and 80’s.
Impact of Imperialism in Africa
– Reduced local warfare
– Brought hospitals and schools
to Africa.
– Increased life spans and
literacy rates.
– Gained railroads, dams, and
telephone lines
– Africa products were valued on
the international market.
– Africans lost their land
– Lost of independence
– European powers were often
placed in direct control of the
– Large amounts of the African
population died of European
– Loss of traditional culture
Natives were forced to adopt
European customs and
– Forced labor
Impact of Imperialism in Africa
Division of African nations by European
– The boundaries set up by Europeans in 1884 Berlin
Conference were based on European wants and not
on native’s needs
– Tribal lands were cut in half while other rival nations
were forced together by the new boundaries
– These European boundaries, which are still in place
today, disrupted customs and cultures of Africans
Imperialism and China
Africa was divided into Colonies and ruled
directly by Europeans.
China came under Imperialist control by using
Spheres of Influence.
Europeans used leases and concessions to gain
control of China.
In the 1790’s China was not interested in western
China wanted to remain isolated and while China traded
with other nations it had no interest in exploration
China refused western technology.
China was self-sufficient.
– Good agriculture
– Extensive mining and manufacturing
– Finely produced goods
Porcelain, cottons, and silk
The Chinese did allow the rest of
the world (Europe) to trade in one
port city (Canton)
The Chinese had strict guidelines
on what could be bought and sold
in Canton
Europeans powers (The British)
saw China as a place of vast wealth
(Raw materials and markets)
Soon not only were British trade
ships sailing into Canton harbor
but also British warships
The British were going to open up
trade one way or another
The Opium Wars
The British had to find
something that the Chinese
In 1773 the British stated
importing opium from India.
By 1836 Britain was making
16 million dollars off the sale
of opium to China.
The drug became so
destructive that the Manchu
Emperor forbid the sale of
opium in 1838
Opium Wars
When Britain refused
China seized the opium
in Canton in 1839
The British became
angry that the Chinese
had taken their goods
and both countries went
to war
Opium Wars
The wars lasted from 1839 to 1842.
The British won easily because of
their military and naval power.
Britain forced China to harsh
The treaties were seen as the
“unequal treaties”
The British were now given rights
to trade anywhere in China
And the right to create more
opium addicts
Opium Wars
Treaty of Nanjing
– Britain forced China to
Pay for all war cost.
Open all ports to British
Give Britain the island of
Hong Kong.
– This gave Britain a
colonial possession in
British citizens living in
China lived under British
law and not Chinese law.
Opium Wars
The Chinese resented the British.
The opium trade continued.
Britain now had a sphere of influence in China.
China also realized that it’s government was
extremely weak
– Because of this there were a series of rebellions
against the Chinese government
The first rebellion was the White Lotus Rebellion led by
Buddhist monks who were upset at high taxes and
government corruption
The Taiping Rebellion
By 1850 China’s population
had grown by 30% however
food production had
dropped off.
The people of China were
The Chinese Government
had become corrupt.
Many were upset at the lack
of morals and the opium
addiction in China.
The population began to
rebel against the ruling Qing
The Taiping Rebellion
Hong Xiuguan
– Believed that his own
personal vision of
Christianity would save
– Believed if the people
followed him all would
share in China’s wealth.
– Taiping = Great Peace
The Taiping Rebellion
Hong’s army was made up of most peasants.
By 1853 he controlled the city of Nanjing and later
large areas of southern China.
Finally in 1864 the French and British armies put down
the rebellion.
At least 20 million people were killed.
Large amounts of farm land were destroyed.
The rebellion weakened China and the Chinese
Government Reforms-Failures
In the 1860’s with the growing internal problems the
Manchu Government attempted to bring the country
together with the Self-Strengthening Movement
This movement was a failure
In 1876 Korea declared it’s independence from China
In 1883 China lost Vietnam to the French in the SinoFrench War
In 1895 Japan forced China to sign the Treaty of
Shimonoseki ending the Sino-Japanese War
– Japan gained control of Taiwan and had trading rights in
Splitting up China
By the late 1800’s Britain,
France, Russia, and
Germany had cut up
large spheres of
influence in China
These nations now had
large military bases,
businesses, governmental
authority in the regions
they controlled
American Intervention
The U.S. was trading with China.
The U.S. was worried that western
powers would cut up China like
If this happened there would be
restrictions on trade.
The U.S. started the Open Door
China should be open to trading by
all countries in the world.
It kept China from being colonized
and gave the U.S. rights to trade
with China.
Boxer Rebellion
Some Chinese became upset
with foreign intervention in
Poor Chinese resented
special privileges given to
Many Chinese disliked
Christian Chinese.
Many felt that the ruling
Empress Dowager needed to
be removed from power
Boxer Rebellion
A new group of Chinese who wanted
nationalism called the Society of Righteous and
Harmonious Fist or Boxers organized
They were anti-European, anti-Manchu, antiChristian
Boxer Rebellion
The goal of the Boxers
was to drive western
powers and the Japanese
out of China
In 1900 in Perking
Shouting “Death to
foreign devils” Boxers
began to attack
Boxer Rebellion
The Boxers began to kill
westerners, Christians,
and seized control of
Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer rebellion which
began in the spring of 1900
ended in August 1900 when a
combined army of
American, Japanese,
Germans, Italians, and
British put down the revolt.
After this the Chinese
government had to sign the
Boxer Protocol which
demanded that Europeans
and Japan be paid the cost of
putting down the rebellion
China’s Needs
While the Boxer rebellion was a failure it did spark
nationalism in China.
China needed to resist foreign intervention
The Chinese government needed to protect the needs
of Chinese and not foreign governments.
By 1901 the Manchu government was on the verge of
Chinese culture also began to collapse
– In 1901 foot-bidding was abolished
– In 1905 the Chinese Exam System which had been effect for
2,000 years was done away with
China’s Needs
Sun Yixian a Chinese nationalist called for the
replacement of the Qing dynasty
Sun Yixian wanted three things.
– End to foreign domination
– A representative government
– Economic security for the Chinese people.
In 1911 workers, peasants, students and warlords
overthrew the monarchy and China became a republic.
How Imperialism in China and India
Were Different
– Britain had established India as
a colony and had complete
control of India
– The British were able to direct
their laws, customs and beliefs
onto the Indian people
– When India wants its
independence the people
directs their movement against
the British
– Britain controlled trade in
China but after a time other
countries also controlled trade
in China
– China was able to maintain its
government (Manchu) even
thought it was corrupt
– When China wants its
independence the people direct
their movement against the
Chinese government and not
the foreign powers
Throughout history India had always been a
trading post which traders and merchants could
– Tea, sugar, silk, salt, jute (fiber used for ropes)
It was a great source of raw materials
India also had a large population and consumers
who wanted manufactured products
The British in India
In the 1600’s the British East India
Company sets up trading post in
Bombay, Madras and Calcutta.
The company was privately owned
and was responsible to increase the
profits to it’s stockholders.
The company saw India as having a
wealth of natural resources and a
large market to sell goods.
The British East India Company
had exclusive trade rights in India
The British in India
France still owned part of
India and the 1750’s
During the French and
Indian War (Seven Year War)
Robert Clive an employee of
the company helped drive the
French out of India.
These private British troops
now ran India (Think of
Kodak having an army)
The British East India Co.
now had exclusive rights to
trade and all the natural
resources they wanted.
The British in India
By the mid 1800’s
century the Mughal
Empire of India was in
The rulers of India could
not control the British.
By the 1850 Britain
controlled 3/5 of India.
The British in India
Britain’s empire extended
around the world and
with control over India
“the sun never set on the
British Empire”
India was also known as
the “Jewel in the Crown”
India was seen as the
most valuable of Britain’s
The British in India
Raw Goods supplied by
– Plantation crops
– Narcotics
The British in India
Opium Trade
– The British would ship
opium from India to
– The opium would then be
traded to the Chinese for
– The tea would be sold in
The British in India
The Industrial Revolution turned Britain into
the world’s workshop.
India was the major supplier of raw materials
for Britain.
India also had 300 million people. A large
market for British goods.
The British in India
Results of Colonialism
– Britain only allowed India to produce raw goods and
only buy British manufactured goods.
– Indian was not allowed to compete with British
finished goods.
– Indian cloth makers all but went out of business.
The British in India
– India gained a vast railway
– Telephone, telegraph lines
– Bridges, dams, and canals
– Schools and colleges
– Ended local warfare
– British held most of the
political and economic control
of India.
– The British restricted industries
from producing manufactured
– Cash crops reduced farm
production and increased
starvation in India.
– British customs and religion
threatened India’s customs.
The British in India
The Sepoy Mutiny
– The British used Sepoy’s, Indian soldiers assigned to
the British Army.
– The Sepoy’s were Hindu and Muslim
– Both the Hindu and Muslims of India felt that the
British were trying to convert them to Christianity.
The British in India
Muslim do not eat pork
Hindu do not eat beef.
The rumor was that the cartridges that the Sepoy had
to use for their guns were covered by a beef and pork
The seal had to be bitten and the cartridge removed
before it could be placed in the gun.
The Sepoy refused to use the cartridge and the British
jailed the soldiers.
The Sepoy believed that the British covered the
cartridges in pork and beef on purpose.
The British in India
The Sepoy rebelled against the British.
The fighting between the British and the Sepoy
lasted about a year.
The British Army finally put down the mutiny.
The British Army took control of India away
from the East India Company.
The British in India
The direct British rule of India was called the
Raj and lasted from 1757 to 1947
British soldiers and politicians held control over
millions of Indians.
Policy for India came directly from Britain.
The mutiny caused distrust between the British
and Indians.
Results of the British Take Over
India became the model colony not only for
Britain but for the rest of the world
– The upper castes were forced to learn English and to
respect English law
– Christianity was spread throughout India
– Urban centers grew in India and Indians were
influenced by British government (Parliamentary)
– Education was brought to all the upper castes
– The British tried to end the untouchable caste
Results of the British Take Over
The British take over
resulted in the loss of
Indian culture
Indians were forced to
accept British customs
while trying to hold on
to their own traditions
In 1885 The Indian
National Congress, made
up of well educated
Hindus, wanted to gain
independence for India
Japan and the Meiji Restoration
Japan becomes a National Power
Tokugawa Isolation
Prior to the arrival of
Matthew Perry of the U.S. in
1854 Japan had been isolated
for 200 years.
In 1500’s Europeans had
tried to trade with Japan
however the Shoguns had
gained control of Japan and
banned contact with almost
the entire outside world.
Japanese Isolation
Japan had built an highly ethnocentric society
– Japanese were not allowed to travel outside the
– Foreigners were not allowed inside the nation
By the 19th Century The U.S. and Europe were
looking for markets were ever they could find
them and they turned to Japan
Commodore Matthew Perry
In 1854 Perry gave Japan a
letter asking them to open
trade with the U.S.
Americans and Europeans
wanted to not only open
trade with Japan but also use
Japanese ports to repair and
resupply their ships.
Treaty of Kanagawa
The Japanese shoguns were impressed by the American
show of force.
Japan agreed to open its ports and signed the Treaty of
Kanagawa in 1854.
The Treaty gave trading rights to the U.S. and soon
other countries like Britain, France and Russia also
gained trading rights.
Treaty of Kanagawa
The Treaty had a powerful
impact on Japan.
– It weakened the power of the
shogun who some Japanese felt
had given in to foreigners.
– It showed that for for Japan to
compete with the west that
Japan had to modernize and
– Nationalist in Japan did not like
the intervention of the west
– These Japanese nationalist,
with the help of the Samurai
rebelled against and overthrew
the Shogun, restored the
emperor, and began to
modernize and industrialize.
The Meiji Restoration
In 1867 the samurai led the rebellion to remove the
Tokugawa shogun from power.
In 1868 the emperor was established as the leader of
The period from 1868 to 1912 is known as the Meiji
By the 1870’s Japan was building railroads, steamships
In 1876 the samurai class had been abolished
There was universal military service for all males
Meiji means “enlightened one”
Modernization and Industrialization
Once the Emperor was
in place he began to
make changes to Japan
that would make Japan a
world power.
Modernization and Industrialization
Borrowing from the West
– The emperor sent advisors and government officials
to western nations to study government, economics,
technology, and customs.
– Foreign experts were also invited to Japan.
Modernization and Industrialization
– The Meiji government used western methods and
machinery to industrialize Japan.
– The government built factories and then sold them
to wealthy Japanese businessmen, know as zaibatsu.
– The government developed a banking system.
– The government built ports and railroads
– By 1890 the economy was strong, the population
had grown, and peasants moved to the cities looking
for jobs.
Modernization and Industrialization
– The Meiji wanted a strong central government and
used Germany as their model.
– The Meiji liked the strength of the Germany’s
constitution and that the government was run by
only a few select men.
– The constitution gave the emperor
autocratic(dictatorial) power. The emperor was not
elected by the people.
– The constitution created a two house legislature
Only one house was elected and voting was
Modernization and Industrialization
– Samurai are no longer the only warriors in Japan.
– Japan admired the discipline of the German army and the
skill of the British navy.
– All men must join the military
– Japan modernizes its navy
– Japan develops a strong army and navy and defeats European
powers in warfare.
Modernization and Industrialization
Social Reforms
– Public education system
Japan admired the the American system of education.
– Development of universities
– Still a class system
– Women seen as 2nd class citizens
By the 1890’s Japan had become
strong enough to reduce U.S. and
western influence in their country
Japan would fight a series of wars
which would soon make them a
world power
Japan as a Global Power
By 1894 Japan had
transformed itself into a
major world power.
Japan used its military
strength to become
Japan became imperialistic
looking for colonies for raw
materials and new markets.
Japan found these colonies
through warfare.
Japan as a Global Power
Sino-Japanese War
– 1894-1895
– Japan tries to expand into
– China goes to war with Japan
over Korea.
– Japan quickly wins the war
– Japan gets Taiwan, ports in
China, and Korea becomes a
protectorate of Japan.
Japan as a Global Power
Russo-Japanese War
– 1904-1905
– Both Japan and Russia have interest
in Korea.
– Russia refuses to recognize Japan’s
rights to Korea.
– Japan launches a surprise attack
against the Russians destroying the
Russian navy and driving the
Russian troops out of Korea.
– Russia is forced to withdraw from
– Japan is seen as a major military
power with the defeat of a
European nation
Japan as a Global Power
Dependence on a World Market
– Japan’s economy depended on trade. It needed new
– Japan is an island and lack many of the natural
resources to keep their industrialization alive.
– For Japan to compete with the world market Japan
would have to continue to be imperialistic.
Japan as a Global Power
Results of Imperialistic Japan
– Japan borrowed many western ideas to become a modern and
industrialized nation.
– Japan quickly establishes itself as a strong military power.
– Japan needs to continue to colonize to keep raw materials
coming in and finished products going out of the country.
Japan is truly the only country that needs to colonize because they
lack raw materials
Japan’s Industrial Revolution
Europe’s Industrial Rev
– Japan’s Ind. Rev only took
about 30 years because
they borrowed everything
– Private corporationsWealthy class
– Urbanization
– Need for raw materials
– Europe’s industrial Rev. a
century because they had
to invent everything
– Private CorporationsWealthy class
– Urbanization
– Need for raw materials
American Imperialism
After independence
movements in Latin America
most European powers were
pushed out of the western
In an effort to control the
western Hemisphere
President Monroe declared in
1823 that the western
Hemisphere was off limits to
European powers
This was known as the
Monroe Doctrine
American Imperialism
The U.S. in 1823 was not in any position to keep
European powers out of the western
Britain however wanted to keep the Spanish out
of the Americans and the British, with their
large navy agreed to back up the U.S.
American Imperialism
European powers remained out of the western
hemisphere but still invested in Latin American
In 1904 European nations demanded Venezuela
repay loans
European powers sent warships to demand the
American Imperialism
The U.S. was fearful of
European intervention
and colonization and
President Roosevelt
created the Roosevelt
American Imperialism
The Corollary stated
– The U.S. would resolve any financial disputes
between European powers and countries in the
western hemisphere
– The Corollary protected Latin American countries
from aggressive Europeans
– Latin American nations however saw the U.S. as an
aggressive power
American Imperialism
The U.S. also exercised a
form of imperialism in
the western hemisphere
– The U.S. incited Panama
to break free of Colombia
– Once Panama declared
their independence the
U.S. then negotiated the
rights from Panama to
build the Panama Canal
American Imperialism
In 1898 Spain controlled
Cuba and Puerto Rico
Cuban nationalist wanted
to drive the Spanish out
and the U.S. sided with
the nationalist
This started the Spanish
American War
American Imperialism
The war lasted only months
The U.S. navy quickly defeated the Spanish navy
in both Cuba and the Philippines
The U.S. gained control of former Spanish
– Guam, Philippines and Puerto Rico
– Cuba was given it’s independence in exchange Cuba
would give the U.S. rights to two naval bases