Transcript 9.5 Trigonometric Ratios

9.5 Trigonometric
Ratios
Geometry
Mrs. Spitz
Spring 2005
Objectives/Assignment
• Find the since, the cosine, and the tangent
of an acute triangle.
• Use trionometric ratios to solve real-life
problems, such as estimating the height of
a tree or flagpole.
• To solve real-life problems such as in
finding the height of a water slide.
• Assignment: pp. 562-563 #3-38 all
• Due TODAY– 9.4
• Quiz next time we meet
Finding Trig Ratios
• A trigonometric ratio is a ratio of the
lengths of two sides of a right triangle.
The word trigonometry is derived from
the ancient Greek language and
means measurement of triangles.
The three basic trigonometric ratios
are sine, cosine, and tangent, which
are abbreviated as sin, cos, and tan
respectively.
Trigonometric Ratios
• Let ∆ABC be a right
triangle. The since,
the cosine, and the hypotenusec
tangent of the
acute angle A are
b
defined as follows. A side adjacent
to angle A
cos A =
sin A =
Side opposite A
hypotenuse
=
B
Side
a opposite
angle A
C
=
hypotenuse
c
a
c
tan A =
Side opposite A
a
=
Note:
• The value of a trigonometric ratio
depends only on the measure of the
acute angle, not on the particular right
triangle that is used to compute the
value.
Ex. 1: Finding Trig Ratios
• Compare the sine, the
cosine, and the
tangent ratios for A in
each triangle beside.
• By the SSS Similarity
Theorem, the triangles
are similar. Their
corresponding sides A
are in proportion which
implies that the
trigonometric ratios for
A in each triangle are
the same.
B
17
8
C
15
B
8.5
4
A
7.5
C
Ex. 1: Finding Trig Ratios
Large
sin A =
cosA =
tanA =
opposite
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
opposite
Small
8 ≈ 0.4706
17
4 ≈ 0.4706
8.5
7.5 ≈ 0.8824
8.5
15 ≈ 0.8824
17
8 ≈ 0.5333
15
4 ≈ 0.5333
7.5
B
B
17
8.5
4
8
A
A
15
7.5
C Trig ratios are often
expressed as decimal
approximations.
C
Ex. 2: Finding Trig Ratios
S
sin S =
cosS =
tanS =
opposite
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
opposite
5 ≈ 0.3846
13
12 ≈ 0.9231
13
5 ≈ 0.4167
12
R
opposite
5
13 hypotenuse
T
12
S
Ex. 2: Finding Trig Ratios—Find the sine,
the cosine, and the tangent of the
indicated angle.
R
sin S =
cosS =
tanS =
opposite
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
opposite
12 ≈ 0.9231
13
5 ≈ 0.3846
13
12 ≈ 2.4
5
R
5
13 hypotenuse
T
12
opposite
S
Ex. 3: Finding Trig Ratios—Find the sine,
the cosine, and the tangent of 45
45
sin 45=
cos 45=
tan 45=
opposite
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
opposite
1
√2
1
√2
=
=
√2
2
√2
2
1
1
≈ 0.7071
≈ 0.7071
= 1
Begin by sketching a 45-45-90
triangle. Because all such triangles
are similar, you can make calculations
simple by choosing 1 as the length of
each leg. From Theorem 9.8 on page
551, it follows that the length of the
hypotenuse is √2.
√2
hypotenuse
1
45
1
Ex. 4: Finding Trig Ratios—Find the sine,
the cosine, and the tangent of 30
30
sin 30=
cos 30=
tan 30=
opposite
hypotenuse
hypotenuse
opposite
1
= 0.5
2
√3
2
1
√3
≈ 0.8660
=
√3
3
Begin by sketching a 30-60-90
triangle. To make the calculations
simple, you can choose 1 as the length
of the shorter leg. From Theorem 9.9,
on page 551, it follows that the length
of the longer leg is √3 and the length
of the hypotenuse is 2.
≈ 0.5774
2
1
30
√3
Ex: 5 Using a Calculator
• You can use a calculator to
approximate the sine, cosine, and the
tangent of 74. Make sure that your
calculator is in degree mode. The
table shows some sample keystroke
sequences accepted by most
calculators.
Sample keystrokes
Sample keystroke
sequences
74 sin
sin 74
Sample calculator display
Rounded
Approximation
0.961262695
0.9613
0.275637355
0.2756
3.487414444
3.4874
ENTER
74
COS
COS
74
ENTER
74
TAN
TAN
74
ENTER
Notes:
• If you look back at Examples 1-5, you
will notice that the sine or the cosine
of an acute triangles is always less
than 1. The reason is that these
trigonometric ratios involve the ratio of
a leg of a right triangle to the
hypotenuse. The length of a leg or a
right triangle is always less than the
length of its hypotenuse, so the ratio
of these lengths is always less than
one.
Trigonometric Identities
• A trigonometric
identity is an
equation involving
trigonometric ratios
that is true for all
acute triangles.
prove the following
identities in
Exercises 47 and
52.
(sin A)2 + (cos A)2 = 1
sin A
cos A
tan A =
B
c
A
a
b
C
Using Trigonometric Ratios in
Real-life
• Suppose you stand and look up at a
point in the distance. Maybe you are
looking up at the top of a tree as in
Example 6. The angle that your line
of sight makes with a line drawn
horizontally is called angle of
elevation.
Ex. 6: Indirect Measurement
• You are measuring the height
of a Sitka spruce tree in
from the base of the tree.
You measure the angle of
elevation from a point on the
ground to the top of the top of
the tree to be 59°. To
estimate the height of the
tree, you can write a
trigonometric ratio that
involves the height h and the
known length of 45 feet.
The math
opposite
tan 59° =
Write the ratio
h
tan 59° =
Substitute values
45
45 tan 59° = h
Multiply each side by 45
45 (1.6643) ≈ h
Use a calculator or table to find tan 59°
75.9 ≈ h
Simplify
The tree is about 76 feet tall.
Ex. 7: Estimating Distance
• Escalators. The escalator
at the Wilshire/Vermont
Metro Rail Station in Los
Angeles rises 76 feet at a
30° angle. To find the
distance d a person travels
on the escalator stairs, you
can write a trigonometric
ratio that involves the
hypotenuse and the known
leg of 76 feet.
d
30°
76 ft
Now the math
opposite
sin 30° =
hypotenuse
76
sin 30° =
d
Write the ratio for
sine of 30°
30°
Substitute values.
d
d sin 30° = 76
76
d=
Divide each side by sin 30°
sin 30°
76
d=
Multiply each side by d.
0.5
d = 152
Substitute 0.5 for sin 30°
Simplify
A person travels 152 feet on the escalator stairs.
76 ft
Reminders:
• After this section, you have a quiz on
Thursday or Friday.
• Chapter 9 exam will take place before
you leave for spring break . . . Take it
before you go on break.
• Binder check before spring break.