CH 14 brain cranial nerves shortened for test 4 A and P 2016

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Transcript CH 14 brain cranial nerves shortened for test 4 A and P 2016

Chapter 14
Brain and Cranial nerves
brain integration
cranial nerves
the brain is very complex but scientists have located
- gross anatomical structures such as a lobe or gyrus
- internal structures for motor, sensory, or integrative functions
- specific area which deal with specific functions
- the role of the brain as a sensory and motor organ
some terms we should all know
fissure = cleft/groove dividing a structure, deeper than a sulcus
sulcus = shallow groove or furrow on the surface of a structure
gyrus = thick folds of tissue of the cerebrum and cerebellum
precentral gyrus = gyrus anterior to central sulcus (primary motor)
postcentral gyrus = gyrus posterior to central sulcus (primary sensory)
central sulcus = separates primary motor from primary sensory cortex
cerebrum = largest most superior part of brain (integration & thought)
cerebellum = area for balance, motor coordination, learned motor skills
medulla oblongata = connects cord to brain, site of many basic life needs
corpus callosum = connects left and right cerebrum at base of cerebrum
brainstem = medulla, pons, midbrain, diencephalon
gray matter = neurosomas, dendrites, synapses,
white matter = tracts, bundles of axons
brain covering terms
- skull = bony covering for brain, compact and spongy bone
- dura periosteal layer = coats the inner surface of skull
- dura meningeal layer = inner layer which follows folds of brain
- arachnoid layer = thin fibrous layer separated from pia mater by fluid
filled space
- arachnoid granulations = reabsorb cerebral spinal fluid
- pia layer = thin fibrous layer which follows the contours of the brain
- gray matter = layer containing many neurosomas
- white matter = layer containing many axons in bundles and tracts
- sinuses = separation of dural layers which collect blood which
has left blood vessels
ventricles and CSF
- choroid plexus = groups of small BV line ventricles and canals
- ependyma = neuroglial cells line ventricles and canals and make CSF
cerebrospinal fluid
- fills ventricles & canals & bathes external surfaces
- 500 ml made each day
- at any one time CNS has 100 to 160 ml of CSF
- 40% from subarachnoid space, 30% ependymal, 30% choroid
- CSF is a blood filtrate, modified by ependymal cells, Na,
potassium, calcium, glucose, and protein
- pulsations of blood moves CSF
- CSF provides buoyancy, allows for large brain, protection
- CSF provides regulation of chemical composition, removes wastes,
brain cant work without blood
- 2% of body weight but 15% of blood supply
- uses 20% of O2 , 20% of glucose
- no blood supply for 10 sec=faint, 1-2 m in=function, 4 min=irrev
- BBB regulates what leaves BV and gets to brain cells and fibers
- blood brain barrier has tight junctions for capillaries & ependymal
- circumventricular organ in 3rd & 4th ventricles, has direct access to
brain, cells here monitor glucose, pH, osmolarity, & other
parameters – disease can access brain – no BBB?
limbic system
- emotion and learning
- ring structure on medial side of cerebral hemisphere
encircling the corpus callosum and thalamus, the
hippocampus, amygdala, mammillary bodies, and basal
nuclei form the limbic system
- most prominent feature is the cingulate gyrus
- all parts are interconnected (smell, emotions, memory,
gratification, and aversion
medulla oblongata (hindbrain)
- all nerves  and  pass through the medulla
- sensory nerves = 1st order from spine - 2nd order decussate in brain
stem – then go to cerebrum
- motor = corticospinal tracts go to medulla in brain stem - 90%
decussate & control skeletal muscles below neck - smaller
tectospinal tract controls neck muscles
inf olivary nuc. relays info from brain to cerebellum
- reticular formation nuc. extend through medulla, pons & midbrain &
has centers for control of heart, lungs, & blood vessel tone
- thick cerebellar peduncles connect pons & midbrain to cerebellum
- anterior ½ of pons connect the two halves of the cerebellum
- tracts carry signals up & down the brainstem
- carry sensory info for hearing, equilibrium, taste, facial sensation,
touch, pain, & motor roles in facial expressions, chewing,
swallowing, urination, saliva, tears, & eye movements
- reticular formation in pons = nuclei for sleep, breathing & posture
midbrain terms
reticular formation = runs from cord up through brainstem
substancia nigra= melanin containing nuclei, inhibitory center for
thalamus and basal nuclei preventing unwanted
body movement
reticular formation
- runs through entire brainstem, 100+ small nuclei,
- input from cord and senses are sent up to the thalamus then
to the cerebrum and motor info is sent back to reticular
system and down the spinal cord
reticular activating system
- controls sleep, waking, and attention
- a sophisticated filter
- creates a blind spot – info deemed unimportant is sent to an
area where it does not interfere with what you need to
concentrate on (junk info stored out of the way)
- acts as an executive assistant – decides what goes where
- allows you to focus on what you value
- allows you to perceive a threat
- supports you when you set a goal
no mention made of reticular inactivating centers?
somatic motor control
- motor neuron axons from cerebrum to reticular formation nuc.
- which give rise to the reticulospinal tract of cord
- which control muscle tone, tension, balance, & posture
- integrates signals from eyes & ears and sends to cerebellum
- other motor functions for gaze, patterns, breathing, & swallowing
other reticular system functions
- cardiac and vasomotor centers of medulla oblongata
- pain modulation,  & , analgesic pathways sent down to
stop or modulate pain sensory signals
- controls sleep & waking, injury = coma
- habituation body = learns to ignore repetitive unimportant
stimuli but nuclei remain sensitive to other stimuli,
the cerebellum
- largest part of hindbrain & 2nd largest part of the brain
- right and left hemispheres connected by vermis
- each hemisphere has 4 masses of gray matter (deep nuclei)
- nuclei send information to thalamus which sends it to cerebrum
- 10% of mass but 50% of all brain neurons
- some estimate more cells than the rest of the brain
- 10% of brain mass but surface area equal to 60% of cerebrum
- monitors muscle contraction
- monitors muscle coordination
- evaluates sensory information and coordinates with contraction
- tactile, spatial, 3D, timekeeper, temporal judgement
- football, music, ADHD
- lesions = motor, sensory, & emotional dysfunction
the thalamus
- has at least 23 nuclei and more are being discovered
- info for taste, smell, hearing, equilibrium, vision, touch, pain,
pressure, heat, and cold pass through on way to cerebrum
- motor signals from cerebellum to cerebrum go through thalamus
- involved in memory and emotions
the hypothalamus
- lies under the thalamus
- forms the floor and walls of the 3rd ventricle
- pituitary gland attached to base of hypothalamus
- relays info from limbic to thalamus
- control center for endocrine and autonomic nervous system
- homeostatic center for virtually every organ and system
- controls many visceral functions
secretes hormones that control the anterior pituitary thus
regulating growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress
-secretes two hormones that are stored in the post pituitary
which are involved with labor contractions,
lactation, and water conservation
- ANS effects = integration center, sends fibers to lower
brainstem to coordinate heart rate, blood pressure,
gastric secretions, gastric mobility, and pupil diameter
- thermal regulation = collection of nuclei especially the
preoptic nucleus monitor body temperature
- when body temperature deviates from a set point the
hypothalamus activates mechanisms to bring it to
- food and water intake = arcuate nucleus and others are
stimulated by hormones which increase hunger and
energy use
- other hormones have an inhibitory affect on both
- other hormones have a long term affect on body mass
- osmoreceptors monitor blood osmolarity and affect water
intake or salt and water loss along with antidiuretic hormone
sleep and circadian rhythms = the caudal part of the hypothalamus
is a continuation of the reticular formation which along with
the suprachiasmatic nucleus controls our 24 hour circadian
rhythms, mother was correct you need sleep
memory = the memory center of the brain, the hippocampus, send
info to the thalamus by passing through the mammillary
bodies, hypothalamic lesions cause memory deficits
sex and hormones = anger, aggression, fear, pleasure,
contentment, sex drive, libido, copulation, and orgasm are
functions whose actions involve one or more hypothalamic
the epithalamus
- small mass of tissue made up of the pineal gland which secretes
melatonin and other hormones which affect sleep and circadian
- and the habenula which forms the roof of the third ventricle
and relays information from limbic system to the midbrain
the cerebrum
- frontal lobe = voluntary muscle function, motivation, planning,
foresight, memory, mood, emotion, social
judgement, aggression
- parietal lobe = general senses, taste, some visual, & pathways
- occipital lobe = primary visual cortex
- temporal lobe = hearing, smell, learning, memory, some
vision and emotion
- insula = small mass deep in lateral sulcus, spoken language,
taste, integration of visceral receptors
cerebrum fiber tracts
projection tracts = & between higher and lower brain and
cord, in cerebrum fibers spread out to their specific
areas of importance
commissural tracts = enable left and right hemispheres to
communicate through anterior and posterior commissures
and corpus callosum
association tracts = short fibers connect gyri in same lobe, long
fibers connect different lobes of a hemisphere, aids
perception and memory
the cerebral cortex
- gray outer and white inner layers, 6 layers called the neocortex
- site of complex neural integration between many different areas
of the cerebrum and lower brain areas
- cortex 2-3 mm thick containing 14-16 billion neurons
integrative functions of the cerebrum
- one of the tools used to investigate higher brain functions is
the EEG
- by measuring the EEG when areas are active or dormant and
when signals are measured to or from an area
functional maps of the brain have been developed
- probably no function is localized to one area of the cerebrum
-some of the functions where the electro encephalograms
have been used are sleep, cognition, memory,
emotion, sensation, special senses, general senses,
motor control, language, and cerebral lateralization
beta waves = continued input, thinking 14 -30 cps (Hz)
alpha = resting, eyes closed, no real concentration 8 – 13 cps
theta = drowsy or sleepy state, common in kids, 4 – 7 cps
delta = deep sleep, less than 3.5 cps
gamma = active concentration, 40 -60 cps
stage 1 = drowsy, close eyes, relax, thoughts come and go, drifting,
easily awakened, alpha waves
stage 2 = light sleep, EEG declines, amplitude increases, 1 or 2
spindles appear, from interaction between with
stage 3 = moderate to deep sleep, theta and delta appear, muscles
relax, vital signs fall
stage 4 = slow wave sleep, muscles relaxed, vitals at lowest level,
difficult to awaken
- 4 or 5 times a night a sleeper goes from stage 3 or 4 back to
stage 2 and go into rapid eye movement sleep (REM)
- eyes move back and forth under eyelids as if watching a
movie screen, vital signs increase, brain uses more oxygen
- sleep paralysis occurs (it is very difficult to awaken the
person) it is thought that this prevents people from acting
out their dreams,
- dreams can occur in REM and non REM sleep
- REM dreams more vivid and longer
-parasympathetic nerve system very active during REM
- pupils constrict, penis and clitoris erect,
- sleep involves interaction of cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus,
the reticular formation and the suprachiasmatic nucleus
- neuropeptides orexins from the hypothalamus stimulates
wakefulness and increased metabolic rates
- a second system using melatonin inhibits the orexin receptors
thus inducing sleep
- it is thought that sleep is a period of growth and repair for the
physical and emotional body
- during sleep the body releases the most HGH, memories are
consolidated or purged
how we get new knowledge?
how do we become aware of the world around us?
how do we become aware of our own body?
- scattered throughout the cerebrum are association areas for
- senses, thought, reasoning, judgement, memory, imagination, and intuition
- this is the least understood area of brain research
parietal lesions = unaware of objects even your own limbs or body
temporal lesions =unable to recognize names of objects, or faces
frontal lesions = personality disorders, socially inappropriate
-hippocampus of limbic system is an important center
- does not store memories but organizes sensory and cognitive
experiences into a unified long term memory (whatever
that is)
– memories of faces, words & objects resides in the superior
temporal lobes
- memories for plans & social roles are in the prefrontal cortex
- lesions in many areas cause amnesia
- loss of hippocampi and other temporal tissue causes inability to
form new memories
- cerebellum is involved in learning motor skills and the amygdala has
a role in emotional memory
- prefrontal cortex is seat of judgement, intent, control over
expressions of our emotions
- amygdala gets sensory input from general and special senses,
vision, hearing, taste, and smell and info used to mediate a
cebral response to the sensory input
- primary sensory cortex
- area where sensory input is 1st perceived and becomes conscious
- there are special senses – vision, hearing, etc.
- there are general senses – spread over the body
vision – posterior occipital is the primary visual cortex, while the
anterior occipital and temporal areas are visual association areas
hearing – superior temporal lobe and insula are the primary
auditory cortex, the association area is in the inferior and deep
temporal lobe, this is where we become capable of recognizing
spoken words, pieces of music, and voices without seeing a face
equilibrium – signals from inner ear to cerebellum and
brainstem, for head and eye movements, for body movements
and orientation in space
taste and smell – sensory info for taste goes to the primary
gustatory cortex located in the parietal lobe, sensory info for
smell goes to the primary olfactory cortex in the temporal lobe
and to the frontal lobe
the general senses
somatosensory, somesthetic, somatic senses
- distributed over the entire body
- use simple sensory receptors
- touch, pressure, movement, heat, cold, and pain
- all info decussate at the thalamus
- fibers go to the postcentral gyrus (primary somatosensory cortex)
- next to it is the somatosensory association area where cognitive
sense is made from the many inputs of info and decisions are
made based on the many inputs
motor control
- info about the need or intent to move a skeletal muscle
arrives at the motor association premotor area
- here info is integrated with info from the cerebellum, limbic
system and sensory cerebrum
- the integrated info is then sent to the precentral gyrus
(primary motor area)
- which sends info down to brainstem, spinal cord, and muscles
- amount of cortex is proportional to the number of muscles
and motor units in a region (see homunculus)
-the role of the cerebellum in motor functions are increasing
- people are capable of repetitive motor skills which are done
at a rate which defies thought
- it is thought that the cerebellum is involved in allowing such
things as typing 200 words a minute
- cerebellum is involved with muscle tone, posture, coordinate
eye and hand movements and joints movements
- compares what you intend to do with what your body is
doing, the Purkinje cells compare the two and adjust the
output of muscles to match your intent
cerebral lateralization
- the left and right lobes look identical but they are not
- this difference is called cerebral lateralization
- but left and right need this difference in information to
properly integrate information to form a correct
interpretation of sensory info or for motor control
- left hemisphere = categorical brain, spoken & written
language, sequential & analytical reasoning, linear thinking
- right hemisphere = representational brain, imagination,
insight, music, artistic, patterns, spatial, comparison of
special senses, holistic integration