For Every Action…

Download Report

Transcript For Every Action…

Chapter 13 – The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Spinal Reflexes
For Every
Action…
Action…
Reaction…
Make a Note
of This Cord
Lack of
Communication
Are You
Nervous?
$100
$100
$100
$100
$100
$200
$200
$200
$200
$200
$300
$300
$300
$300
$300
$400
$400
$400
$400
$400
$500
$500
$500
$500
$500
FINAL ROUND
For Every Action…:
$100 Question
What is the minimum number of neurons
in a reflex arc?
a. One
b. Two
c. Five
d. Seven
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
For Every Action…:
$100 Answer
What is the minimum number of neurons
in a reflex arc?
a. One
b. Two
c. Five
d. Seven
BACK TO GAME
For Every Action…:
$200 Question
Which of these is NOT an important factor
concerning reflexes?
a. They are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli.
b. They preserve homeostasis by making rapid
adjustments in the functions of organs.
c. They oppose potentially harmful changes in the
internal or external environment.
d. They involve interaction with the
cerebrum.
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
For Every Action…:
$200 Answer
Which of these is NOT an important factor
concerning reflexes?
a. They are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli.
b. They preserve homeostasis by making rapid
adjustments in the functions of organs.
c. They oppose potentially harmful changes in the
internal or external environment.
d. They involve interaction with the
cerebrum.
BACK TO GAME
For Every Action…:
$300 Question
One of the first somatic reflexes to develop
is the suckling reflex. Which type of reflex
is this?
a. Inherent reflex
b. Acquired reflex
c. Innate reflex
d. Visceral reflex
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
For Every Action…:
$300 Answer
One of the first somatic reflexes to develop
is the suckling reflex. Which type of reflex
is this?
a. Inherent reflex
b. Acquired reflex
c. Innate reflex
d. Visceral reflex
BACK TO GAME
For Every Action…:
$400 Question
Polysynaptic reflexes include all of he
following characteristics, except ___?
a. Involve pools of interneurons
b. Interneuron pools are contained
within one spinal segment
c. Have reverberating circuits
d. Involve reciprocal inhibition
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
For Every Action…:
$400 Answer
Polysynaptic reflexes include all of he
following characteristics, except ___?
a. Involve pools of interneurons
b. Interneuron pools are contained
within one spinal segment
c. Have reverberating circuits
d. Involve reciprocal inhibition
BACK TO GAME
For Every Action…:
$500 Question
What is reinforcement as it pertains to
spinal reflexes?
a. It allows brief periods of rest between sets of
stimuli
b. A chronic depression in spinal reflexes due to
IPSPs
c. An enhancement of spinal reflexes due to
postsynaptic neurons entering a state of
facilitation
d. Strengthening of both the crossed extensor reflex
ANSWER
and reciprocal inhibition
BACK TO GAME
For Every Action…:
$500 Answer
What is reinforcement as it pertains to
spinal reflexes?
a. It allows brief periods of rest between sets of
stimuli
b. A chronic depression in spinal reflexes due to
IPSPs
c. An enhancement of spinal reflexes due to
postsynaptic neurons entering a state of
facilitation
d. Strengthening of both the crossed extensor
reflex and reciprocal inhibition
BACK TO GAME
Action… Reaction…:
$100 Question
You’ve just touched a hot stove. What type of
reflex did you experience __ and in what way
was your brain involved in the reflex __?
a. Cranial / the somatosensory cortex
b. Visceral / only tracts that respond to pain
c. Complex / all the sensory tracts
d. Spinal / it was not involved at all
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Action…Reaction…:
$100 Answer
You’ve just touched a hot stove. What type of
reflex did you experience __ and in what way
was your brain involved in the reflex __?
a. Cranial / the somatosensory cortex
b. Visceral / only tracts that respond to pain
c. Complex / all the sensory tracts
d. Spinal / it was not involved at all
BACK TO GAME
Action…Reaction…:
$200 Question
A weight lifter is straining to lift a 200-kg barbell.
Shortly after he lifts it to chest height, his
muscles appear to relax and he drops the
barbell. Which reflex has occurred?
a. Withdrawal reflex
b. Stretch reflex
c. Crossed extensor reflex
ANSWER
d. Tendon reflex
BACK TO GAME
Action…Reaction…:
$200 Answer
A weight lifter is straining to lift a 200-kg barbell.
Shortly after he lifts it to chest height, his
muscles appear to relax and he drops the
barbell. Which reflex has occurred?
a. Withdrawal reflex
b. Stretch reflex
c. Crossed extensor reflex
d. Tendon reflex
BACK TO GAME
Action…Reaction…:
$300 Question
During a withdrawal reflex, what happens
to the limb on the side opposite the
stimulus? What is the response called?
a. Flexed / stretch reflex
b. Adducted / tendon reflex
c. Extended / crossed extensor reflex
d. Abducted / tendon reflex
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Action…Reaction…:
$300 Answer
During a withdrawal reflex, what happens
to the limb on the side opposite the
stimulus? What is the response called?
a. Flexed / stretch reflex
b. Adducted / tendon reflex
c. Extended / crossed extensor reflex
d. Abducted / tendon reflex
BACK TO GAME
Action…Reaction…:
$400 Question
How would the stimulation of the muscle
spindles involved in the patellar (knee-jerk)
reflex by gamma motor neurons affect the
speed of the reflex?
a. Quicker reflex response
b. Slower reflex response
c. Graded reflex response
d. Inhibited reflex response
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Action…Reaction…:
$400 Answer
How would the stimulation of the muscle
spindles involved in the patellar (knee-jerk)
reflex by gamma motor neurons affect the
speed of the reflex?
a. Quicker reflex response
b. Slower reflex response
c. Graded reflex response
d. Inhibited reflex response
BACK TO GAME
Action…Reaction…:
$500 Question
Reflex responses usually remove or
oppose the stimulus. Therefore this type of
reflexive response would be considered an
example of ___.
a. A visceral reflex
b. Negative feedback
c. A reverberation circuit
d. Avoidance feedback
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Action…Reaction…:
$500 Answer
Reflex responses usually remove or
oppose the stimulus. Therefore this type of
reflexive response would be considered an
example of ___.
a. A visceral reflex
b. Negative feedback
c. A reverberation circuit
d. Avoidance feedback
BACK TO GAME
Make a Note of This Cord:
$100 Question
Damage to which root of a spinal nerve
would interfere with motor function?
a. Posterior root
b. Anterior root
c. Dorsal root
d. Ventral root
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Make a Note of This Cord:
$100 Answer
Damage to which root of a spinal nerve
would interfere with motor function?
a. Posterior root
b. Anterior root
c. Dorsal root
d. Ventral root
BACK TO GAME
Make a Note of This Cord:
$200 Question
Where is the cerebrospinal fluid that
surrounds the spinal cord located?
a. Epidural space
b. Subarachnoid space
c. Above the dura mater
d. Between the pia mater and the nervous
ANSWER
tissue of the brain
BACK TO GAME
Make a Note of This Cord:
$200 Answer
Where is the cerebrospinal fluid that
surrounds the spinal cord located?
a. Epidural space
b. Subarachnoid space
c. Above the dura mater
d. Between the pia mater and the nervous
tissue of the brain
BACK TO GAME
Make a Note of This Cord:
$300 Question
Which of following is true concerning the
spinal cord ?
a. The filum terminale is the end of the spinal cord.
b. The conus medullaris is a strand of fibrous tissue that
helps support the spinal cord.
c. The spinal cord of an adult ends between L1 and L2.
d. The amount of gray matter in the spinal cord is the least
at the cervical and lumber enlargements.
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Make a Note of This Cord:
$300 Answer
Which of following is true concerning the
spinal cord ?
a. The filum terminale is the end of the spinal cord.
b. The conus medullaris is a strand of fibrous tissue that
helps support the spinal cord.
c. The spinal cord of an adult ends between L1 and L2.
d. The amount of gray matter in the spinal cord is the least
at the cervical and lumber enlargements.
BACK TO GAME
Make a Note of This Cord:
$400 Question
A person with polio has lost the use of his leg
muscles. In which area of his spinal cord
would you expect the virus-infected motor
neurons to be?
a. Anterior gray horns
b. Lateral gray horns
c. Posterior gray commissure
d. Anterior gray white commissure
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Make a Note of This Cord:
$400 Answer
A person with polio has lost the use of his leg
muscles. In which area of his spinal cord
would you expect the virus-infected motor
neurons to be?
a. Anterior gray horns
b. Lateral gray horns
c. Posterior gray commissure
d. Anterior gray white commissure
BACK TO GAME
Make a Note of This Cord:
$500 Question
Which portion of the spinal cord would be
affected by a disease that damages myelin
sheaths?
a. Sulci
b. Columns
c. Gray horns
d. Fissures
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Make a Note of This Cord:
$500 Answer
Which portion of the spinal cord would be
affected by a disease that damages myelin
sheaths?
a. Sulci
b. Columns
c. Gray horns
d. Fissures
BACK TO GAME
Lack of Communication:
$100 Question
A patient has damage to several spinal
nerves. Which of the major divisions of the
nervous system has been damaged?
a. Central nervous system
b. Peripheral nervous system
c. Autonomic nervous system
d. All of these are correct.
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Lack of Communication:
$100 Answer
A patient has damage to several spinal
nerves. Which of the major divisions of the
nervous system has been damaged?
a. Central nervous system
b. Peripheral nervous system
c. Autonomic nervous system
d. All of these are correct.
BACK TO GAME
Lack of Communication:
$200 Question
If a patient has persistent numbness in the
medial two fingers, which nerve of the
brachial plexus has been damaged?
a. Ulnar nerve
b. Median nerve
c. Radial nerve
d. Musculocutaneous nerve
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Lack of Communication:
$200 Answer
If a patient has persistent numbness in the
medial two fingers, which nerve of the
brachial plexus has been damaged?
a. Ulnar nerve
b. Median nerve
c. Radial nerve
d. Musculocutaneous nerve
BACK TO GAME
Lack of Communication:
$300 Question
Compression of which nerve produces the
sensation that your leg has “fallen asleep”?
a. Sural nerve
b. Sciatic nerve
c. Femoral nerve
d. Tibial nerve
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Lack of Communication:
$300 Answer
Compression of which nerve produces the
sensation that your leg has “fallen asleep”?
a. Sural nerve
b. Sciatic nerve
c. Femoral nerve
d. Tibial nerve
BACK TO GAME
Lack of Communication:
$400 Question
Damage to the long thoracic nerve would
cause paralysis to which muscle(s)?
a. Deltoid and teres minor muscles
b. Rhomboids and levator scapulae
muscles
c. Latissimus dorsi muscle
d. Serratus anterior muscle
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Lack of Communication:
$400 Answer
Damage to the long thoracic nerve would
cause paralysis to which muscle(s)?
a. Deltoid and teres minor muscles
b. Rhomboids and levator scapulae
muscles
c. Latissimus dorsi muscle
d. Serratus anterior muscle
BACK TO GAME
Lack of Communication:
$500 Question
Someone with paralysis of the anterior
thigh muscle would have damage at which
spinal segments?
a. L4 – S4
b. T12 – L1
c. L2 – L4
d. L4 – S2
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Lack of Communication:
$500 Answer
Someone with paralysis of the anterior
thigh muscle would have damage at which
spinal segments?
a. L4 – S4
b. T12 – L1
c. L2 – L4
d. L4 – S2
BACK TO GAME
Are You Nervous?:
$100 Question
Why are spinal nerves classified as
“mixed” nerves?
a. They contain both afferent and efferent fibers
b. They contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons
c. They carry mixed or conflicting information
d. Axons of the ventral root carry sensory information to
the spinal cord and axons of the dorsal root control
somatic and visceral effectors
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Are You Nervous?:
$100 Answer
Why are spinal nerves classified as
“mixed” nerves?
a. They contain both afferent and efferent fibers
b. They contain the cell bodies of sensory neurons
c. They carry mixed or conflicting information
d. Axons of the ventral root carry sensory information to
the spinal cord and axons of the dorsal root control
somatic and visceral effectors
BACK TO GAME
Are You Nervous?:
$200 Question
What is the clinical significance of
dermatomes?
a. Damage to descending tracts will be reflected in the
dermatomes.
b. Location of affected dermatomes provides clues to
location of injury along the spinal cord.
c. Damage to a corresponding spinal nerve will produce
loss of sensation to the region of skin supplied by a
dermatome.
ANSWER
d. B and C are correct.
BACK TO GAME
Are You Nervous?:
$200 Answer
What is the clinical significance of
dermatomes?
a. Damage to descending tracts will be reflected in the
dermatomes.
b. Location of affected dermatomes provides clues to
location of injury along the spinal cord.
c. Damage to a corresponding spinal nerve will produce
loss of sensation to the region of skin supplied by a
dermatome.
d. B and C are correct.
BACK TO GAME
Are You Nervous?:
$300 Question
Injury to which nerve plexus would interfere with
the ability to breathe __? Which nerve is the
major nerve of this plexus?
a. Brachial plexus / long thoracic nerve
b. Cervical plexus / phrenic nerve
c. Cervical plexus / long thoracic nerve
d. Brachial plexus / pectoral nerve
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Are You Nervous?:
$300 Answer
Injury to which nerve plexus would interfere with
the ability to breathe __? Which nerve is the
major nerve of this plexus?
a. Brachial plexus / long thoracic nerve
b. Cervical plexus / phrenic nerve
c. Cervical plexus / long thoracic nerve
d. Brachial plexus / pectoral nerve
BACK TO GAME
Are You Nervous?:
$400 Question
An anesthetic blocks the function of the
dorsal rami of the cervical spinal nerves.
Which areas of the body will be affected?
a. Skin and muscles of the back of the neck
b. Skin and muscles of the shoulders
c. Both A and B
d. None of the above
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Are You Nervous?:
$400 Answer
An anesthetic blocks the function of the
dorsal rami of the cervical spinal nerves.
Which areas of the body will be affected?
a. Skin and muscles of the back of the neck
b. Skin and muscles of the shoulders
c. Both A and B
d. None of the above
BACK TO GAME
Are You Nervous?:
$500 Question
After injuring her back, Tina exhibits a
positive Babinski reflex. What does this
imply about Tina’s injury?
a. Possible paraplegia
b. Possible damage of sensory tracts to foot
c. Possible damage of ascending tracts in
spinal cord
d. Possible damage of descending
tracts in the spinal cord
ANSWER
BACK TO GAME
Are You Nervous?:
$500 Answer
After injuring her back, Tina exhibits a
positive Babinski reflex. What does this
imply about Tina’s injury?
a. Possible paraplegia
b. Possible damage of sensory tracts to foot
c. Possible damage of ascending tracts in
spinal cord
d. Possible damage of descending
tracts in the spinal cord
BACK TO GAME
FINAL ROUND Question
Which is the term used when one presynaptic
neuron synapses with multiple postsynaptic
neurons __? When is this useful ___?
a. Parallel processing / when information must
be relayed in a stepwise fashion
b. Convergence / when a signal must be
concentrated
c. Divergence / when broad distribution of a
ANSWER
specific input is important
d. All of these are correct.
BACK TO GAME
FINAL ROUND Answer
Which is the term used when one presynaptic
neuron synapses with multiple postsynaptic
neurons __? When is this useful ___?
a. Parallel processing / when information must
be relayed in a stepwise fashion
b. Convergence / when a signal must be
concentrated
c. Divergence / when broad distribution of a
specific input is important
d. All of these are correct.
BACK TO GAME