presents - Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology

Download Report

Transcript presents - Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology

Dialog Processing with
Unsupervised Artificial Neural
Andrew Richardson
Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and
Technology Computer Systems Laboratory
2005 - 2006
Dialog Processing with
Unsupervised Neural Networks
What I did...
Background (unsupervised neural networks)
Program Mechanics
Attributes of Nodes
Attributes of Connections
Lessons from Neurobiology
Further Research
What I Did
Interest in Neural Networks (Unsupervised)
Most researchers use Supervised NN's (Boring)
Theory's really complicated
Learning from brains...
I found a new Field! (Cognitive Science)
Too complicated for now
Program a failure
Background: Neural Networks
Outside of research, the neural networks used
today are supervised, such that output for an input
is matched against the right answer, and
connections that produce the right answer are
reinforced. The idea is that connections which
have been right in the past will be right in the
Background: Unsupervised Neural
Networks, or a Connectionist Model
However, I think that unsupervised neural
networks have more promise for complex tasks.
This is more analogous to the neurons within the
brain. Instead of affecting the network in a series
of supervised tests, the network is systematically
modified as a series of inputs, such as words, are
read in. In an attempt to mimic the brain, my
network reinforces connections between nodes
that often fire one after the other. In this case,
each word is represented by a node.
Program Mechanisms: Nodes
However, it's not as simple as that. If the brain
only noted connections between words, it wouldn't
note connections to emotions or abstract ideas. In
order to mimic these attributes of the brain, the
ones that really think, nodes are added to the
network that do not represent words. These take
on meaning as they build connections to words
and to each other. In time, they may let the
network form complex ideas represented by
nodes that have been influenced by the input text.
Program Mechanisms: Attributes of
Like neurons in the human brain, nodes in my program vary in a
variety of ways.
 Plasticity: A measure of how easy it is to modify the connections
to and from this node
 Metaplasticity: A measure of how much more difficult it becomes
to modify connections. This is important because it allows
connections within the brain to become fix and finalized after
having been changed, resisting further change. Of course,
nodes can become less rigid as time goes on, or else the
network would become unusable. The ease with which nodes
do this also varies. This is important in the human brain in
facilitating short term memory, wherein connections remain
constant after having been established, but then become plastic
Program Mechanics: Attributes of
Number of Connections: Some nodes have the capacity to
connect to more nodes than others. This is theoretically more
important when metasystems get more advanced than those in my
current project.
Threshold: Some nodes require more stimulation in order to fire
than others.
Base Values for Connections: Most connections between nodes
are only the basic connections that do not yet reflect changes from
the environment. The nodes remember what these values are for
their connections.
Type of Node: This is a reflection of something the brain does.
I'm not sure why, but I put it in for good measure, because it seems
important in the brain.
Attributes of Connections
The links between the nodes are where the nodes actually
remember past actions, so these attributes are particularly
Strength of Connection: This is the power a connection has to
activate the end node. This also stores whether the connection is
excitatory or inhibitory. This is affected by attributes of the
connected nodes.
Lessons From Neurobiology
In designing my project, I tried to copy neurobiology, because
designing from scratch is difficult
Hebbian Learning
Neurotransmitter types/receivers
Cognitive Science
Network structures
Difficulties in Modeling and the Need
for Algorithms
In the human brain, which can also be thought of
as an unsupervised neural network, neurons each
have thousands of connections, and there are
billions of neurons in the brain. We cannot expect
a computer to handle all this without the
mechanisms being simplified and optimized a bit.
Program Mechanics: Algorithms
An unsupervised neural network can be thought of as a
collection of nodes which form connections to each other. In
the beginning, the network is set up having different types of
nodes, with different types of characteristics and connections.
In the beginning, these attributes and connections are all
cookie-cutter; they do not encode meaningful information.
Only after the network has changed in response to stimuli will
the connections and attributes be important. Furthermore,
only those connections that have changed to reflect the
stimuli have important changes, and then only before they
have been changed back to being non-descript.
Program Mechanisms: Algorithms
So, my program attempts to conserve computational
resources by taking advantage of the fact that most nodes
aren't important. It keeps track of which nodes encode
meaningful information, and keeps statistical information on
those nodes that do not. Whenever new information needs to
be assimilated, the existence of nodes is predicted using
statistical information which are then brought into reality in
order to hold useful information. In this way, the program
processes no more than is actually needed, while at the same
time reducing informational artifacts of the program from
becoming too large.
Computational Complexity
Number of important connections proportionate to
information to be stored
How much does it need to know?
Processing kept to a minimum
Cognitive Science
Further Research: Representations
As it currently stands, the program represents
information by storing the connections between
nodes as well as storing which nodes are
important. It would be better if information were
stored in a more intuitive and less spacious
manner. Representational standards should be
developed based on symbolic cognitive science.
Bibliography - Explanation of the
computationalist approach to cognitive science, the approach used in the theory of this
program. - explanation of how neurons need to
be in phase to communicate. - Explanation of Bayesian math, which I'm
attempting to use to model this program. - Neural net used for topic spotting.
Bibliography - The
ambiguous nature of words described in this article supports the
use of neural networks for processing rather than more rigid rulebased approaches. - This
article is particularly loquacious in describing the difference
between supervised and unsupervised networks. The real power of
neural networks is that they can learn, and it is important that I
get sufficient learning material for my network. This will include
dictionaries (which I am having trouble obtaining), and
conversational transcripts. - This
article talks about how networks can "memorize" data. Tbat is to
say that they avoid learning the rules about the data, but instead
learn only to respond to the input data used so far. It is also
important to consider the topology of networks, because that is an
additional level of complexity within the brain, or a neural
Bibliography - Face recognition is generally done
with more rigid algorithms, but this presents a way to use neural networks to
achieve the desired recognition.