Nervous System - Downey Unified School District

Download Report

Transcript Nervous System - Downey Unified School District

Nervous System
By: Tony Lim and Hayley Sartor
Anatomy and Function
● Neuron (Nerve Cells)
○ transport information
● Dendrite
○ Receive and input information
● Axon/Axon terminal (nerve fiber ending)
○ transfers the impulse
● Synapse (nerve impulse)
○ pass electrical or chemical signal to another cell
● Soma (cell body)
○ nucleus
● Myelin
○ shealth nerve fiber
○ increasing speed of impulse
● node of Ranvier
○ gap between the sheath of nerve
Classification of Neurons
● Multipolar Neurons (multi-process)
○ Axon
○ Dendrites
○ Node of Ranvier
○ Myelin Sheath
○ Cell Body
○ Axon Terminals
Interneurons (association)
neurons
● form links between neurons
● transmit messages from part of brain/
spinal cord to another
● some impulses transferred to motor
neurons
Motor Neuron
● efferent
● carry signal from brain or spinal to
effectors
● contraction of muscle
● secrete of gland
Motor Nervous
● Somatic Nervous
● Autonomic Nervous
System (Voluntary)
System (Involuntary)
○ skeletal muscle
○ smooth muscles
○ cardiac muscles
○ glands
●
Classification of Neurons
● Bipolar neurons (2 process)
○ Axon
○ Dendrite
○ Terminal Button
○ Soma (cell Body)
● specialized in sensory neuron for
the transmission of special senses.
● Sensory Neuron
○ retina
○ Nasal Cavity
○ Inner Ear
Classification of Neurons
● Unipolar Neurons (1 process)
○ Axon
○ Peripheral process
○ Central Process
○ Cell Body
○ Short Single Process
Sensory Neuron
● afferent
● peripheral body parts to brain or spinal cord
● Mostly unipolar neurons
● thermoreceptors,photorectors,chemoreceptors,mechanoreceptors,
nociceptors
Overview
● Peripheral Nervous
● Central Nervous
System
System
○ nerves that branch
off of brain and spinal
○ allow to communicate
to rest of body
○ work in both direction
○ brain and spinal cord
○ main control central
Classification of Neuroglial Cells
● CNS
● Astrocytes
○ Starlike appearance
○ regulation of metabolism
○ reaction to injury
○ in brain and spinal cord
○ transport blood-borne to
neuron
Cont.
● Oligodendrocytes Cells
○ create the myelin sheath
○ provide support and insulation
to axon but not all
○ found only in brain and spinal
cord
○ processes
Cont.
● Microglial Cella
○ first and main form of
● active immune defense in
CNS
○ type of glial cell
○ scavenging damaged
neuron and infectious agent
Cont.
● Ependymal Cells
○ regulate cerebrospinal fluid
(CSF)
○ filled ventricles in the brain
○ type of glial cell
○ ependymal cell and
capillaries
● makes system called choroid
piexus
Classification of Neuroglial Cells
● PNS
● Schwann cells
○ produce myelin
○ speed
neurotransmission
Cont.
● Satellite Cell
○ cover surface
nerve cell body
○ control over
microenvironment of
sympathetic ganglia
Classification and Introduction of
Different nervous system
● Peripheral
● branch off of CNS
■
connect it to the body
● Autonomic
●
○ involuntary
○ motor division of PNS
smooth muscles
○ cardiac muscles
○ glands
Action Potential
Action Potential
●
●
●
●
Resting potenial
membrane
sodium leak
electric charge
Action Potential
● occur when neuron sent information
● threshold must be met
● All or Nothing
Refractory
● sodium - depolarized
● longer for potassium channels to open
● can’t be stimulated till done
Neurotransmitters and their role
transmission of signal to one
neuron to the next synapse
Acetylcholine
stimulation of muscle
norepinephrine
increase heart rate and blood
pressure
Dopamine
block tendency of neuron to fire
GABA
brake to excitatory
Glutamate
important to memory but toxic to
neurons and excess will kill them
Serotonin
intimately involved in emotion and
mood
Endorphin
inhibitory, involved in pain
reduction and pleasure
Bibliography
Bailey, Regina. "Peripheral Nervous System." N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2015.
"Bipolar Neurons: Location, Structure, and Functions." Bipolar Neurons:
Location, Structure, and Functions. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.
"Choroid Plexus." Patient Help. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2015.
"Neurotransmitters." Neurotransmitters. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2015.
"Human Physiology - Neurons & the Nervous System." Human Physiology Neurons & the Nervous System. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2015.
"IIA. Astrocytes - Structure/function." IIA. Astrocytes - Structure/function. N.p.,
n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2015.
"Neuroscience For Kids." - Autonomic Nervous System. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr.
2015.
"Who Am I?" What Does the Peripheral Nervous System Do? N.p., n.d.
Web. 20 Apr. 2015.