Neural Control of Breathing (By Mohit Chhabra)

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Transcript Neural Control of Breathing (By Mohit Chhabra)

NEURAL CONTROL OF BREATHING
PONS
MEDULLA
Neural
Control Of
Breathing
Autonomic
Voluntary
Cerebral
cortex
Medullary
Centers
Dorsal
Respiratory
Group
Ventral
Respiratory
Group
Pontine
Centers
Pneumotaxic
Center
Apneustic
Center
Respiratory Center
The respiratory center is
composed of several groups of
neurons located bilaterally in
the medulla oblongata and
pons of the brain stem.
It is divided into :
1.
2.
3.
4.
Dorsal Respiratory Group
Ventral Respiratory Group
Pneumotaxic Center
Apneustic Center
Brainstem Respiratory Centres
Pontine center
Pons
Dorsal Respiratory Group
Medulla
Ventral respiratory group
- Nucleus ambiguus
- Nucleus retroambigualis
To larynx and bronchi
To respiratory muscles
DORSAL RESPIRATORY GROUP

The dorsal respiratory group of
neurons extends along most of
the length of the medulla. Most
of its neurons are located within
the nucleus of the tractus
solitarius.

This group of neurons emits
repetitive bursts of inspiratory
neuronal action potentials.

The basic rhythm of respiration
is generated mainly in the dorsal
respiratory group of neurons.
VENTRAL RESPIRATORY
GROUP





The Ventral respiratory group of neurons is found in
the nucleus ambiguus rostrally and the nucleus
retroambiguus caudally.
The VRG contains both inspiratory and expiratory
neurons.
The neurons of the ventral respiratory group remain
almost totally inactive during normal quiet respiration.
The VRG is responsible for motor control of
inspiratory and expiratory muscles during exercise.
They are especially important in providing the
powerful expiratory signals to the abdominal muscles
during very heavy expiration
Pontine Respiratory
Center
Pons contains 2 centres for
control of respiration:
1. Pneumotaxic Center
2. Apneustic Center
INTEGRATION
HERRING-BRUER’S REFLEX
Inspiratory
Center
Inhibitory Signal
Vagus Nerve
Stretch
Receptors on
Lungs
Activated
Phrenic Nerve
Diaphragm
Contracts &
Lung Expands
Brainstem Respiratory Centres
Pontine center
Pons
Dorsal Respiratory Group
Medulla
Ventral respiratory group
- Nucleus ambiguus
- Nucleus retroambigualis
To larynx and bronchi
To respiratory muscles
LESIONS
Produces apneustic
effect – long, powerful
inspirations.
Pons
Irregular but
Rhythmic Breathing
Medulla
Stops breathing since no automated
output to respiratory system – cause
of death in hanging.
ABNORMAL RESPIRATORY
PATTERNS
Apneusis
Biot
Breathing
Cheyne Stroke Breathing
Vagal Breathing