World War II

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Transcript World War II

Chapter 26
World War II
Section 1
Paths to War
Early Indications
• Germany increases it military from 100,000 to
550,000 troops, UK, France and Italy condemn
this, but are incapable of any action due to their
own domestic issues (Depression).
• Germans begin to mobilize in Rhineland (Which
was directly against the treaty of Versailles).
• European powers did not take any direction
against Germany in hopes that policy would be a
peaceful way of achieving goals and not war.
Failure of Appeasement
Hitler joins forces with Austria forcing them to
forma new Nazi government in March of 1928.
The Munich conference was the high point of
western appeasement, when Neville Chamberlan
(British PM) returned to England and boasted of
peace treaties with Hitler, Chamberlain believed
that the Germans would not go into war.
Does Appeasement work? Why yes or no?
The Soviets and Hitler
Fearing that the “west” and the Soviet
Union would create an alliance, Hitler made
his own agreement with Joseph Stalin.
1939, Germans and Soviets sign a
nonaggression Pact.
Hitler was successful in getting the treaty
signed by offering the Soviets Eastern
Poland and the Baltic states, giving
Germany the perfect opportunity to attack
Poland (which they do on Sept.1)
Japans Path to
1931 Japan had seized Manchuria using the
“Munken Incident” where Japanese soldiers
disguised as Chinese bombed a Japanese railway.
Japan renamed Manchuria, Manchukoku.
Japan went to War with China in 1936 taking over
the communist government, in 1937 seizing the
capital Nanjing in December.
New Asian Order
Japan begun a new order in East Asia,
comprising of Japan, Manchuria and China.
Japans goal was to modernize the rest of Asia by
seizing Soviet Siberia, in order to take over
Siberia Japan had planned on attacking the
Soviets with Germany.
However, the nonaggression pact signed
between the Soviets and Germans in 1939 made
Japanese leaders rethinking their goals.
Japan changed its goals towards attacking
southward to gain raw materials in southeast asia.
By 1940 Japan had gained part of French
The US in retaliation began economic sanctions,
restrictions towards Japan, who was using oil and
scrap iron from the US.
Japan now is caught in a dilemma to give up raw
materials from the US or to stop exploiting
southeast Asia.
After much debate, Japan decides to launch a
surprise attack on the US and Europe
Blitzkreig Attack
Blitzkreig, “Lightening War” used
armored columns called Panzer divisions
supported by airplanes.
-Within four weeks the Polish surrendered
-The Germans attacked the Netherlands,
Belgium, France and Luxembourg in 1940.
-The Germans signed an armistice in June of
1940 with the French controlling around 60% of
French soil.
The US & Isolationism
The French and the British were being defeated
by the Germans in Europe, however the US
chose to continue to pursue isolationism, the US
had passed various neutrality acts in congress
which prohibited them from joining Wars.
However, by 1940, many of these acts were
being repealed as the US supplied food, ships,
planes and weapons to Great Britain
Battle of Britain
1940 August: Luftwatte, German air force bombs British
air, naval bases, harbors, communications and war
industries. The British suffering critical losses.
In September, Lufwattes began bombing British cities, in
hope to break British morale, however this provided time
for the British to rebuild.
Ultimately, the British were able to rebuild and to fight
off Hitler, Hitler having no choice but to postpone the
invasion of Britain indefinitely.
Attacking the
By 1940 Hitler was convinced
that the British remained in war
in hopes of Soviet support, and
that if the Soviets were defeated
the British would surrender.
Although the invasion was
delayed (Due to problems in the
Balkans, with Italians failing an
invasion of Greece) Hitler begun
attacking the Soviets in 1941.
-German soldiers captured 2
million Russian soldiers capturing
Ukraine, Leningrad and Moscow.
Cold Soviet Winters
However, the German attacks were haulted in 1941
due to the cold weather.
The cold weather in Russia will play an even larger
role later on in the War.
Pearl Harbor
1941 December, Japan launches an aircraft
attack on the US naval base in Pearl Harbor.
-The same day as the attack Japan invades Dutch
East Indies and assaults the Philippines.
-By 1942, almost all of Southeast Asia had gone
to the Japanese.
Japan names their colonies as the Greater EastAsia Co-prosperity Sphere.
The Americans
In reaction to Pearl Harbor, public opinion in the
United States swayed heavily towards joining the war.
Although damage was down, the Japanese had not
decisively destroyed Pearl Harbor and the US had
enough military for a swift counter attack.
In reaction to the Americans declaring War to Japan,
Germany declares war on America hoping that US
involvement in the pacific would distract the US from
By 1941, another European conflict had extended
itself to become a global conflict.
The Grand Alliance
Great Britain-United States-Soviet Union, decided
to work together and ignore political differences.
Agreeing to fight until the axis powers German, Italy
and Japan would surrender unconditionally.
German Setbacks
1942 Fall: The tides begin to turn in the War
-German forces are stopped in Northern Africa
and forced to retreat, eventually surrendering in
1943 May.
-In the East, Hitler's attacks on Stalingrad were
stopped (1942-43 Feb.) The poor weather
conditions and Soviet counter attacks took out
the German troops forcing them back to where
they were before June 1942.
Major Turning Point: of the war camera bout in the
Battle of Midway Island where US planes destroyed
four attacking Japanese aircraft carriers and
established naval superiority in the pacific.
Douglas MacArthur, a US general helped the US
move into New Guinea through he Philippines and
stage navy attacks on Japanese-held islands. This
style of attack was also known as “Island Hoping”.
Final Days of Battle Europe 1
By 1943 the tides have turned against the Axis
The allied forces had managed to conquer the southern
area of Italy as the allied troops began an invasion of
mainland Italy in September (1943).
-After the fall of Sicily Mussolini is removed from office
and placed under arrest by Victor Emmanuel III, the
King of Italy.
-However, Germans had come into Italy to free
Mussolini and set up defensive lines in Rome, Rome did
not fall to the allies until June 1944.
Final Days of Battle Europe 2
Since the autumn of 1943, the Allies had been
planning on invasion of France from Great Britain,
across the English Channel.
The allies focused on landing on Normandy.
-Within three months, the Allies had landed
two million men and a half a million vehciles and
were able to break through German defensive lines.
The Allies were able to liberate Paris by end of
Soviet Union
1943 Summer: Hitler gambled on attacking through
heavy tanks, however they were defeated in the
Battle of Kursk.
Soviet troops occupied Warsaw in January 1945 and
entered Berlin in April.
By Jan. 1945 Adolf Hitler had moved
into a bunker in Berlin and
commit suicide.
End of War in Asia 1
In Asia the US forces began to go on the offense in
The war official came to the end in 1945, when
President Harry Truman who had become
president from April, made the decision to drop the
nuclear/atomic bomb on Japan. The US dropped
two bombs, one on Hiroshima and one on
Japan surrender on August 14th.
World War II was over and Seventeen million
had died in battle. Perhaps twenty million
civilians had perished as well….
The estimated final losses of life was a total of
fifty million.