Beginning of WWII

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Transcript Beginning of WWII

BEGINNING OF WWII
FAILURES OF VERSAILLES
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Germany had a strong resentment toward the
victors of WWI.
War Guilt clause
 Reparations $$$
 Disarmament
 Territorial clauses
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They were left with nothing and stuck in a
depression.
 Food prices were high, bad government: Adolf
Hitler would rip up the treaty.
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OTHER CAUSES OF WAR
Appeasement: Hitler thought no one would
dare stop him.
 European politicians were allowing Hitler to
get away with war.
 Germany’s aggression
 League of Nations FAILED to keep the peace.
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 Manchuria
 Enforcing
Treaty of Versailles
MUSSOLINI (1922)
“EVERYTHING IN THE STATE, NOTHING OUTSIDE THE STATE, NOTHING
AGAINST THE STATE.”
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Gained Popularity by supporting aggressive
nationalism, condemning democracy, and
glorification of the state.
Gained power by using the turmoil from the
fear of a socialist movement.
Kept control by, censoring the press, having
a secret police, and censoring criticism.
He defended private property, therefore
opposed communism and socialism
Led the “March on Rome”
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To prevent a communist revolution, but
actually to frighten the people into naming
him Prime Minister.
Was the leader or the Italian Fascist
movement.
His followers were called the “Black Shirts”.
STALIN (1924)
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Took control after Lenin died in 1924.
Totalitarianism: total control over EVERY
ASPECT of life.
Wanted the communist state to become the
model.
Stamped out all forms of free enterprise.
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Government owned enterprises and farms.
Responsible for millions of deaths.
Enforced with propaganda, censorship, and
terror.
Uprisings were “suppressed”.
Goals of the Five Year Plan:
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Growth of industry
Increased farm productions under Govt.
control.
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Many starved and were “eliminated”
HITLER (1933)
Hitler was named chancellor in
Germany in 1933
Secretly built up the army,
warships, air force, and
weapons.
Britain and France knew, but
did not want to risk war, and
thought Germany would
stop spread of Communism,
so they did nothing.
Hitler Formed alliances with
Mussolini in 1936 called
Rome-Berlin axis pact, and
with Japan called AntiComitern Pact.
HITLER CONT.
Three things gave Hitler an opportunity:
*People were looking for an answer to their problems.
*The German people had little faith in their government.
*Threat of a Communist uprising.
Nazism was composed of three major qualities
*Extreme Nationalism
*Racism
*Militaristic Expansion
He created the Nazi Party in Germany and was the German Fuhrer.
He won support by blaming the Jews for Germany’s defeat in WWI
and by claiming Germans were of a superior race.
Gestapo arrested any who opposed Nazi rule.
Nazis used press, schools, and churches to glorify their goals.
To fix economy Hitler launched building programs, banned strikes,
controlled wages and prices.
Increased military against Versailles Treaty.
MILITARISM IN JAPAN
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The Great Depression hit Japan
hard(foreign trade) and the military
took matters into its own hands.
1932Military dictatorship was set up in
Japan.
1937 Japan invades China
Government arrested critics, imposed
censorship, and employed a secret
police.
They wanted to gain an empire
overseas so they could get raw
materials like oil and coal: Invaded
Manchuria, China. (LON did nothing)
They wanted to expand into China and
Australia
Hirohito was the emperor of Japan in
WWII and Tojo was the Military leader.
RAPE OF NANKING
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Capital of China at the time
Lasted from 6-8 weeks
Japanese>Chinese as Nazis>Jews
Fed to dogs, beheaded, used as
target practice, frozen alive,
experimented on, raped.
Women were gang raped and men
were burned and shot at by the
thousands.
MacArthur traded silence for
Japanese research on germ
warfare’s affects on humans
RAPE OF NANKING
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Law against raping enemy women
just led to murder.
After raping them many of the
Japanese soldiers cut parts off.
Streets were full of bodies, and
intestines were strewn all over the
place.
400,000 est. killed in 8 weeks
Younger than 8 and older than 70
raped and tortured.
Tied men to posts and stuck needles
in them, crucified them, ran over
them, etc…
CIVIL WAR IN SPAIN
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July of 1936-April of 1939
Militarily and politically divided
War against the legally established government.
Rebel Nationalists overthrew Republican Government
and led to conservative dictatorship led by Francisco
Franco.
Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany supported Franco.
American manufactures unofficially supported the
Republicans as did outsiders like the French and
British.
Guernica
PABLO PICASSO
U.S. REMAINS NEUTRAL
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Isolationism
Neutrality Acts made it a law for the U.S. not to sell
weapons to nation at war.
Although we supported The Allies, we refused to join
the war-why?
Churchill consistently asked for help-we only helped
with supplies and transportation. (Lend Lease Act)
NEUTRALITY BREAKS
FDR found ways around the Neutrality Acts.
 Japan never declared war on China.
 AXIS POWERS: Germany, Italy, and Japan
 ALLIED POWERS: U.S., Great Britain, France,
and Russia.
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EUROPEAN
THEATRE
AUSTRIA
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Austria asked for aid-because of Hitler’s promise
LON did nothing.
First annexed by Germany
All German speaking people under one flag.
Austrian chancellor banned all but Christian
Social party(to oppose Nazis)
New chancellor caved in to Hitler’s threats and
allowed Nazism.
Nazis used rumors and propaganda.
March 12th , 1938:Hitler wanted to take back
the land: marched into Austria and demanded
vote. Results were fixed at 99%.
3 days until total takeover.
Only good photos were shown.
TESTIMONY AFTER GERMAN TAKEOVER
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"They rounded up the people walking in the Prater on
Sunday last, and separated the Jews from the rest. They
made the Jewish gentlemen take off all their clothes and
walk on all fours on the grass. They made the old Jewish
ladies get up into the trees by ladders and sit there.
They then told them to chirp like birds. The Russians
never committed atrocities like that. You may take a
man's life; but to destroy all his dignity is bestial. This
man told me that with his own eyes he had seen
Princess Stahremberg washing out the urinals at the
Vienna railway station. The suicides have been
appalling. A great cloud of misery hangs over the town."
THE SUDETENLAND
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Hitler broke his promise and demanded Sudeten
region of Czech.
Chamberlain(policy of appeasement) met with
Hitler 3 times in September to find agreement to
Protect Czech.
•Munich agreement “Securing the
Peace”, Sept. 30th, 1938: Hitler
could have Sudetenland if he
promised not to invade the rest of
Czech(Czech govt. not invited).
•In March of 1939, he invaded the
rest. No action taken by LON.
SOVIETS REMAIN NEUTRAL
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France and Great Britain vowed to help if Poland was
invaded(they thought it would stop Hitler).
Chamberlain was not prepared to go to war for
another country’s defense.
Non-Aggression pact between Germany and Soviets
THE BLITZ IN POLAND
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Blitzkrieg: lightning war
Hitler invaded Poland on September 1st, 1939.
Chamberlain declared war on Germany on September 3rd and
France followed.
New techniques and mechanized air warfare crushed Poland’s
defenses.
Captured in 28 days.
The Blitz
THE FALL OF FRANCE
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Germans pushed into France in
May of 1940 and Italy declared
war on France.
They took over Paris and
pushed through the Maginot
line.
France asked for an Armistice
on June 25th.
Major Axis victory.
Charles de Galle was the head of
the exiled French government.
German occupation zone and
Italian occupation zone in
France.
BATTLE OF BRITAIN
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Summer-Fall of 1940, after France surrendered.
Germans relentlessly bombed Britain.
RAF(royal air force) had inexperienced fighter pilots.
British had RADAR
Luftwaffe at disadvantage
Home court advantage/weather
Used RADAR to take back the skies
Sept. 15th, 1940-last major day of battle.
Operation Pied Piper-removal of children
U.S.-BRITAIN RELATIONS
To save Britain from collapse,
lend-lease aid was voted in by
the U.S. congress in 1941.
 Churchill and FDR created the
Atlantic Charter in August of
1941- which spelled out how
WWII would be fought and
democratic aims.
 Goals: defeat Germany so
British and Soviets could help
with Japan.
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PEARL HARBOR PPT!!!!
MORE
MAJOR
BATTLES
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BATTLE OF ATLANTIC
German U boats sank any supply
ship in the Atlantic-first 7 months
of ‘42=681 ships lost.
Allied solution: convoy systemsimilar to WWI.
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Battleships and airplanes
accompanied supply ships
Destroyers use sonar and planes
use radar
U.S. begins a HUGE ship building
campaign
Improvements in sonar, and better
training in coordinated attacks
sent the German U-boats to the
bottom in record numbers.
STALINGRAD
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August ‘42-February ‘43
Stalingrad: Major manufacturing and
communication center city of southern Russia.
Operation Barbarbosa-after Battle of Britain
Sept-Oct ‘42: Germans surround the city
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Germans wanted Caucasus Mtns for oil fields and
Stalingrad industry and communication.
Moved troops to Stalingrad and lost chance for Mtns.
End of Sept was under German control-Nov,
Soviets counter attack-Feb, Germans surrender.
“The God of war has gone over to the other side”
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-Hitler
STALINGRAD CONT…
Germans surrender in Jan. of ‘43 marked the beginning of Germany’s
retreat westward.
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Russia so poor-not all had weapons
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Man would run behind and pick up weapon
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Ruthless officers
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Winter helped the Soviets
 Bring in reinforcements and
surround the Germans who
were inside the city.
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Casualties:
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Germans 800,000
Russians 1.5 million
OVER ALL U.S. Just over 400,000
VASILY ZAITSEV
243 shots-242 kills
Video clip***
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NORTH AFRICA
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Operation Torch-Nov 1942-designed
by Ike
Allied advancement in technology
and industry prompted the defeat of
General Rommel and the German
army.
Control of Suez canal and Med. Sea
was contested. (Other hemisphere)
Nov ’42-107,000 Allied troops
landed in Casablanca-chased
Rommel east.
Geography/Flat terrain gave tanks
and planes advantage.
5 months
ITALIAN CAMPAIGN
Patton was crazy, but
brilliant
 Italy chosen before
English Channel invasion
 38 days to take Sicily
 Took Allies 18 months to
drive Germans out.
 25,000 Allies died/30,000
Axis
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ITALIAN CAMPAIGN CONT…
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Sicily fell to the allies in 1943
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Mussolini stripped of power.
Germans rescued him and “reinstated” him with puppet
govt.
Partisans captured and killed him and his mistress.
Known as the "soft underbelly of Europe”
Patton’s 6th army
Invasion that prompted the end of Mussolini’s reign.
Italians hated Mussolini
D-DAY (OPERATION OVERLORD)-(1 OF 3)
The mass amphibious invasion of Germanoccupied France by the allies on June 6th, 1944.
 Designed by General Eisenhower(commander of
allied forces in Europe). Known as the largest land
to sea to air operation in history.
 Five main beaches were:
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Gold (Brits and Canadians)
 Sword (Brits and Canadians)
 Juno (Brits and Canadians)
 Omaha (Americans-HEAVY OPPOSITION)
 Utah (Americans)
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D-DAY CONTINUED (2 OF 3)
Weather delay
 Many paratroopers etc… behind enemy lines
to sabotage
 156,000 Brits, Americans, and Canadians
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 5,000
ships
 11,000 aircraft
D-DAY CONTINUED
Results: 4,000 Allied lives lost and thousands
wounded and missing
 Fully secured area and moved in across France
 Prepared to enter Germany with Soviets
 Hitler’s mistakes
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Rommel on leave
 Thought we were distracting from
plan to attack Seine River
 Didn’t call in more divisions
 We took out bridges
 Couldn’t hold up to air support
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TACTICS AND DECEPTION
Fake targets(Norway and Pas-de-Calais)
 Inflatable Trucks
 Tanks
 Fake equipment
 Dropping of dummies
 Clickers
 Fraudulent Radio trans.
 Patton’s Phantom Army
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MAJOR U.S. MILITARY LEADERS
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George Marshall
Chef of Staff commanded army
 Known for coordinating allies and rapid
growth of U.S. soldiers
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Douglas MacArthur
Unable to stop Japan from taking
Philippines and vowed to return.
 Low casualties due to strategy
 Presided over Japanese surrender
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Dwight Eisenhower
Proved value in North Africa and D Day
 FDR appointed him Commander of
SHAEF (allied forces NW Europe)
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U.S. MILITARY CONT…
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Omar Bradley
 Became
Patton’s boss
AFTER roles were reversed
 By D-Day he commanded
all U.S. ground forces in
Europe
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General Patton
 Abrasive
personality and
aggressive tactics
 Several reassignments, but
brilliant strategies
CONQUERING EUROPE
GERMANY SLOWLY LOSING
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U.S. bombing of German cities July-Nov
Lost the Italians as an Axis power (surrender in Sept
’43 and eventually declared war on Germany)
Russian Red Army closing in on the Eastern front
Italian peninsula under Allied control
Rommel committed suicide in October
Sept ‘44 France liberated
Oct ’44 Athens liberated
Oct ‘44 Aachen, Germany surrender
Hitler was too greedy-France, Britain, Russia, etc…
FDR re-elected in Nov to a fourth term
BATTLE OF BULGE
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Largest land offensive of the war. Last effort of German army
to achieve victory-fighting rapid allied advance.
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Hitler thought allies had weak alliance-wanted to break U.S.British alliance.
His plan depended on speed and accuracy
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Hitler sent 16 yr olds
Allies surprised
Dec 16th: 8 German tank divisions were to break through
allied defenses/ destroying supply lines
The weather: cold/low fog
No allied air support
English speaking Germans soldiers spied behind the lines
Germans had no fuel and by mid Jan they abandoned their
vehicles.
BATTLE OF BULGE
Germany advanced 60
miles : created a “bulge”
in the line
 Success lasted only 2
days
 Allies tied the “noose”
 Largest American battle
in WWII (81k died U.S.
and 120k German)
 Only postponed invasion
by 6 weeks.
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MASSACRE AT MALMEDY (BELGIUM)
December 17th 1944
 Hitler said take no prisoners
 Nazis turned machine guns on GI POWs
 113 who survived German attack were POWs and
were shot at and clubbed
 21 men survived, 3 escaped to tell the Allies what
happened.
 Land was no one’s territory and bodies couldn’t
be claimed until mid Jan-winter preserved
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AFTER THE BULGE
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Hitler never admitted error-weakness of German people
Russians collapsed German positions like “House of
cards”
Russians took out aggression on German people
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suicide rate spiked(whole families)
Germans went west toward Americans
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Hitler’s stubbornness cost many German lives
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U.S. had less aggression towards them.
recruited anyone capable(young and old) for Volkstrum
Destroyed anything of value so the Allies couldn’t have
it and moved underground (scorched earth campaign)
Germans who surrendered to Americans -on their own,
were shot by their own officers and hanged on lamp
posts with notes saying “I deserted”
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Often their families were killed
V-E DAY
 Victory in Europe day: May 8th, 1945. The day that
Germany surrendered.
 Surrendered on the 7th and signed an armistice on
the 8th in France.
 Tons of displaced persons and refugees trying to get
home
 April 12th:FDR dies
 April 25th: Soviets stormed Berlin
 Hitler Commits suicide April 30th
 May 7th: Ike accepts Germany’s surrender
BERCHTESGADEN
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Gift for the Furher for his 50th birthday
 Rarely
visited- afraid of heights
Its perch on the Obersalzberg mountain
protected it from allied bombs
 Nazi underground bunkers, miles long tunnels
dug by labor camp prisoners, as well as up to
the Eagle’s Nest.
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THE HOLOCAUST PPT
EFFECTS IN EUROPE
THE YALTA CONFERENCE
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Discussion between Churchill, FDR & Stalin of
postwar Europe / Germany
Germany divided into 4 zones each controlled by an
Allied country
Stalin promised free elections & Russian
participation in the U.N.
At the conference, the Big 3: Churchill, Stalin, and
Roosevelt agreed to create the U.N. which was
designed to save future generations from war.
THE NUREMBURG TRAILS
*International tribunal of 23
nations tried Nazi war criminals
-Hitler’s most trusted
officials
*22 Nazis tried first
-12 were put to death or
imprisoned
*Three types of crimes
-Crimes against peace
-War crimes
-Crimes against humanity
*1st time in history a nation’s
leaders were held legally
responsible for their actions
PACIFIC THEATRE PPT