Chapter 18 section 3

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Transcript Chapter 18 section 3

Chapter 18 section 3
Victory in Europe
 Identify where the Allied offensive in
Europe began.
 Explain the impact of fighting in the
Atlantic and in the air.
 Analyze how the Allies successfully
invaded Normandy.
Victory in Europe
 Battle of El Alamein British stopped Axis
advance in North Africa.
 Allies launch “Operation Torch”- plan to
remove Axis from North Africa.
 Attack 8 November 1942
 British forces to push from the east
 British- American forces to land at
Casablanca, Oren, Algiers and move
 General Dwight D.
Eisenhower in
command of Allied
forces in North
 Allies push Axis from
North Africa and
force their retreat to
Europe in May 1943.
Italian Campaign
 Next step to attack “Fortress Europe”
 Churchill in meetings with Stalin,
Roosevelt believed the best place was
 Called it “soft underbelly”
 1st conquer Sicily launch pad to attack
 Once Italy was captured Europe could
be conquered.
 July ’43 Landed in Sicily
 Conquered a month later.
 September ’43 landed at Salerno on
Italian mainland.
 November ’43 had Naples
 Offensive slowed by Germans resistance
which refuse to give up Italy.
 4 June 1944 Rome
fell 1st Axis capital
to fall.
End of Mussolini
 Just before Allies
invaded King
Removed Mussolini
as P.M.
 Ordered his arrest.
 New P.M. signed
armistice w/ Allies
September ‘43
 Germans took
Mussolini north, set
up base for him.
 At the end of the Italian campaign,
captured by own men and executed.
Sea and Air Assaults
Battle of the Atlantic
 Sea battle for dominance of Atlantic
 Axis submarine attacks took huge toll on
 With sonar- sound waves that detect
objects- Allies turn the tide in ’43.
 Sea dominance allows Allies to protect
cargo ships and sink Axis vessels.
 By ’44 Allies win battle of Atlantic.
Air Assaults
 Allies begin strategic bombing campaign
aimed at destroying German production
and undermining morale.
 Carpet Bombing- used by both sides.
 Large # of bombs dropped over a wide
 U.S. conducted daytime raids
 British night.
 Allied victory in the
Battle of the Atlantic
and in the skies over
Europe allowed them
to invade Europe.
Operation Overlord
 Allies win control of
sky, sea.
 Opened Europe to
 General George C.
Marshall led
 Eisenhower chosen
to lead invasion.
 Created dummy
invasion aimed at
 Landed at Normandy
6 June 1944.
 “D-Day”- Invasion of Europe.
 150,000 Allied troops landed on five beaches.
 Utah
 Omaha U.S.
 Juno
 Gold British
 Sword British and Canadian.
 General Omar
Bradley led U.S.
forces ashore.
 Germans fortified beaches.
 Tough opposition.
 Saving Private Ryan
 Able to establish beach head but could
only move 20 miles inland by July.
 Americans launch Operation Cobra and
break out.
 Germans forced to retreat.
 25 August ’44 take Paris.
Battle of the Bulge
 September ’44 allies pushed Germans
back into Germany.
 December Germans launch counter
 Push westward into Belgium/ Northern
 Created bulge in Allied front lines.
 101st Airborne defending Belgian town
of Bastogne surrounded.
 Allies counterattack spearheaded by
Patton who stops German advance.
 Last German offensive of World War II
 Allies force Germans back into
 February ’45
Churchill, Roosevelt,
Stalin meet to plan
post war peace in
 Planned to divide
Germany between
Allies and occupy
after the war and
outline plans for a
new international
peace organization.
Fall of Germany
 Allied bombers kept bombing German cities
destroying factories/ morale.
 March ’45 allies cross the Rhine and drive
toward center of Germany.
 Soviets pushed from east, controlled most of
Eastern Europe.
 Churchill feared Soviets would keep territories it
conquered from Germany, wanted Eisenhower
to keep pushing east.
 Eisenhower didn’t want military strategy
to be determined by politics.
 Stopped at Elbe River in April.
 Met with Soviet soldiers there.
 With Allied forces closing in, on 30 April
1945, Hitler committed suicide.
 7 May 45 Germany surrenders
 8 May Victory in Europe V.E. Day