Sir John French

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Transcript Sir John French

World War 1 (1914-1919)
“The Great War”
“War in the Trenches”
“The War to End All Wars!”
Indirect reasons for war.
3 main reasons for war!
1. Imperialism
2. Nationalism
3. Militarism
• When powerful countries control and
annex smaller ones (Specifically
Germany and Bosnia)
• The unification of people with similar ideas
and beliefs
• Pride in one’s nation
• The building up and strengthening of ones
• Commodore Mathew C. Perry showing off
of the US Navy to the Eastern World
Direct Cause of WW 1
• Germany and Austria /Hungary wants to annex
Bosnia/Serbia into tGermany (Nationalize a
satellite country)
• Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the
Austria/Hungarian throne) felt it was a good
• The problem is the people of Bosnia/Serbia are of
Slavic (Russian) decent and the people do not agree.
• At a parade in Sarajevo, Bosnia; the Archduke and his
wife were assassinated by an Gavrilo Princip (member
of the Serbian nationalist group called “The Black
• Serbia precipitated this event to hopefully weaken the
German and Austria-Hungarian Empire.
• Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.
• Russia mobilizes to help Serbia
• Germany (Austria-Hungary aide) declares war on
Russia (Serbia aide).
• France are allies with Russia (for protection against
German invasion).
Europe struggling for the
balance of power
• France and Germany battling for the
Alsace and Lorraine mine fields (coal and
iron ore) ---“Imperialism”
• Germany invades neutral Belgium enroute to taking the coals fields to fuel the
• France declares War against Germany
and Germany declares war against France
• Great Britain enters, as allies with France
World War One begins
US involvement
• The United States declares neutrality in
• President Woodrow Wilson militarizes the
US armed forces after the Lusitania.
The Lusitania
• This British passenger boat was sank by
German U-boats.
• 1,198 passengers died, 8 miles off the
coast of Ireland
• Sank in 18 minutes, 124 Americans died
Lusitania in the New York Harbor
Sinking of the Lusitania
Lead to the Sussex Pledge which was an agreement
between Germany and the US that Germany would
warn all ship if an attack was iminent and they would
help the survivors
• Triple Entente (later Allied Powers)
• France
• Russia
• Great Britain
• Triple Alliance (later Central Powers)
• Germany
• Italy
• Austria/Hungary
had intended
to stay
neutral until
Zimmerman Note
Zimmerman Notes
The British intercepted and decoded a
message sent from Germany to Mexico
stating that if Mexico helped German
cause and Germany wins this war,
Germany would do all it can to give back
Mexican soil (California, New Mexico,
This infuriated the Americans and President
Wilson and Congress declared war on
American Expeditionary Forces
• Lead by General John Pershing
John J. Pershing
By 1917 John Joseph Pershing was well
experienced in combat. In 1917 he was
appointed Commander-in-Chief of the
American Expeditionary Force in Europe.
His belief that he could break through the
deadlock on the Western Front had to be
revised when it didn't work. He did however;
win praise for his excellent victory at St
Mihiel in September 1918. After the war he
was highly critical of the Treaty of
Versallies, and became the Chief of Staff of
the U.S. Army in 1921.
Pershing’s Statement
• The world must be made safe for
Characteristics of War
Battle of the trenches
British trenches
Dead in the trenches
German U-boats
• UC 44 Class U-boat:
1) Aft torpedo tubes
2) Electric motor
3) Main engine
4) Control room
5) Mine tubes
6) Forward torpedo tubes
7) Crew quarters
British Tanks
US Tanks
Weapons of War
Heavy Artillery at Verdun
American Flamethrowers
British Ammunition dump
• Planes had been used mostly for spying
and recon, with the dropping of a few
• Air warfare was a first in WW1 with two
pilots immerging as heroes. Addi
Rickenbacker (US) and Manfred Von
• Verdun was one of the most crucial and
bloodiest battle of World War One.
• It was the longest lasting 10 months, killing
over 250,000 in Northeastern France.
Russia Leaves the War
• Vladimir Lenin takes over as leader of the
Bolshevik Party and forces Russia to
become Communist.
• After Verdun Russia leaves the war and
signs the Brest-Litovisk Treaty due to huge
amount of casualties.
War at Home
• Citizens were asked to:
– Conserve food (send
– Conserve fuel (send
– Buy bonds (fund war)
– 1918 Daylight Savings
Time Observed to
conserve coal
(Germany 1st in 1916)
Loyalty Enforced
• Trade with the Enemy Act-no selling of
products to enemy countries (prison)
• Sedition Act-prohibit any negative acts
against the Constitution, President, Flag or
• Espionage Act-any person suspected of
helping the enemy would go to trial and
Ferdinand Foch
At the outbreak of World War I
Ferdinand Foch was involved in
many early battles, including Nancy
and Marne. He had many successes
and was placed in charge of the
French Northern Army. He held his
position until Robert Nivelle replaced
Joseph Joffre as Commander-inChief, when he was recalled to Army
Headquarters. In 1918 he was
promoted to Allied Supreme
Commander. He was very successful
and received credit for
masterminding the victory over
Germany. He played important roles
at the Paris Peace Conference and
in the Creation of the Armistice. He
wanted to make the recovery of
Germany's army impossible. Foch
died in 1929.
Joseph Joffre
In 1911 Joseph Joffre was
appointed chief of staff. In
1913 he carried out his
Plan 17 and invaded
Lorraine and Aedennes in
Germany. At the outbreak
of World War I he took
command of the French
Army. Blamed for losses at
the Western Front and
Verdun he was replaced by
Robert Nivelle in 1916. He
was then promoted to
Marshall of France, and
died in 1931.
Robert Nivelle
Robert Nivelle was an artillery
colonel in August 1914, and was
known for his recapture of Fort
Douaumont in 1916. He thought he
could win the war with his creeping
barrage techniques. The French
Prime Minister, Aritide Briand, liked
his ideas, and replaced Joseph
Joffre, the Commander-in-Chief
of the Franch Army, with him.
The Nivelle Offensive in 1917 was
a failure, but he continued with his
strategy until his army began to fall
apart. He was replaced by HenriPhilippe Petain in May 1917 and
spent the rest of his career in
North Africa. He died in 1924.
Sir John French
Sir John French joined the navy in
1866, and transferred to the army in
1874. He served in the Sudan and
Boer Wars in the late 1800s. In 1911
he was appointed Chief of Staff of the
British Army, and in 1914 became
Commander of the British
Expeditionary Force. His sister was
ironically one of the leading anti-war
campaigners in Britain. After the
Battle of Mons he became negative
about the war's outcome. He was
persuaded to take part in the Marne
offensive, but resigned in 1915. Sir
Douglas Haig replaced him. French
had to deal with the Easter Rising in
1916 as the commander of the British
home forces. He was granted 50,000
pounds from the British government
when he retired, and he died in 1925.
Sir Douglas Haig
By 1914 Sir Douglas Haig already
had plenty of military experience,
when he became Lieutenant General
and control of the first Army Corps of
the British Expeditionary Force
(BEF). He led his forces into battle at
Mons and Ypres, and he was
praised. In December of 1915, Haig
became Commander-in-Chief of the
BEF. While under extreme pressure,
he led his forces into battle at Verdun
and Somme. In 1918 he led the
Allies to a victory at the Western
Front. After the war he became
commander in chief of the home
forces until 1921 when he retired.
The government granted him
100,000 pounds, and he died in
Paul von Hindenburg
Fought in the Battle of Koniggratz and
the Franco-Prussian War in the 1800s.
He retired form the German Army in
1911, but was called back at the
outbreak of World War I. He became
Chief of Staff in August 1916.
Hindenburg and Erich von Ludendorff
formed the Third Supreme Command.
They held power until defeat was
inevitable in 1918. He retired from the
army in October 1918, and in 1925 he
replaced Friedrich Albert as Germany's
President. He did not oppose Adolf
Hitler, and he even appointed Hitler
Chancellor. Hitler was unable to
overthrown Hindenburg because of his
popularity with Germany's people, until
his death in 1934.
Erich von Ludendorff
Erich von Ludendorff was a German Army staffofficer from 1904 to 1913, until the outbreak of
World War I. He was then appointed Chief of Staff
in East Prussia. He worked with Paul von
Hindenburg often and won many decisive victories
over the Russians. Hindenburg became Chief of
Staff of the German Army in 1916 and appointed
Ludendorff as his quartermaster general. Shortly
after they became the leaders of their own
dictatorship, the Third Supreme Command.
Ludendorff took control of Germany in 1917 after
Theobald Bethmann Hollweg's resignation. When
the failure of the Spring Offensive, Ludendorff
realized that Germany would lose the war. The
Third Supreme Command transferred power to
Max von Baden in 1918. Baden's government was
so powerful that it forced Ludendorff's resignation
by October 1918. After the Armistice he fled to
Sweden to write about the war. He returned to
Germany and participated in the Kapp Putsch and
the Munich Putsch. He was one of the first Nazi
members in 1924. He ran for president in 1925,
but received less than one percent of the votes.
He died in 1937.
Final Battle
• Battle of Argon Forest-this critical battle
brought and end to the war.
• Germany has to surrender at Paris under
the “Treaty of Versailles”
Immediate Results
• The Allied countries wanted Germany head
on a stick (harsh punishment)
• League of Nations formed-group of
countries promoting peace throughout the
• President Wilson came up with “14 Points
Speech” the peace plan for countries
involved (Wilson not liked smug over
Harsh Reparation
• Germany take full responsibility
• Alsace and Lorraine coal fields back to
• Germany must reduce it’s military forces
• Germany must pay $33 million in
Global Impact
• Middle East is given freedom from the Ottoman
Empire (Turkey).
• Balfour Declaration-Formal British statement
declaring that Palestine the home of the Jews.
• Russia struggling between Communism and
Democracy after the war.
• Armenia-which was part of the Ottoman Empire
practices genocide of Muslims by Christians
• Germany attempts the “Weimar Republic” a
failed attempt at Democracy
• Over 8 million soldiers dead.
East free
Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration
A British statement
declaring Palestine as
the land of the Jews
and that there will be
no promotion of
prejudice against
Russia struggles with
Armenian Christians killed
Muslims in Camps
Germany attempts democracy
under the Weimar Republic
It fails!!
The number of World War I casualties,
both military and civilian, was about 40
million — 19 million deaths and 21 million
wounded. This includes 9.7 million military
deaths and about 9 million civilian deaths.
Soviet Union
Great Britain
New Countries after WW1
• The countries of:
Poland, Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary,
Czechoslovakia, Albania, Latvia, Lithuania
& Estonia were added after WW1