Diplomacy and World War II 1925-1945

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Transcript Diplomacy and World War II 1925-1945

 The United States issued the Stimson Doctrine, named for Sec. of State
Henry Stimson
-this doctrine stated that the US would refuse to recognize any
government that was establish through force
• Hoover pursued friendly relations with our Latin American neighbors
• Hoover ended the interventionist policies of Wilson and Taft
• Weaknesses of the League of Nations exposed as they were unable to
prevent Japan’s aggression into Manchuria and maintain peace
Roosevelt pursued the “Good Neighbor Policy” with
Latin America, a continuance of the policy of
 The rise of militarist dictators in Europe (Hitler,
Stalin) led the Latin American nations to seek out
American aid & intervention
 Roosevelt consented to Latin American requests in
multiple ways
Pan-American Conferences-US pledges non-intervention
 Cuba- US nullifies Platt Amendment (US troops still in
Cuba after Spanish-American War)
 Mexico- Roosevelt refused to intervene when Mexico
seized corporate property, he urged negotiation
The London Economic Conference
Recognition of the Soviet Union
Roosevelt thought this would improve trade and open
new markets, ideology often takes a back seat to
The Philippines
This was meant to stabilize world currencies (Germany),
but failed to reach any significant progress due to lack of
US support
The US passed a bill to grant the Filipinos independence
by 1946
Reciprocal Trade Agreements
The US would lower tariff rates for any country that also
lowered theirs.
 Military
dictatorships arise in Italy, Japan and
 All pursued expansionist policies to get more
land or natural resources
 America responded with neutrality acts
 Sen. Gerald Nye led a commission to
investigate why we entered WWI
 They
found that it was largely based on the
interest of manufacturers and bankers
 The
America First Committee was developed
to sway public opinion toward islationism
Neutrality Acts of 1935
If countries went to war, the US would not
trade arms or weapons with them for 6 months
Any nonmilitary goods sold to nations at war
would have to be paid for up front and would
have to be transported in non-American ships
(aka. “cash and carry”)
1939: FDR asks Congress to pass this to allow
the cash and carry sale of arms to countries at
war, (Britain, France)
 the
policy of giving in to the demands of a
potentially hostile nation in the hope of
maintaining peace
 Did
this work?
Ethiopia (1935)
 Mussolini invaded the African nation and
conquered it as a show of fascist might
Rhineland (1936)
 A DMZ according to the Versailles Treaty, Hitler
marched troops in open defiance
China (1936)
 Japan invades China, Japan sunk a US vessel,
we quickly accepted an apology
Sudetenland (1938)
 Hitler asserts Germany’s right to take over this
strip of Czechoslovakia because of its German
speaking population
An agreement in Munich, Germany permitting the Nazi
German annexation of Czecholslovakia’s Sudetenland
among the major powers of Europe without the
presence of Czechoslovakia.
 The Sudetenland were areas along Czech borders,
mainly inhabited by ethnic Germans.
 Today, it is widely regarded as a failed act of
appeasement toward Nazi Germany.
 Roosevelt
was limited in his
responsive capabilities by
American isolationist
 Like Wilson in 1916,
Roosevelt argued and got a
build-up of military budgets
and material
In March of 1939 Hitler violates the Munich Treaty
(Sudetenland) and occupies all of Czechoslovakia
In August of 1939 Germany signed a non-aggression
pact with Soviet Union (agreed not to attack each
In September of 1939, Germany invades Poland with
their blitzkrieg tactic (a swift intensive military attack,
especially using tanks supported by aircraft, designed to
defeat the opposition quickly) starting WWII
Britain & France declare war on Germany & the Axis
Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan
Allies: British, French, US (later), USSR
The war resumed full scale in 1940 as the Germans
overwhelm the French in a week
Most Americans were stunned and
alarmed at the quick success of the
German military
Britain remained the only Allied
nation free from German troops
Roosevelt felt that keeping Britain
free was vital to Allied success
He arranged a less restrictive
neutrality act that said that
belligerents could pay cash and buy
American weapons if they would pick
them up
This policy greatly favored Britain
In 1940 Congress enacted the
Selective Service Act for compulsory
military service
Roosevelt breaks with tradition and runs for a 3rd term
His opponent is Wendall Wilkie, whose main opposition to
Roosevelt stemmed from the 2 term limit
Roosevelt won with 54% of the popular vote
He was aided by a recovery based on defense spending,
validating Keynesian Economics and a fear of war which led
voters to the more experienced Roosevelt
Results of the Presidential Election 1940
The Four Freedoms
 Speech, Religion, Want, Fear
Lend-Lease Act
 Permitted Britain to obtain all
resources on credit, signed in 1941
Atlantic Charter
 Agreed to free trade, selfdetermination and no territorial
 There’s a need for another world
organization to replace League of
Nations—one to “secure” the world
Shoot on Sight
 American ships should sink German
ships/U-Boats on sight
The US cut off Japan from key raw
materials after they joined the Axis
Negotiations regarding the embargo
proved fruitless
Japan felt that a quick strike
against unprepared and limited
American forces in the Pacific
would be the best tactic
American military officials felt the
attack would come in the
Philippines and Hawaii was caught
off guard
Japanese planes sunk and disabled
the entire American fleet in the
 Men
drafted into the armed forces after the
bombing of Pearl Harbor called them selves
Referred to the Government Issued stamp on
their uniforms, tools, weapons, etc.
America is forced to fight the war in Europe &
the Pacific
Battle of the Atlantic: over 500 US ships were
sunk by German submarines between January &
August 1942 as they brought food and supplies to
Great Britain
Americans infantry’s 1st battles were in N. Africa
June 1944, Rome surrenders to Americans
 D-Day
invasion (Saving Private Ryan) on June
6, 1944
Germany had moved in France
Dwight D. Eisenhower, Commander of the Allied
Forces planned to invade France by sea
This was the beginning of the end of Nazi
By the end of July, over 2 million allied forces
moved into France and were liberating French
cities & towns, moving east
Paris was liberated in August
The last German offensive
Almost 85,000 American soldiers killed, wounded
or captured
Gen. George S. Patton led reinforcements out
from Belgium, forcing Germans to retreat
Germans knew defeat was near
 Germany’s
“Final Solution” to the Jewish
1941-1945, over 6 million Jews were killed
When Allied forces found camps, they usually
shot Nazi soldiers on the spot
During the 1930s, the US State Department made
it difficult for European Jews to immigrate to the
US, due to Great Depression
FDR knew camps existed in 1943, but chose not
to bomb them, even though Jews wanted them
Americans & British did not want oil reserves to fall to Germans
Fears that Germany & Japan would unite & block British access
to India
US est. diplomatic relations with Saudi Arabia
Americans convinced Turks to stay neutral, allowing continued
allied access to the Mediterranean
American troops land in N. Africa in 1942 to plan an invasion of
Americans est. ports in Iran to help Soviets: Iranians were
thankful for the jobs, but complained about disregard for local
 FDR,
Stalin & Churchill met after FDR was elected
to a 4th term in 1944
Discussed how to structure post-war Europe
Germany would be split into 4 zones governed by US,
France, Britain & Soviet Union, Berlin (located in Soviet
zone) would also be divided
Stalin agreed to allow free elections in countries once
controlled by Germay
Soviets joined war against Japan, once Germany surrendered
 Failure of Soviet Union to adhere to these decisions
leads to the Cold War
gave concessions on Korea, Manchuria & outer
Mongolia to Soviets in exchange for Soviet help in
fighting against Japanese
FDR knew about atomic bomb at this time
 By
April 1942, Japan took Hong Kong & Singapore
from Britain
 Gen. Douglas MacArthur controlled a large
American & Filipino force in the Philippines
Japanese forces land in Philippines & MacArthur
forced to abandoned troops & went to Austrailia
Bataan Death March: 75,000 American & Filippino
troops forced to march 60 miles in Bataan Peninsula
Over 10,000 were executed or died from weakness
Battle of the Coral Sea: America’s 1st victory in
Pacific, American planes launched from aircraft carriers to
defeat Japanese troops planning to attack Austrailia
Battle of Midway: June 1942, Japan lost 4
aircraft carriers & over 200 planes, turning point
in the war in the Pacific
Battle of Guadalcanal: August 1942
of Island-hopping: allied ships & planes would
attack by sea & air, while marines went in on foot
Japan used kamikaze pilots
Battle of Iwo Jima: America lost 25,000
1944 Battle of Okinawa: 50,000 American
soldiers died
 Allied
troops crossed the Rhine River & met
Russians to move into Berlin
 April 25, Russians take Berlin
 Hitler committed suicide on May 1 in his
bunker in Berlin, & Germany surrendered 1
week later
 V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day) celebrations
in London & Paris
 After
FDR died in 1945, President Truman was
informed about the atomic bomb
Manhattan Project: secret project to build an
atomic bomb that began in Los Alamos, NM (Aug.
1st successful drop in NM desert in July 1945
Aug. 6, 1945 the plane Enola Gay dropped the 1st
atomic bomb on Hiroshima
Over 75,000 were killed
3 days later, another a-bomb dropped on Nagasaki
Japan surrenders next day & America celebrates V-J